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Software Solution for Optimisation of Transmission

Network Operation

Ladislav Rudolf Vladimir Kral

Department of Technical Education Department of Electrical Power Engineering
University of Ostrava VB Technical university of Ostrava
Ostrava, Czech Republic Ostrava, Czech Republic
ladislav.rudolf@osu.cz vladimir.kral@vsb.cz

Antonin Samaj
Krnovske opravny a strojirny
Krnov, Czech Republik

AbstractThis paper deals with the methodology of software II. SOFTWARE INSTRUMENTS FOR CALCULATION OF TECHNICAL
to promote optimised operation of the transmission network. The LOSSES IN 220 KV AND 400 KV LINES
methodology is based on the real data referring to operating
temperatures and the power transmitted over 220 kV and 400 kV A. Input database for the selected transmission network line
lines. This is an input database, formed by the values of power
transmitted at a real time temperature. The software designed Programs mentioned in the beginning had no abilities to
here offers a choice of the line to be observed with the option to calculate effective losses depending on temperature. That was
set the temperature range. The outcome produced will comprise the reason to design the program using the VBA language and
a graphic depiction of operation of the selected transmitter MS Excel, with the operative name "Optimisation of TN lines
network line with respect to the power transmitted. The graphic operation" to sort the values obtained through measurement
depiction of operating course helps show the technical losses and the power transmitted depending on the temperature ranges
associated with the value referring to power transmitted. The entered and to interlace the data measured with a regression
methodology of this function has been simulated using an MS curve. The regression curve is formed by polynomial of 2nd
Excel sheet. degree calculated by the least squares method. For simple
description of the input database, sorting of data and
Keywordsoptimisation; technical losses; transmission calculation of the polynomial, see further. For a demonstration
network; transmitted power of a reduced database, see the Table I. Evaluation of data is
simulated by MS Excel.
The issue dealing with optimisation of the 220 kV and 400 TABLE I. EXAMPLE OF THE INPUT DATABASE FORMED BY THE
kV line operation is applied to utilisation and control of VALUES MEASURED

software versions available themed "Losses on TN line" and NOS:4: PRN:4:

"Prediction of losses on TN line". The methodological design V403:P PRN: NOS:
Time V403:P V403:P
(MW) T (C) T (C)
of new software to seek improvement of calculations and aid (MW) (MW)
practical calculations using Microsoft Excel has been 22.2.2014
-140,6 138.5 0.261 6.28 8.16
developed and named "Optimisation of TN line operation".
-186.5 203.0 0.571 6.19 8.28
The software is able to create polynomials and graphic 03:15:00
output for determination of technical losses with respect to the 22.2.2014
-202.4 199.2 0.629 6.16 8.32
power transmitted within the particular temperature range 22.2.2014
defined shown the values measured. The importance and -199.5 198.7 0.559 6.28 8.32
methodology of prediction of losses according to temperature 22.2.2014
-214.4 208.6 0.614 6.16 8.2
and transmitted power are described in [1]. The software has 04:00:00
been tested on a real database of selected data with the 22.2.2014
-190.5 186.6 0.536 6.07 8.88
subsequent analysis of polynomials and graphic outcome for 04:15:00
selected lines within the transmission network. This paper and
the issue defined within outline the options for utilisation of the Each line subject to research must be available with the
future software currently known under the operative name of data measured to show losses P (V403:P) on the line, the
"Optimisation of TN lines" in practice. power transmitted at the both ends of the line - P1
(NOS:4:V403:P) and P2 (PRN:4:V403:P) - as well as
This research was partially supported by the SGS grant from VSB -
Technical University of Ostrava (No. SP2017/54) and by the project
TUCENET (No. LO1404).

