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76 Formulas for Stress and Strain

TABLE 5.1

Sample finite element library

[CHAP. 5

Element

Number

type

Name

Shape

of nodes

Applications

Line

Truss

2

2

Pin-ended bar in tension or compression Bending

Beam

2

2

Frame

2

2

Axial, torsional, and bending. With or without load stiffening

Surface

4 Noded

Plane stress or strain, axisymmetry, shear panel, thin fl at plate in bending at plate in bending

4

quadri-

lateral

8

Noded

Plane stress or strain, thin plate or shell in bending8

8

quadri-

lateral

 

3

Noded

Plane stress or strain, axisymmetry, shear panel, thin fl at plate in bending. Prefer quad where possible. Used for transitions of quads at plate in bending. Prefer quad where possible. Used for transitions of quads

3

6

triangular

6

Noded

triangular

Plane stress or strain, axisymmetry, thin plate or shell in bending. Prefer quad where possible. Used for transitions of quadstriangular

Solidy

8 Noded

8 6

8

6

Solid, thick plate (using mid- side nodes)

hexagonal

(brick)

 

6

Noded

Solid, thick plate (using mid- side nodes). Used for transitions

Pentagonal

(wedge)

4

Noded

4

4

Solid, thick plate (using mid- side nodes). Used for transitions

tetrahedron

(tet)

Special

Gap

2

purpose

 

Hook

2

Rigid

Free displacement for prescribed compressive gap Free displacement for prescribed extension gap Variable Rigid constraints between nodes
Free displacement for prescribed extension gap Variable Rigid constraints between nodesFree displacement for prescribed compressive gap

extension gap Variable Rigid constraints between nodes y These elements are also available with mid-size nodes.

y These elements are also available with mid-size nodes.

nite element codes concentrate on reducing these errors and conse- quently the analyst generally is concerned with discretization factors. 2. Discretization errors. The geometry and the displacement distri- bution of a true structure vary continuously. Using a nite number of elements to model the structure introduces errors in matching geo- metry and the displacement distribution due to the inherent limita-