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NEC Regd. NO. 9512 A CIVIL

POUSH, 2073


Earthquakes are defined as earths surface vibrations caused by waves originating from a
source of disturbance in the earth mass. Earthquake is caused by volcanic eruption, slipping of
faults i.e. tectonic activities, big reservoirs, explosion etc.
In case of Nepal, slipping of faults i.e. tectonic activities cause earthquake because there
are number of active faults and thrusts in Nepal. Nepals geology is very young and hazardous.
Also it lies in the boundary of two seismically very active tectonic plates of the world i.e. Indian
plate and Tibetan Plate. It is also said that the Indian plate is moving toward the Tibetan Plate,
which cause the slippage of the faults causing the big earthquake. Thus Nepal is very vulnerable
with respect to seismic activities.
Though the time of shaking of earth mass is very small in fraction of seconds, it causes very severe
damages of properties as well as the lives. Nepal has so many experiences about such destructive
earthquakes. Out of them 1990 B.S and 2045 B.S are the recently known ones.
Thus the seismic structural design of structures id found to be very essential for countries like
Nepal. The structures need to be designed and detailed so as to counteract, the internal forces
induced due to the earth mass shaking in base of these structures. The design should ensure the
structure against stability, strength and serviceability with acceptable levels of seismic safety.
However, it would not be economically feasible to design the building so as to ensure that they
remain elastic and damage-free because the occurrence of maximum earthquakes is low say one
75 years. Thus it is reliable to design the ductile structure and not to design damage free structure
but not-collapsible structure for minimum destruction in lives and properties. The design should
ensure the structure against stability, strength and serviceability with acceptable levels of seismic
safety. In brief, the aim of design is the achievement of an acceptable probability that structures
being designed will perform satisfactorily during their intended life. With an appropriate degree of
safety, they should sustain all the loads and deformations of normal construction and use and have
adequate durability and adequate resistance to the effects of misuse and fire. Structural Analysis
of the concerned building has been done in details with analysis and Designs. Thus the seismic
design of the building is done and the brief has been prepared.
The analysis and design has been based on the prevailing codes that are in practice in Nepal,
the National Building code of Nepal (105:1994) and the IS code at places if required. This report
consists of the design procedures adopted, the assumptions made, the inputs made in the design
and the design output.

As per NBC 105: 1994, the seismic zoning of Nepal is as shown in the following Figure 1. Z is the
seismic zoning factor that divides the country into fives zones for the purpose of seismic design of
buildings with the values ranging from 0.8 to 1.1. The assessed buildings are located in the seismic
zoning factor, Z of 1.0 (since western Region). Hence the building is designed with great
consideration towards earthquake resistant practices.

Figure 1: Seismic Zoning Factor

Chapter - Two
Building Description

Owner : Mr. Krishna Pun

1 Building Type : Residential Building,

Located at Lekhnath 15, Pokhara, Kaski.