978-1-5090-6406-9/17/$31.00 2017 IEEE

the values T1 (NOS:T) and T2 (PRN:T) measured at one or TABLE IV. EXAMPLE OF THE INPUT DATABASE OF TEMPERATURE
even both substations linked to the line. Calculations were
performed using merely the database containing values of Modified database
Database sorted per
temperature measured within the power station premises. temperature
Direct detection of the cable temperature right on the conductor Tavg (C) P (MW) P (kW) PT (MW) PT (kW)
would be better for technical loss analysis. Temperature 0 0 0.5 0 0.5
sensors have been installed directly on conductors in a trial 0.5 1 1 1 1
performed on selected lines of the transmission network. 1 2 3 2 3
2 2 3.5 0 0
B. Modification of the transmission network lines database 3.5 4 11.5 0 0
0.3 3 8 3 8
Another step to ensure operability of the software is to 0.7 4 10 4 10
modify the database applicable to calculations. The -1.3 3 7.5 0 0
modification will induce conversion of the values showing the 2.2 6 7 0 0
power transmitted into an absolute value and such absolute 5 5 15 0 0
values will be used to generate the average value to be used in A. Application of the least square method on the power
further calculations, see Tab. II. In case the values contain
transmitted and losses on the transmission network lines
temperature details from both substations involved in the
calculation, the temperature values from both points will There is a clear example showing the calculation process
produce an average, see Tab. III. The column containing followed by the software, while its functioning is presented
effective loss data does not require any further alterations [2]. using MS Excel. The calculation is simulated showing 5
specimen data values, see Tab. V. The table with Excel file
calculates a polynomial of 2nd degree, those are three
TABLE II. MODIFICATIONS OF THE INPUT DATABASE OF equations with three unknowns, see the equations (1), (2) a (3).
Those are modified equations with the result represented by a
P1 (MW) P2 (MW) P1(MW) P2(MW) Pavr (MW) polynomial of 2nd degree reflecting the dependency of
-140.64 138.59 140.64 138.59 139.62 technical losses on the power transmitted.
-186.53 203.05 186.53 203.05 194.79
-202.49 199.23 202.49 199.23 200.86
m m m
-199.5 198.72 199.5 198.72 199.11
-214.46 208.69 214.46 208.69 211.57 a 0 m + a1 Pi1 + a 2 Pi 2 = Pi (1)
-190.52 186.68 190.52 186.68 188.60 i =1 i =1 i =1
-193.51 192.01 193.51 192.01 192.762 m m m m
a 0 Pi1 + a1 Pi 2 + a 2 Pi 3 = Pi Pi (2)
i =1 i =1 i =1 i =1
m m m m
a 0 Pi 2 + a1 Pi 3 + a 2 Pi 4 = Pi Pi 2 (3)
i =1 i =1 i =1 i =1
T1 (C) T2 (C) Tavg (C)
6.28067 8.16 7.220335
6.16348 8.32 7.24174 LEAST SQUARE METHOD
6.28067 8.32 7.300335 m PT (MW) PT (kW)
6.16348 8.2 7.18174 1 0 0.5
6.07559 8.88 7.477795 2 1 1
5.9584 9.64 7.7992 3 2 3
4 3 8
5 4 10
RANGE The input Table V will be extended with further columns
The materials used in the input database also need to reflect required for calculation, see Tab. VI.
the temperature dependency. Lines in the Tab. IV highlighted
in grey fall within the set temperature range between 0 C and TABLE VI. EXAMPLE OF INPUT DATA FROM THE EXTENDED TABLE

The data measured and included in the input database will m PT PT PT 2 PT 3 PT 4

be searched for active power and losses corresponding with the PT PT 2
temperature range selected manually. The stage before 1 0 0.5 0 0 0 0 0
2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
calculation of the approximation polynomial will involve
3 2 3 4 8 16 6 12
selection of the losses and the power transmitted matching the 4 3 8 9 27 81 24 72
set temperature range only. For description of sorting for the 5 4 10 16 64 256 40 160
range from 0 C to 1 C, see the Table IV. 10 22.5 30 100 354 71 245
Substituting into equations (1), (2) and (3), one gets three 10
equations with three unknowns, see equations (4), (5) and (6)

P T (kW) - Technical losses


5 a 0 + 10 a1 + 30 a 2 = 22.5 (4)

10 a 0 + 30 a1 + 100 a 2 = 71 (5) 4

Data measured
30 a 0 + 100 a1 + 354 a 2 = 245 (6) 2
Polynomial of 2nd degree -
equation 8
Solutions to these equations are sought using matrices. The
0 2 4
equations will be split into two matrices A and B. For an
example showing calculations from matrices see the P (MW) - Transmission power
equation (7).
Fig. 1. Specimen graph with the approximation polynomial of 2nd degree

