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Titre original : SAP Report of residential building at PLMC

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DESIGN REPORT OF

THREE STOREY

(RCC) RESIDENTIAL BUILDING

OF MR. KRISHNA PUN LOCATED

AT POKHARA-LEKHNATH 15,

KASKI, NEPAL

STRUCTURAL

ANALYSIS AND

DESIGN REPORT

PREPARED BY :-

ER. ANIL DHUNGANA

NEC Regd. NO. 9512 A CIVIL

POUSH, 2073

`

Chapter-One

Introduction

Earthquakes are defined as earths surface vibrations caused by waves originating from a

source of disturbance in the earth mass. Earthquake is caused by volcanic eruption, slipping of

faults i.e. tectonic activities, big reservoirs, explosion etc.

In case of Nepal, slipping of faults i.e. tectonic activities cause earthquake because there

are number of active faults and thrusts in Nepal. Nepals geology is very young and hazardous.

Also it lies in the boundary of two seismically very active tectonic plates of the world i.e. Indian

plate and Tibetan Plate. It is also said that the Indian plate is moving toward the Tibetan Plate,

which cause the slippage of the faults causing the big earthquake. Thus Nepal is very vulnerable

with respect to seismic activities.

Though the time of shaking of earth mass is very small in fraction of seconds, it causes very severe

damages of properties as well as the lives. Nepal has so many experiences about such destructive

earthquakes. Out of them 1990 B.S and 2045 B.S are the recently known ones.

Thus the seismic structural design of structures id found to be very essential for countries like

Nepal. The structures need to be designed and detailed so as to counteract, the internal forces

induced due to the earth mass shaking in base of these structures. The design should ensure the

structure against stability, strength and serviceability with acceptable levels of seismic safety.

However, it would not be economically feasible to design the building so as to ensure that they

remain elastic and damage-free because the occurrence of maximum earthquakes is low say one

75 years. Thus it is reliable to design the ductile structure and not to design damage free structure

but not-collapsible structure for minimum destruction in lives and properties. The design should

ensure the structure against stability, strength and serviceability with acceptable levels of seismic

safety. In brief, the aim of design is the achievement of an acceptable probability that structures

being designed will perform satisfactorily during their intended life. With an appropriate degree of

safety, they should sustain all the loads and deformations of normal construction and use and have

adequate durability and adequate resistance to the effects of misuse and fire. Structural Analysis

of the concerned building has been done in details with analysis and Designs. Thus the seismic

design of the building is done and the brief has been prepared.

The analysis and design has been based on the prevailing codes that are in practice in Nepal,

the National Building code of Nepal (105:1994) and the IS code at places if required. This report

consists of the design procedures adopted, the assumptions made, the inputs made in the design

and the design output.

As per NBC 105: 1994, the seismic zoning of Nepal is as shown in the following Figure 1. Z is the

seismic zoning factor that divides the country into fives zones for the purpose of seismic design of

buildings with the values ranging from 0.8 to 1.1. The assessed buildings are located in the seismic

zoning factor, Z of 1.0 (since western Region). Hence the building is designed with great

consideration towards earthquake resistant practices.

1

Figure 1: Seismic Zoning Factor

2

Chapter - Two

Building Description

2 Structural system : RCC Space frame, ductile moment resisting frame with infill wall

11 Wall : 250 mm & 125mm thick brick masonry (1:5 C/S ratio)

13 Type of Sub-Soil : II (Medium type as per NBC 105)

Bearing Capacity of soil adopted = 150 KN/m2

3

Chapter - Three

Methodology

The analysis has been carried out with structural analysis software SAP2000. V14.0.0All

the models are built up in 3-Dimensions and actual 3-D analysis is performed SAP2000 isbased on

Finite Element Method. Modulus of elasticity and poisons ratio for the materials used are taken

accordingly. Beams and columns are modeled as frame (line) elements with sufficient and

appropriate meshing. The section properties used are based on preliminary section sizing with

consideration for deflection, minimum sizing specified and serviceability.

3.1 Reinforced concrete design

The following materials are adopted for the design of the elements:

1. Concrete Grade: M20 for all structural elements & M15 for foundation concrete.

2. Reinforcement Steel Fe500

The aim of structural design is the achievement of an acceptable probability that structures being

design will perform satisfactorily during their intended life with an appropriate degree of safety,

they should sustain all the loads and deformations of normal construction and use and have

adequate durability and adequate resistance to the effect of misuse and fire.

Therefore, Limit state method is used for the design of RCC elements. The design is based on IS:

456-2000, SP16, IS: 1893-2002, and Reinforced Concrete Designers Handbook are extensively

used in the process of design. Foundation design is carried out to satisfy strength and stability

requirements.

3.2 Detailing:

The space frame is considered as a special moment resisting frame (SMRF) with a special detailing

to provide ductile behavior at every joint between beams and columns and in other parts to get

ductility and comply with the requirements given in IS 13920:1993 and NBC201:1994.

4

Chapter - Four

Load Description

The Dead load comprises the loads due to the materials used in the construction and parts

or components in a building. It consists of the loads due to structural elements like beam, column,

wall, slab, staircase, etc.; finishes applied in the building and some permanent structures like water

tanks etc.