2 Structural system : RCC Space frame, ductile moment resisting frame with infill wall

3 Plinth area covered : 31 X 42

5 Column : Square size as 300 X 300 mm

6 Beam : Rectangular size (Main beams): 225 x 375 mm

7 Slab : 125 mm thick two way slab

8 Type of foundation : Centrically located isolated footing.

9 No. of Storey : Two and half storey with Stair cover

10 Total Height : 12.19 m with stair case cover

11 Wall : 250 mm & 125mm thick brick masonry (1:5 C/S ratio)

12 Probable Partition : Considered as 1 KN/m2

13 Type of Sub-Soil : II (Medium type as per NBC 105)
Bearing Capacity of soil adopted = 150 KN/m2

Chapter - Three

The analysis has been carried out with structural analysis software SAP2000. V14.0.0All
the models are built up in 3-Dimensions and actual 3-D analysis is performed SAP2000 isbased on
Finite Element Method. Modulus of elasticity and poisons ratio for the materials used are taken
accordingly. Beams and columns are modeled as frame (line) elements with sufficient and
appropriate meshing. The section properties used are based on preliminary section sizing with
consideration for deflection, minimum sizing specified and serviceability.
3.1 Reinforced concrete design
The following materials are adopted for the design of the elements:
1. Concrete Grade: M20 for all structural elements & M15 for foundation concrete.
2. Reinforcement Steel Fe500
The aim of structural design is the achievement of an acceptable probability that structures being
design will perform satisfactorily during their intended life with an appropriate degree of safety,
they should sustain all the loads and deformations of normal construction and use and have
adequate durability and adequate resistance to the effect of misuse and fire.
Therefore, Limit state method is used for the design of RCC elements. The design is based on IS:
456-2000, SP16, IS: 1893-2002, and Reinforced Concrete Designers Handbook are extensively
used in the process of design. Foundation design is carried out to satisfy strength and stability

3.2 Detailing:
The space frame is considered as a special moment resisting frame (SMRF) with a special detailing
to provide ductile behavior at every joint between beams and columns and in other parts to get
ductility and comply with the requirements given in IS 13920:1993 and NBC201:1994.

Chapter - Four
Load Description

4.1 Dead Load:

The Dead load comprises the loads due to the materials used in the construction and parts
or components in a building. It consists of the loads due to structural elements like beam, column,
wall, slab, staircase, etc.; finishes applied in the building and some permanent structures like water
tanks etc.
Loads on Beams supporting twoways Slabs:
a. In case of Beams supporting two-way slabs, the load distribution is trapezoidal on long
beams and triangular on short beams with base angle of 45.

Assessment of unit Dead loads

a. Slab thickness : 125 mm for floor (5thk.)

b. Floor Finishing : 50 mm thick
c. Cement concrete : 25 KN/m3
d. Brick work with plaster : 20 KN/m3
Floor finish : 24 KN/m3
f. Probable Partition : Considered in this case as 0.5 KN/m2

4.2 Imposed Load:

The imposed load comprises the loads due to the physical contribution of people and the
loads due to the nature of occupancy, the furniture and other equipment which are a part of the
character of the occupancy. The imposed loads on the structural system are based on the codal
provisions as specified in IS 875(part2)-1987.
Assessment of unit Live loads
Unit Live Load on floors : 2.0 KN/m2 for all floor (Since Residential building)
Unit Live Load on Roof : 1.5 KN/m2

4.3 Lateral Load Calculation:

According to NBC105:1994 & IS 1823-2002, Pokhara lies on the zone 1, V. Hence, the
effect of the earthquake is predominant than the wind load. So, the frame is analyzed for the EQ as
lateral load. Since the shape of the building is rectangular & total height of the structure is less than
40 m, Seismic Coefficient Method as defined in clause 10.1 NBC 105:1994 is used to calculate
lateral load.
The Earthquake load has been calculated in accordance with NBC 105:1994 clause 4.0.Two
directional (both +ve and ve) seismic force has been considered for analysis. For this loading
seismic weight is considered as the total dead load plus approximate amount of specified imposed
load. While computing the seismic weight of each floor, the weight of columns and walls in any
story shall be equally distributed to the floors above and below the story. The seismic weight of
the whole building is the sum of the seismic weights of all the floors. For calculating the Earthquake
loads, no live load is considered for roof and for all other floors live load is considered only 25 %
of floor area:NBC 105:1994, clause 6.0 since LL on the floor and other area adopted in this case
is <3.0 KN/m

Load Cases considered:
DL slab = 3.125 KN/m2(125mm Thick slab)
DL floor finish = 2.29 KN/m2
DL 9 Masonry Wall =11.81KN/m
DL 9 Masonry Wall =9.45KN/mwith considering 20 % openings for
doors & windows.