Proper functioning of this software shall be supported with

m m

m P1Ti P2Ti the Excel file containing calculation macros to assess the input
database. The line and two temperature ranges selected (T1
m i =1 i =1 5 10 30
m m and T2) will be matched by the selected data and
A = P1Ti P2T i PTi = 10 30 100 approximation polynomials of 2nd degree for T1 and T2.
im=1 i =1 i =1 30 100 354 The reason for selection of two temperature ranges was to
m m
P2 4 enable mutual assessment of the resultant data for various
Ti P3T i PTi temperatures. The input database has been supplied for ten 400
i =1 i =1 i =1 kV lines in the transmission network. To demonstrate the
contents of this paper, results were presented on one V403 line
m linking 400 kV substations in Noovice and Prosenice. In case
PTi the database contains all the acronyms, values of loss and the
m i =1 22.5 power transmitted, as supplied from the control system, the

B = PTi PTi = 71
Excel database can be extended to enable insertion of external
data from any line within the transmission network.
im=1 245
P P 2
Ti Ti
B. Algorithm of the program for "Optimisation of TN line
i =1 operation"
The program algorithm is shown in the Fig. 2. Particular
0.157143 steps for sorting of data in the database and calculations in
a = A B = 0.885714
1 Excel have been hidden for better legibility. The demonstration
(7) of program controls has been described in Fig. 3 that can be
0.428571 split into two parts. The graphic outcome has been placed in
the left panel, while the control buttons are shown on the right
The resultant polynomial of 2nd degree reflecting the side. For the graphic outcome with resultant polynomials and
dependency of technical losses on the power transmitted falls the data measured for T1 and T2 see the Fig. 3. The buttons
within the temperature range between 0 C and 1 C for the are used for selection of transmission network lines and
specimen calculation: temperature ranges. This area also shows the resultant
polynomials for T1 and T2. The right side of Figure 3 also
allows editing of graphic outcomes. The user may select the
PT = a0 + a1 P + a2 P 2 = range of power transmitted for depiction of the result with
either one or two polynomials shown, the same applies to
sorted data as well.
= 0.157143 + 0.885714 P + 0.428571 P 2 (8)
Substituting the power transmitted into the equation (8) Knowledge of the previous SW [3, 4] instruments helped to
generates technical losses for the set temperature difference, design materials for further SW to sort the database of values
see Figure 1, showing the input data interlaced with the measured together with temperature data, technical losses and
polynomial of 2nd degree shown for equation (8). Those are the power transmitted. The user selects a certain temperature
specimen values of the power transmitted and technical losses. range for performance of analysis. The SW will perform re-
Having read off the relevant technical losses, one only needs to sorting of the database with respect to temperature to produce a
enter the power transmitted. polynomial of 2nd degree to be interlaced with technical losses
on the power transmitted within the set temperature range.
Beginning Input database Selection of TN line

Setting of temperature ranges T1 and T2

Searching the database for effective losses
for calculation of approximation
and the power transmitted for selected line

Reording of the database per temperature Calculation of 2nd degree polynomial using
range T1 and T2 for calculation of the least square method
approximation polynomials

No Displaying the graph and resultant

End Continue?
approximation 2nd degree polynomials


Fig. 2. Algorithm of the program

LINE V403 Line selection: V403

Line selected
3 1st substation PROSENICE
2nd substation NOSOVICE
Length 79.416 km
2.5 Voltage 400 kV
Temperature range
P (MW) - Technical losses

Possible range is from -0.9038 C to 35.591 C

T1 from 0 C to 5 C
T2 T2 from 15 C to 20 C
T1 Polynomials:
Data T1 T1: P= -0.002 + P * 0.0003052 + P^2 * 1E-05
T2: P= 0.0343 + P * -0.0002881 + P^2 * 1E-05
Data T2
1 Losses for the power transmitted 300 MW Pn= 1205.5 MW
T1 P = 1.214540438 MW
T2 P = 1.117183521 MW
Show polynomials for power:
from 0 MW to 500 MW
0 100 200 300 400 500
P (MW) - Transmission power
Show Polynomials Points
for T1 0 0 1-show
for T2 1 1 0-hide

Fig. 3. Specimen graphic outcome for the line V403 in program called "Optimisation of TN line operation"

The polynomial of 2nd degree shall be calculated by be used in the next stage to create the SW. It should be applied
application of the least square method. The fundamental in practice for analysis and optimisation of technical losses or
platform for this software is represented by the MS Excel file as a predictive SW to perform additional calculations of
created in VBA to sort the database contents and interlace the technical losses in connection with the power transmitted and
sorted technical losses depending on power. Individual steps the weather forecast using the pre-generated predictive
and interim calculations have been hidden for better operation polynomials obtained for the set temperature range.
of the Excel file. The instruments displayed include the
database tab together with tabs for selection of TN lines and
temperature ranges with graphic results. The materials [5] will
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