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BOD and

BOD

and Dissolved

Dissolved Oxygen

Oxygen (DO)

(DO) Sag

Sag Curve

Curve

Short-Video
Short-Video

Samir Kumar Khanal, Ph.D.

Dept. of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Iowa State University

Major Pollutants

Major

Pollutants and

and their

their Sources

Sources

Point source

Non-point source

Major Pollutants Major Pollutants and and their their Sources Sources Point source Non-point source Pollutants Domestic
Pollutants Domestic Industrial Agricultural Urban sewage wastewater runoff runoff Organic matter (COD/BOD) N & P Sediment
Pollutants
Domestic
Industrial
Agricultural
Urban
sewage
wastewater
runoff
runoff
Organic matter
(COD/BOD)
N & P
Sediment
(SS)
Pathogens
Salts
Heavy metals
Toxic compounds
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x?
x
x?
-
x
x
x
-
x
-
x
-
x
x
-
Thermal
-
x
-
-

Point and

Point

and Non

Non--point

point Source

Source Pollutions

Pollutions

Point and Point and Non Non - - point point Source Source Pollutions Pollutions

Organic Pollution

Organic

Pollution and

and Oxygen

Oxygen Demand

Demand

Bacteria

Bacteria

CC 66 HH 1212 OO 66 +6O

+6O 22 6CO

6CO 22 ++ 6H6H 22 OO

180

180 gg

192

192 gg

1g 1g glucose

glucose == 192/180g

192/180g OO 22

1g 1g glucose

glucose consumes

consumes 1.07g

1.07g OO 22

1g 1g glucose

glucose has

has BOD

BOD ofof 1.07g

1.07g

Organic Pollution Organic Pollution and and Oxygen Oxygen Demand Demand Bacteria Bacteria C C H H

Organic matter in waste + O 2 in stream

CO 2 + H 2 O

DO level 2.0 mg/L, some fish and other aquatic animal

Species may be distressed and some species may even die

due to suffocation.

As a rule of thumb DO level of 4 mg/L should be maintained

Organic Pollution

Organic

Pollution and

and Fish

Fish Kill

Kill

Organic Pollution Organic Pollution and and Fish Fish Kill Kill Slocum Creek, a tributary of the

Slocum Creek, a tributary of the Neuse below Carolina Pines Sep. 4, 2003: North Carolina

Nitrogen Pollution

Nitrogen

Pollution and

and Oxygen

Oxygen Demand

Demand

Bacteria

Bacteria

NHNH 44 ++

++

2O2O 22

1414 gg (N)

(N)

6464 gg

NONO 33

++

HH 22 OO ++ 2H2H ++

1g 1g NHNH 44 ++ --NN == 64/14g

64/14g OO 22

1g1g NHNH 44 ++ --NN consumes consumes 4.57

4.57 gg OO 22

Fish kill in Maryland

Fish kill in Maryland

Oxygen

Oxygen consumption

consumption or or BOD

BOD curve

curve

NBOD NBOD CBOD CBOD 00 55 1010 1515 Time, Time, day day Oxygen Oxygen consumed, consumed,
NBOD
NBOD
CBOD
CBOD
00
55
1010
1515
Time,
Time, day
day
Oxygen
Oxygen consumed,
consumed, BOD,
BOD, mg/L
mg/L

Oxygen Consumption

Oxygen

Consumption and

and Biochemical

Biochemical Oxygen

Oxygen Demand

Demand (BOD)

(BOD)

Oxygen Consumption Oxygen Consumption and and Biochemical Biochemical Oxygen Oxygen Demand Demand (BOD) (BOD) k=reaction k=reaction

k=reaction

k=reaction rate

rate

constant, day

constant,

day --11

Rate of organic removal Organic matter remaining any time

dL t ∝ L t dt
dL
t
∝ L
t
dt

dL t = − k L t dt
dL
t
= − k L
t
dt

dL t = − k dt L t
dL
t
= − k dt
L
t
dL t ∫ L = − k dt ∫ t L L 0 0 t
dL
t
∫ L
= − k dt
∫ t
L
L
0
0
t

L t ln = − kt L 0 − kt L = L e t 0
L
t
ln
= − kt
L
0
− kt
L
=
L e
t
0

Organic

Organic matter

matter consumed,

consumed, BOD

BOD ((YY tt )) == LoLo--Lt Lt

− kt y = L − L e t 0 0 − kt y = L
− kt
y
=
L
L e
t
0
0
− kt
y
=
L
( 1
e
)
t
0

LoLo == Ultimate

Ultimate BOD

BOD

Usually

Usually BOD

BOD test

test isis

conducted inin 55 days.

conducted

days.

Temperature

Temperature correction:

correction: kk TT == kk 2020 θθ TT--2020

θθ == 1.047

1.047

The

The BOD

BOD 55 ofof aa wastewater

wastewater isis determined

determined toto bebe 150

150 mg/L

mg/L

at 2020 oo C. C. The

at

The kk value

value isis 0.23

0.23 day

day --11

..