DL of 4.5 wall =4.73KN/m with considering 20 % openings for

doors & windows.
Parapet wall = 3.0KN/m
DL for Stair case =9.18KN/m
LL for Stair case =4.22KN/m
LL Floor =2KN/m2
LL Roof =1.5KN/m2
EQ(+X, -X direction)
EQ(+Y, -Y direction)

Chapter Five
Load Application

The following considerations are made during the loading on the structural model:
The loads distributed over the area are imposed on area element and that distributed over
length are imposed on line element whenever possible.
Where such loading is not applicable, equivalent conversion to different loading
distribution is carried to load the model near the real case as far as possible.
The imposed loading of infill walls are considered(as per architectural drawing.) as
equivalent UDL with 25% to 30% deductions for openings, but the actual modeling of
infill walls as equivalent Struts are not performed. Hence the stiffness of infill walls is not
The Plinth Tie Beams are designed as purely tie members for lateral loads only, not
designed as flexural members as floor beams.
For simplicity of Structural analysis, Modeling of stair case is not performed & no
landing beam is considered. The DL & LL load of stair case is transferred to the floor
beam as equivalent UDL.
Seismic loads are considered acting in the horizontal direction (along either of the two
principal directions) and not along the vertical direction, since it is not considered to be

The floors diaphragms are assumed to be rigid.

Centre-line dimensions are assumed for analysis and design. Preliminary sizes of structural
components are assumed as per Architectural Drawing.

For analysis purpose, the beams are assumed to be rectangular so as to distribute slightly
larger moment in columns. In practice a beam that fulfills requirement of flanged section
in design, behaves in between a rectangular and a flanged section for moment distribution.

Chapter Six


The following assumptions are taken into consideration in the seismic resistant analysis and design
of structures:
Adequate supervision and quality systems are provided during execution of the works.
Construction is carried out by personnel having the appropriate skill and experience.
Construction materials and products confirm to the pertinent codes and specifications.
The structure is adequately maintained.
The structure is used in accordance with the design brief.
An earthquake is not likely to occur simultaneously with maximum flood, wind, waves or
Resonance as visualized under steady state sinusoidal excitation will not occur, as the small
duration of earthquake is not enough to build up resonance amplitudes. Subsoil does not
considerably settle or slide due to earthquake at the site of structure.

Chapter Seven
Load Combination

The load combinations are based on NBC105:1994, clause 4.4 for Limit state design method.
The following load combinations are used during analysis:
COMBO_1 : 1.5 DL + 1.5 LL
COMBO_2 : 1.0 DL + 1.3 LL 1.25 EQL (X, Y)
COMBO_3 : 1.0 DL 1.25 EQL (X, Y)
COMBO_4 : 0.9 DL 1.25 EQL (X, Y)

DL : Dead Load
LL : Live Load
EQL : Earthquake Load

7.1 Design of Structural Members

All the structural members have been designed for the critical values as obtained from above load
combinations. The limit state method has been adopted for designing structural members
referring SP 16, IS 456- 2000 & IS 13920 1993.

Foundation design is carried out to satisfy strength and stability requirements.

Columns do not lie on property linessocentrically located footings are designed. (Refer Structural
drawings as provided)
Storey Drift ratio for all storied are checked as defined in clause 7.11.2, IS 1893-2002.It is found
that storey drift ratio for all stories are within permissible limit 0.004 OK.

Chapter Eight
Earthquake Load Calculation

Determining seismic load based on NBC 105:

NB -
Input data for earthquakeload calculation Unit
Clause8.1.6, figure 8.2,
Seismic Zone Factor Z 1.0
Clause8.1.7, table 8.1,
Importance Factor I 1.0
other structures
Clause 8.1.8, table 8.2,
Structural Performance Factor K 1 Ductile moment
resisting Frame
Three storey building
Height of the Building H 12.27 m
with stair cover.
Dimension of Building along X -direction Dx 7.92 m
Dimension of Building along Y -direction Dy 8.23 m
Time Period of Building along X -direction Tx 0.3924 Sec. Clause 7.3
Time Period of Building along Y -direction Ty 0.3849 Sec. Clause 7.3
Soil Type Type II Clause 8.1.5
Basic Seismic Coefficient along X-direction Cx 0.08 Clause 8.1.4, Figure-8.1
Basic Seismic Coefficient along Y-direction Cy 0.08 Clause 8.1.4, Figure-8.1
Design horizontal seismic coefficient along X- Cdx=
0.08 Clause 8.1.1
direction CxZIK
Design horizontal seismic coefficient along Y-
Cdy=CyZIK 0.08 Clause 8.1.1
Total Seismic Weight of the Building(DL+0.25LL) W 2821.1625 KN Clause 10.1.1
Total Base Shear(Vb) along X-direction Vbx 225.693 KN Clause 10.2.1
Total Base Shear(Vb) along Y-direction Vby 225.693 KN Clause 10.2.1
Maximum Drift Ratio 0.001983 0.0015< 0.004
Maximum Displacement at top storey 25.1818 mm

Chapter Nine
Sap AnalysisAnd Output

3D Modeling of the Purpose Building

Frame Sections

Frame Sections

Frame Sections

Frame Sections

Frame Sections

Frame Sections

Sample Bending Moment Diagram (ENVELOPE)

Sample Bending Moment Diagram (ENVELOPE)

Sample Bending Moment Diagram (ENVELOPE)

Sample Bending Moment Diagram (ENVELOPE)

Sample Bending Moment Diagram (ENVELOPE)

Sample Bending Moment Diagram (ENVELOPE)

Sample Shear Force Diagram (ENVELOPE)

Sample Shear Force Diagram (ENVELOPE)

Sample Shear Force Diagram (ENVELOPE)

Sample Shear Force Diagram (ENVELOPE)

Sample Shear Force Diagram (ENVELOPE)

Sample Shear Force Diagram (ENVELOPE)

Axial Force

Axial Force

Axial Force

Axial Force

Axial Force

Axial Force

Longitudinal Reinforcement

Longitudinal Reinforcement

Longitudinal Reinforcement

Longitudinal Reinforcement

Longitudinal Reinforcement

Longitudinal Reinforcement

Longitudinal Reinforcement of Ground Floor Slab

Longitudinal Reinforcement of First Floor Slab

Longitudinal Reinforcement of Second Floor Slab

Longitudinal Reinforcement of Second Floor Slab

Longitudinal Reinforcement of Stair Cover.

Chapter Ten

10.1 Reinforcement details of column section

Corner Column1 Face Column2 Centre Column3

Lateral ties
(300x300) (300x300) (300x300)

First 8- 16dia. Bars 8- 16dia. Bars 4 - 20dia. Bars

Floor 4 - 16dia. Bars
8 mm dia. 2-
legged lateral
Second 4 - 16dia. Bars 4- 16dia. Bars4 - 8- 16dia. Bars ties @100 mm
Floor 4 - 12dia. Bars 12dia. Bars & 150mm c/c
at ends & mid
Third 8- 12dia. Bars 8- 12dia. Bars
8- 12dia. Bars

10.2 Reinforcement details of beam section (FF, SF& TF) both sides.

Re-Bars at Support Re-Bars at Mid Span

Top Bottom Top Bottom

2 16dia TH. 2 16dia TH. 2 16dia TH. 2 16dia TH.
225 x 375mm
2 16dia EXT. 1 12dia TH. 1 12dia TH.

8 mm dia. vertical 8 mm dia. vertical

Vertical stirrups@100mm c/c upto L/4 stirrups@150mm c/c at mid
stirrups from end of support span

10.3 Reinforcements for floor slab:

Thickness of slab = 125 mm

Along Short Span: 8 mm dia. bars@ 125 mm c/c with extra cut pieces upto L/3 from supports.
Along Long Span: 8 mm dia. bars@ 150 mm c/c with extra cut pieces upto L/3 from supports.

For all other details, Refer submitted Structural Drawing. It is recommended that the mix
design of concrete should be carried out to conform the desired strength as per IS 456-2000.