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Conceptual Framework

Peplau’s theory focuses on the interpersonal processes and therapeutic

relationship that develops between the nurse and client. The interpersonal focus of
Peplau’s theory requires that the nurse attend to the interpersonal processes that occur
between the nurse and client. Interpersonal process is maturing force for personality.
Interpersonal processes include the nurse- client relationship, communication, pattern
integration and the roles of the nurse. Psychodynamic nursing is being able to
understand one’s own behavior to help others identify felt difficulties and to apply
principles of human relations to the problems that arise at all levels of experience. This
theory stressed the importance of nurses’ ability to understand own behavior to help
others identify perceived difficulties.
The first phase of the relationship, when the nurse and patient first meet is
known as the orientation phase. This is a time when the patient and nurse come to
know each other as people and each other’s expectations and roles are understood.
During the identification phase trust begins to develop and the patient begins to
respond selectively to persons who seem to offer help. The patient begins to identify
with the nurse and identify problems, which can be worked on. During the exploitation
phase the patient realistically exploits all of the services available to them on the basis
of self interest and need. The resolution phase involves the gradual freeing from
identification with helping persons, and the generation and strengthening of ability to
stand alone, eventually leading to the mutual termination of the relationship.

Peplau’s Interpersonal Relations Model

Applying Peplau’s theory to a patient with Acute Appendicitis, the first phase is
Orientation Phase in which the nurse and the patient comes together as strangers. As I
introduced myself to Mr .IDL, he initiated a need for help. After we developed trust, I
explained the nature of Appendicitis and what are the factors that aggravate his
condition and the possible surgery needed.
Then, the Identification Phase enters where the Mr. IDL identified his complaints
and recognized his difficulties specifically pain. He begins to respond selectively to
persons who seem to offer help. He experienced anxiety about the operation and its

We make plans for the future but the implementation of the plan signifies the
beginning of the exploitation phase of the working relationship. Mr. IDL realized that he
should avoid foods rich in fats and choleterol for lowering the risk for infection and
injury and should increase fiber in diet.

The third Phase is Exploitation wherein Mr IDL acknowledged that the nurses on
duty can help him the care that he need during his hospital stay. He realizes that he can
count on the nurse for some questions in his mind. During this phase, every procedure
specifically Appendectomy was explained to the patient including some intervention
that reduces the risk of infection and complication specifically proper wound care,
giving him medications, and the purpose of taking him medications. Continued
assessment and assisting new needs of the client should be done Finally, the
Resolution Phase enters upon discharge of the patient. The patient begins to apply what
he had learned during the nursing intervention and health teaching. Mr IDL abandoned
his old needs, bad health behaviors and now he is aspired to make goals to prevent the
future complications of his disease.