What would

What

would bebe the

the

BOD 88 IfIf the

BOD

the test

test were

run at at 1515 oo C. C.

were run

1.Determine ultimate

1.Determine

ultimate BOD

BOD (Lo):

(Lo):

− kt y = L (1 − e ) 5 0
− kt
y
=
L
(1
e
)
5
0
150 L = 0 − 0 . 23 x 5 1 − e
150
L =
0
− 0 . 23 x 5
1 − e

y 5 L = 0 − kt 1 − e
y
5
L
=
0
− kt
1 −
e

= 220 mg/L

2.

2. Temperature

Temperature correction

correction for

for kk value

value for

for 1515 oo C:

C:

kk TT == kk 2020 θθ TT--2020 kk 1515 == 0.23

0.23 (1.047)

(1.047) 1515--2020 == 0.18

0.18

day --11

day

3. 3.

Determine

Determine BOD

BOD at

at 88 days,

days, yy 88 ::

− kt y L = (1 − e ) 8 0
− kt
y L
=
(1
e
)
8
0

   

y

8

=

220 (1

e

0.18 x 8

)

 

= 168 mg/L

Combined BOD and DO determination for a stream

Combined waste flow

Q C

= Q r + Q w

Combined BOD

Q r BOD r + Q w BOD w

BOD C =

Q 1 + Q 2

Q r , BOD r , DO r

Residents

Combined BOD and DO determination for a stream • Combined waste flow Q = Q +

Q w , BOD w , DO w

Q C , BOD C , DO C

Combined DO

DO c

=

Q r *DO r + Q w *DO w

Q 1 + Q 2

DO Sag Curve

Residents Industry Q 2 , BOD 2 Q 1 , BOD 1 SS 2 SS 1
Residents
Industry
Q 2 , BOD 2
Q 1 , BOD 1
SS 2
SS 1
Saturation DO (Cs)
Initial
deficit D 0
Critical
deficit (Dc)
Oxygen addition
(reaertaion)
Oxygen depletion
t c
Travel
Travel time,
time, days
days
Dissolved
Dissolved oxygen,
oxygen, mg/L
mg/L

Oxygen deficit is a functi on of oxygen consumption

and oxygen supply by reaeration

dD

=

dt

k

d

( L )

t

k

r

( D )

dD/dt = Rate of change of oxygen deficit

kd

= Deoxygenation rate constant

Lt

= BOD at any time t

kr

= Reaeration rate constant

D

= Oxygen deficit (combined w/w and river)

Integrate and solve above equation for D:

k L k − k d o − k t − k t − k t
k L
k − k
d
o
− k t
k t
k t
D =
(
e
d
e
r
)
+
D e
r
0
r
d

Critical Deficit, Dc

Critical Deficit, Dc k d − k t D = L e d c c 0
k d − k t D = L e d c c 0 k r
k
d
− k
t
D =
L e
d
c
c
0
k
r

Critical Time, tc

t =

c

  • 1 ln

k k

r

d

k

 

k

d

r

1 D

k  

d

o

  

k

r

  • 0 k L

d

Example:

Find DO concentration 50 km downstream from a discharge

with the following characteristics:

 

wastewater

River

Flow, m 3 /s

0.05

0.5

Ultimate BOD (L o ), mg/L

50

10

DO, mg/L

1

6

k d , day -1

0.16

k r , day -1

0.18

Velocity, m/s

0.1

Temperature, o C

25

25

DO sat @ 25 o C = 8.38 mg/L

1. Find time (t) to travel 50 km:

t = distance/velocity = (50,000 m)/(0.1m/sec) = 5.78 day

  • 2. Calculate combined ultimate BOD of w/w and river

Lo = [0.05 (50) + 0.5 (10)]/(0.05 +0.5) = 13.64 mg/L

  • 3. Calculate DO after mixing of w/w and river

DO combined = [0.05(1) +0.5 (6)]/(0.5+0.05) = 5.55 mg/L

Initial deficit (Do) = 8.38-5.55 = 2.83 mg/L

4. Calculate deficit at t=5.78 day,

k L d o − k t − k t − k t D = (
k L
d
o
− k
t
k
t
k
t
D =
(
e
d
e
r
)
+
D e
r
0
k
k
r
d

Deficit at t = 5.78 days = 5.725 mg/L

Therefore, DO conc. At 5.78 day will be:

DO = Dsat – Dt = 8.38-5.725 = 2.66 mg/L

Your assignment: calculate tc and Dc

1  k  k − k   r r d t = ln 
1
 k 
k
k  
r
r
d
t =
ln
 1 − D
c
0
k − k
k
k L
r
d
 
d
d
o
  
k
d
− k
t
D =
L e
d
c
c
0
k
r