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Prediction of ultimate bearing capacity of

eccentrically inclined loaded strip footing by


ANN
R. N. Behera, C.R. Patra, N. Sivakugan, and B.M. Das
International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 7(2):165-172
April 2013

Presented By- Shivpreet Sharma


Overview
Introduction
ANN Overview
Learning
Database and Pre-processing
Results and Discussions
Neural Interpretation Diagram
Conclusions
References
Intoduction
Artificial Neural Network (ANN) or Neural Network(NN) has
provide an exciting alternative method for solving a variety of
problems in different fields of science and engineering.
This article is trying to give the readers a :
- Whole idea about ANN
- Motivation for ANN development
- Network architecture and learning models
ARTIFICIAL NEURON MODEL
Inputs to the network are represented by
the mathematical symbol,xn x1 w1
Eachof these inputs are multiplied w2
by a connection weight ,wn x2
f(w1 x1 + +
sum = w1 x1 + + wnxn wnxn)

wn
These products are simply summed, fed
through the transfer function, f( ) to xn

generate a result and then output.


ANN Overview: COMPTIONAL MODEL FOR ARTIFICIAL NEURON

z wixi ; y H (z)
i1

Wires : axon & dendrites


Connection weights: Synapse
Threshold function: activity in soma
Sources: https://image.slidesharecdn.com/artificialneuralnetworks-121114000455-phpapp02/95/artificial-neural
networks1638.jpg?cb=1352851582
ANN Overview Network Architecture :

Connection
Patterns

Feed-
Recurrent
Forward

Sources: https://image.slidesharecdn.com/artificialneuralnetworks-121114000455-phpapp02/95/artificial-neural
networks1638.jpg?cb=1352851582
Learning
What is the learning process in ANN?
- updating network architecture and connection weights so that network can efficiently perform a task
What is the source of learning for ANN?
- Available training patterns
- The ability of ANN to automatically learn from examples or input-out put relations
How to design a Learning process?
- Knowing about available information
- Having a model from environment: Learning Paradigm
- Figuring out the update process of weights: Learning rules
- Identifying a procedure to adjust weights by learning rules: Learning algorithm
The present paper deals with the development of a neural network model using the results of laboratory
model tests to estimate the reduction factor.
Reduction factor (RF) is the ratio of the ultimate bearing capacity of the strip footing subjected to an
eccentrically inclined load to the ultimate bearing capacity of the strip footing subjected to a centric
vertical load.
Backpropagation neural network is most
suitable for prediction problems and Levenberg
Marquadrt algorithm is adopted as it is efficient
In comparison to other algorithm.

In the present study, the feedforward


backpropagation Neural network is trained with
LevenbergMarquadrt algorithm which is known
as LevenbergMarquadrt neural network.

Eccentrically inclined load on strip foundation

Courtesy: Behera et.al.(2013)


Database And PreProcessing

Out of 78 test records shown in Table 1, 59 tests are considered for training and
the remaining 19 are reserved for testing. Each record represents a complete
model test where an eccentrically inclined loaded strip footing was subjected to
failure.
All the variables (i.e. inputs and output) are normalized in the range [-1, 1] before
training.
A feedforward backpropagation neural network is used with hyperbolic tangent
sigmoid function and a linear function as the transfer function. The network is
trained (learning) with LevenbergMarquardt algorithm as it is efficient in
comparison to other algorithm.
The ANN has been implemented using MATLAB V 7.11.0 (R2010b).
Courtesy: Patra et.al.(2012)
Results And Discussion
Therefore, the final ANN architecture used in this study will be 341, i.e. 3 (input)4
(hidden layer neuron)1 (output), as show in fig

Courtesy: Behera et.al.(2013)


The weights and biases of the network are presented in Table 3. The weights
and biases can be utilized for interpretation of the relationships between the
inputs and output, to carry out a sensitivity analysis, and for framing an ANN
model in the form of an equation that can be used for predicting RF.

The residual analysis was carried out by calculating the residuals from the
experimental reduction factor and predicted reduction factor for training data
set. Residual (er) can be defined as the difference between the experimental
and predicted RF value and is given by
Courtesy: Behera et.al.(2013)
Courtesy: Behera et.al.(2013)
Neural Interpretation Diagram
The lines joining the input-hidden and hidden-output neurons represent the weights. The positive weights are
represented by solid lines and negative weights by dashed lines and the thickness of the lines is proportional
to their magnitude.

Courtesy: Behera et.al.(2013)


ANN model equation for RF based on trained neural network ANN model equation
for RF based on trained neural network
The mathematical equation relating input parameters (e/B, Df /B, /w) to output
(RF) can be given by

where RFn is the normalized value of RF in the range [-1,1], fn is the transfer
function, h is the no. of neurons in the hidden layer, Xi is the normalized value of
inputs in the range [-1, 1], m is the no. of input variables, wik is the connection
weight between ith layer of input and kth neuron of hidden layer, wk is the
connection weight between kth neuron of hidden layer and single output neuron,
bhk is the bias at the kth neuron of hidden layer, and bo is the bias at the output
layer.

Courtesy: Behera et.al.(2013)


Courtesy: Behera et.al.(2013)
Courtesy: Behera et.al.(2013)
Refernces
Patra, C. R., Behera, R. N., Sivakugan, N. and Das, B. M. 2012b. Ultimate bearing capacity of
shallow strip foundation under eccentrically inclined load: part II, Int. J. Geotech. Eng., 6, (4),
507514.
Patra, C. R., Behera, R. N., Sivakugan, N. and Das, B. M. 2012a. Ultimate bearing capacity of
shallow strip foundation under eccentrically inclined load: part I, Int. J. Geotech. Eng., 6, (3),
343352.
H. Demuth, M. Beale Neural network toolbox The MathWorks, Inc. (2000)
Deep Learning ,Ian Goodfellow, Yoshua Bengio, Aaron Courville

Inference
As per my inference from this paper the use of ANN can be very useful in providing general
solution with good predictive accuracy. They deal with the non-linearity in the world which we
live. They can also handle noisy or missing data by providing a model equation. ANNs can also
provide the proportionality between the input parameters and output parameters.
Acknowledgement
I would like to take this opportunity to thank Dr. Amarnath Hegde for his
precious guidance in presenting this paper. I also want to extend my
gratitude to my classmates for helping me to prepare this presentation.

Thank you!