Loads on Beams supporting twoways Slabs:

a. In case of Beams supporting two-way slabs, the load distribution is trapezoidal on long

beams and triangular on short beams with base angle of 45.

b. Floor Finishing : 50 mm thick

c. Cement concrete : 25 KN/m3

d. Brick work with plaster : 20 KN/m3

e.

Floor finish : 24 KN/m3

f. Probable Partition : Considered in this case as 0.5 KN/m2

The imposed load comprises the loads due to the physical contribution of people and the

loads due to the nature of occupancy, the furniture and other equipment which are a part of the

character of the occupancy. The imposed loads on the structural system are based on the codal

provisions as specified in IS 875(part2)-1987.

Assessment of unit Live loads

Unit Live Load on floors : 2.0 KN/m2 for all floor (Since Residential building)

Unit Live Load on Roof : 1.5 KN/m2

According to NBC105:1994 & IS 1823-2002, Pokhara lies on the zone 1, V. Hence, the

effect of the earthquake is predominant than the wind load. So, the frame is analyzed for the EQ as

lateral load. Since the shape of the building is rectangular & total height of the structure is less than

40 m, Seismic Coefficient Method as defined in clause 10.1 NBC 105:1994 is used to calculate

lateral load.

The Earthquake load has been calculated in accordance with NBC 105:1994 clause 4.0.Two

directional (both +ve and ve) seismic force has been considered for analysis. For this loading

seismic weight is considered as the total dead load plus approximate amount of specified imposed

load. While computing the seismic weight of each floor, the weight of columns and walls in any

story shall be equally distributed to the floors above and below the story. The seismic weight of

the whole building is the sum of the seismic weights of all the floors. For calculating the Earthquake

loads, no live load is considered for roof and for all other floors live load is considered only 25 %

of floor area:NBC 105:1994, clause 6.0 since LL on the floor and other area adopted in this case

is <3.0 KN/m

5

Load Cases considered:

Self-Weights

DL slab = 3.125 KN/m2(125mm Thick slab)

DL floor finish = 2.29 KN/m2

DL 9 Masonry Wall =11.81KN/m

DL 9 Masonry Wall =9.45KN/mwith considering 20 % openings for

doors & windows.

doors & windows.

Parapet wall = 3.0KN/m

DL for Stair case =9.18KN/m

LL for Stair case =4.22KN/m

LL Floor =2KN/m2

LL Roof =1.5KN/m2

EQ(+X, -X direction)

EQ(+Y, -Y direction)

6

Chapter Five

Load Application

The following considerations are made during the loading on the structural model:

The loads distributed over the area are imposed on area element and that distributed over

length are imposed on line element whenever possible.

Where such loading is not applicable, equivalent conversion to different loading

distribution is carried to load the model near the real case as far as possible.

The imposed loading of infill walls are considered(as per architectural drawing.) as

equivalent UDL with 25% to 30% deductions for openings, but the actual modeling of

infill walls as equivalent Struts are not performed. Hence the stiffness of infill walls is not

considered.

The Plinth Tie Beams are designed as purely tie members for lateral loads only, not

designed as flexural members as floor beams.

For simplicity of Structural analysis, Modeling of stair case is not performed & no

landing beam is considered. The DL & LL load of stair case is transferred to the floor

beam as equivalent UDL.

Seismic loads are considered acting in the horizontal direction (along either of the two

principal directions) and not along the vertical direction, since it is not considered to be

significant.

Centre-line dimensions are assumed for analysis and design. Preliminary sizes of structural

components are assumed as per Architectural Drawing.

For analysis purpose, the beams are assumed to be rectangular so as to distribute slightly

larger moment in columns. In practice a beam that fulfills requirement of flanged section

in design, behaves in between a rectangular and a flanged section for moment distribution.

Chapter Six

7

Limitation

The following assumptions are taken into consideration in the seismic resistant analysis and design

of structures:

Adequate supervision and quality systems are provided during execution of the works.

Construction is carried out by personnel having the appropriate skill and experience.

Construction materials and products confirm to the pertinent codes and specifications.

The structure is adequately maintained.

The structure is used in accordance with the design brief.

An earthquake is not likely to occur simultaneously with maximum flood, wind, waves or

tides.

Resonance as visualized under steady state sinusoidal excitation will not occur, as the small

duration of earthquake is not enough to build up resonance amplitudes. Subsoil does not

considerably settle or slide due to earthquake at the site of structure.

Chapter Seven

Load Combination

8

The load combinations are based on NBC105:1994, clause 4.4 for Limit state design method.

The following load combinations are used during analysis:

COMBO_1 : 1.5 DL + 1.5 LL

COMBO_2 : 1.0 DL + 1.3 LL 1.25 EQL (X, Y)

COMBO_3 : 1.0 DL 1.25 EQL (X, Y)

COMBO_4 : 0.9 DL 1.25 EQL (X, Y)

Where:

DL : Dead Load

LL : Live Load

EQL : Earthquake Load

All the structural members have been designed for the critical values as obtained from above load

combinations. The limit state method has been adopted for designing structural members

referring SP 16, IS 456- 2000 & IS 13920 1993.

