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# Al-Azhar University-Gaza

Department of Physics

## PHYS 3121 Grade__________

Experiment 10
Voltage Divider bias configuration

## PARTNER (S) ________________________

________________________

________________________

## Dr. Hassan Ashour

Copyright @ 2008

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Experiment 10
Voltage Divider bias configuration

Objective
1. To study the Dc analysis of the voltage divider configuration
2. To find the stability of the circuit configuration.

Theory
In the previous bias configuration, the collector current was function of current gain
( β ) , since β is temperature sensitive, it would be desirable to develop a bias circuit that
has thermal stability. The voltage divider configuration, as show in the figure (1). To
analyze this circuit the input side of

+ VCC

i1 iC
R1 RC

iB

i2 iE
R2 RE

## Figure (1): Voltage divider bias configuration

The net work, it can be reduced by using The’venin equivalent for the left side of the
base terminal by Rth and Eth in series connection as show in the figure (2) , where

Rth = R1 // R2 (1)

VCC RC
Eth = VR2 = (2)
R1 + R2

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Figure (2): Redrawing the input side of the voltage divider circuit appears in figure (1)

## I B can be determine by applying Kirchhoff’s law

Eth = I B Rth + VBE + I E RE ,

Substituting I E = I B + I C = I C (1 + β ) ,

## And solving for I B yields,

Eth − VBE
IB = (3)
Rth + ( β + 1) RE
equation (3) implies that voltage divider circuit configuration is thermally stable.
Because I B increase with temperature increase and so β will increase also, but the

## β factor enters the equation in the denominator which leads to a decrease in I B to

almost to the original value.

## The output network emitter-collector side, by applying Kirchhoff’s law,

VCC = I C RC + VCE + I E RE . (4)

## VCE = VCC − I C ( RC + RE ) (5)

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Appratus
NPN transistor, power supply, DMM, cables, resistors.

## Setup and Precdures

1. Construction the circuit shown in the figure (3)

Vcc = 20Volt

R1 = 47kΩ RC = 2.2kΩ

R2 = 10kΩ RE = 1kΩ

## Figure(3): voltage divider circuit configuration

2. By using the current gain β (mesured using the DMM h fe ) and the circuit

## VCE , and compare these values with the theoretical prediction.

⎛ V R ⎞
Eth = VR2 = __________, ⎜ calculated , CC C ⎟
⎝ R1 + R2 ⎠,
= __________, ( Measured )

R1 R2
Rth = = ________ ,
R1 + R2

Eth − VBE
IB = = ____________ ,
Rth − (1 + β ) RE

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I C = ________ ( calculated , β I B )
⎛ VR ⎞,
= _________ ⎜ measured , C ⎟
⎝ RC ⎠

I E = _______ ( calculated , I B + I C )
⎛ VR ⎞ ,
= _______ ⎜ measured , E ⎟
⎝ RE ⎠

## VB = ________ ( calculated , VBE + I E RE )

= ________ ( measured )

## VC = ________ ( calculated , VCC − I C RC )

= _________ ( measured )

VE = ________ ( calculated , ( β + 1) I B RE )
= _________ ( measured )

## VCE = ______ ( caculated ,VC − VE )

= _______ ( measured )

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