Columns do not lie on property linessocentrically located footings are designed. (Refer Structural

drawings as provided)

Storey Drift ratio for all storied are checked as defined in clause 7.11.2, IS 1893-2002.It is found

that storey drift ratio for all stories are within permissible limit 0.004 OK.

Chapter Eight

Earthquake Load Calculation

9

Determining seismic load based on NBC 105:

NB -

Input data for earthquakeload calculation Unit

105

Clause8.1.6, figure 8.2,

Seismic Zone Factor Z 1.0

Pokhara

Clause8.1.7, table 8.1,

Importance Factor I 1.0

other structures

Clause 8.1.8, table 8.2,

Structural Performance Factor K 1 Ductile moment

resisting Frame

Three storey building

Height of the Building H 12.27 m

with stair cover.

Dimension of Building along X -direction Dx 7.92 m

Dimension of Building along Y -direction Dy 8.23 m

Time Period of Building along X -direction Tx 0.3924 Sec. Clause 7.3

Time Period of Building along Y -direction Ty 0.3849 Sec. Clause 7.3

Medium

Soil Type Type II Clause 8.1.5

Type

Basic Seismic Coefficient along X-direction Cx 0.08 Clause 8.1.4, Figure-8.1

Basic Seismic Coefficient along Y-direction Cy 0.08 Clause 8.1.4, Figure-8.1

Design horizontal seismic coefficient along X- Cdx=

0.08 Clause 8.1.1

direction CxZIK

Design horizontal seismic coefficient along Y-

Cdy=CyZIK 0.08 Clause 8.1.1

direction

Total Seismic Weight of the Building(DL+0.25LL) W 2821.1625 KN Clause 10.1.1

Total Base Shear(Vb) along X-direction Vbx 225.693 KN Clause 10.2.1

Total Base Shear(Vb) along Y-direction Vby 225.693 KN Clause 10.2.1

Maximum Drift Ratio 0.001983 0.0015< 0.004

Maximum Displacement at top storey 25.1818 mm

10

Chapter Nine

Sap AnalysisAnd Output

11

Frame Sections

12

Frame Sections

13

Frame Sections

14

Frame Sections

15

Frame Sections

16

Frame Sections

17

Sample Bending Moment Diagram (ENVELOPE)

18

Sample Bending Moment Diagram (ENVELOPE)

19

Sample Bending Moment Diagram (ENVELOPE)

20

Sample Bending Moment Diagram (ENVELOPE)

21

Sample Bending Moment Diagram (ENVELOPE)

22

Sample Bending Moment Diagram (ENVELOPE)

23

Sample Shear Force Diagram (ENVELOPE)

24

Sample Shear Force Diagram (ENVELOPE)

25

Sample Shear Force Diagram (ENVELOPE)

26

Sample Shear Force Diagram (ENVELOPE)

27

Sample Shear Force Diagram (ENVELOPE)

28

Sample Shear Force Diagram (ENVELOPE)

29

Axial Force

30

Axial Force

31

Axial Force

32

Axial Force

33

Axial Force

34

Axial Force

35

Longitudinal Reinforcement

36

Longitudinal Reinforcement

37

Longitudinal Reinforcement

38

Longitudinal Reinforcement

39

Longitudinal Reinforcement

40

Longitudinal Reinforcement

41

Longitudinal Reinforcement of Ground Floor Slab

42

Longitudinal Reinforcement of First Floor Slab

43

Longitudinal Reinforcement of Second Floor Slab

44

Longitudinal Reinforcement of Second Floor Slab

45

Longitudinal Reinforcement of Stair Cover.

46

Chapter Ten

Summary

Lateral ties

(300x300) (300x300) (300x300)

Floor 4 - 16dia. Bars

8 mm dia. 2-

legged lateral

Second 4 - 16dia. Bars 4- 16dia. Bars4 - 8- 16dia. Bars ties @100 mm

Floor 4 - 12dia. Bars 12dia. Bars & 150mm c/c

at ends & mid

height

Third 8- 12dia. Bars 8- 12dia. Bars

8- 12dia. Bars

Floor

10.2 Reinforcement details of beam section (FF, SF& TF) both sides.

Beam

2 16dia TH. 2 16dia TH. 2 16dia TH. 2 16dia TH.

225 x 375mm

2 16dia EXT. 1 12dia TH. 1 12dia TH.

Vertical stirrups@100mm c/c upto L/4 stirrups@150mm c/c at mid

stirrups from end of support span

47

10.3 Reinforcements for floor slab:

Along Short Span: 8 mm dia. bars@ 125 mm c/c with extra cut pieces upto L/3 from supports.

Along Long Span: 8 mm dia. bars@ 150 mm c/c with extra cut pieces upto L/3 from supports.

For all other details, Refer submitted Structural Drawing. It is recommended that the mix

design of concrete should be carried out to conform the desired strength as per IS 456-2000.

48

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