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Digital Transmission of Data

Parallel and Serial Transmission

Data Conversion
Pulse Modulation
Give a step by step account of the
transmission of analog signals using digital
Explain the process of ADC and DAC, describe
the circuit applied
List the advantages and disadvantages of the
three most common types of analog to digital
To maximize transmission rate, R
To maximize system utilization, U
To minimize bit error rate, Pe
To minimize required systems bandwidth, W
To minimize system complexity, Cx
To minimize required power, Eb/No
Communication system converts information into electrical
electromagnetic/optical signals appropriate for the transmission

Analog systems convert analog message into signals that can

propagate through the channel.

Digital systems convert bits(digits, symbols) into signals

Computers naturally generate information as characters/bits

Most information can be converted into bits
Analog signals converted to bits by sampling and quantizing
(A/D conversion)
Digital techniques need to distinguish between discrete symbols
allowing regeneration versus amplification

Good processing techniques are available for digital signals, such

as medium.
Data compression (or source coding)
Error Correction (or channel coding)(A/D conversion)

Easy to mix signals and data using digital techniques

Basic Digital Communication Transformations
Formatting/Source Coding
Transforms source info into digital symbols (digitization)
Selects compatible waveforms (matching function)
Introduces redundancy which facilitates accurate decoding
despite errors
It is essential for reliable communication
Modulation is the process of modifying the info signal to
facilitate transmission
Demodulation reverses the process of modulation. It
involves the detection and retrieval of the info signal
Coherent: Requires a reference info for detection
Noncoherent: Does not require reference phase information
Translating info bits to transmitter data symbols
Techniques used to enhance info signal so that they are less
vulnerable to channel impairment (e.g. noise, fading,
jamming, interference)
Two Categories
Waveform Coding
Produces new waveforms with better performance
Structured Sequences
the use of redundant bits to determine the
occurrence of error (and sometimes correct it)
Multiplexing/Multiple Access Is synonymous with resource
sharing with other users
Frequency Division Multiplexing/Multiple Access
Three primary reasons for the growth of
digital communication system:

1. The increase in computer usage

2. The benefits of digital transmission
3. The conversion of telephone system from
analog to digital
Electronic mail
Computer peripheral link
Internet access
Local Area Networks (LANs)
Easy to regenerate the distorted signal
Regenerative repeaters along the transmission path can
detect a digital signal and retransmit a new, clean (noise
free) signal
These repeaters prevent accumulation of noise along the
Thisis not possible with analog communication
Two-state signal representation
Theinput to a digital system is in the form of a
sequence of bits (binary or M_ary)
Immunity to distortion and interference
Digital communication is rugged in the sense that it is more
immune to channel noise and distortion
Hardware is more flexible
Digital hardware implementation is flexible and
permits the use of microprocessors, mini-processors,
digital switching and VLSI
Shorter design and production cycle
Low cost
The use of LSI and VLSI in the design of components and
systems have resulted in lower cost
Easier and more efficient to multiplex several digital
Digital multiplexing techniques Time & Code Division
Multiple Access - are easier to implement than analog
techniques such as Frequency Division Multiple Access
Can combine different signal types data, voice, text, etc.
Data communication in computers is digital in nature
whereas voice communication between people is analog in
The two types of communication are difficult to combine
over the same medium in the analog domain.
Using digital techniques, it is possible to combine
both format for transmission through a common
Encryption and privacy techniques are easier to
Better overall performance
Digital communication is inherently more efficient than
analog in realizing the exchange of SNR for bandwidth
Digital signals can be coded to yield extremely low rates
and high fidelity as well as privacy
Requires reliable synchronization
Requires A/D conversions at high rate
Requires larger bandwidth
Nongraceful degradation
Probability of error or Bit Error Rate
TV remote control
Garage door opener
Carrier current controls
Radio control of models
Remote keyless Entry
How to transmit a binary bits?

Parallel transfer
Transmit all bits of a word simultaneously
Serial transfer
Send only 1 bit at a time

The transmission of binary data across a link

can be accomplished in either parallel or serial
mode. In parallel mode, multiple bits are sent
with each clock tick. In serial mode, 1 bit is
sent with each clock tick. While there is only
one way to send parallel data, there are three
subclasses of serial transmission:
asynchronous, synchronous, and isochronous.
Topics discussed in this section:
Parallel Transmission
Serial Transmission

Figure 4.31 Data transmission and modes

Figure 4.32 Parallel transmission

The advantage of parallel transmission is speed. All else being equal, parallel
transmission can increase the transfer speed by a factor of n over serial
But there is a significant disadvantage: cost. Parallel transmission requires n
communication lines (wires in the example) just to transmit the data stream.
Because this is expensive, parallel transmission is usually limited to short
Figure 4.33 Serial transmission

The advantage of serial over parallel transmission is that with only one
communication channel, serial transmission reduces the cost of transmission
over parallel by roughly a factor of n.

Asynchronous transmission is so named because the timing of a signal is
unimportant. Instead, information is received and translated by agreed upon
patterns. As long as those patterns are followed, the receiving device can
retrieve the information without regard to the rhythm in which it is sent.
Patterns are based on grouping the bit stream into bytes. Each group, usually 8
bits, is sent along the link as a unit. The sending system handles each group
independently, relaying it to the link whenever ready, without regard to a timer.

In asynchronous transmission, we send 1 start bit (0) at the beginning and 1 or
more stop bits (1s) at the end of each byte. There may be a gap between each

Asynchronous here means asynchronous at the byte level,

but the bits are still synchronized; their durations are the same.

Figure 4.34 Asynchronous transmission

The addition of stop and start bits and the insertion of gaps into the bit stream
make asynchronous transmission slower than forms of transmission that can
operate without the addition of control information. But it is cheap and
effective, two advantages that make it an attractive choice for situations such
as low-speed communication. For example, the connection of a keyboard to a
computer is a natural application for asynchronous transmission. A user types
only one character at a time, types extremely slowly in data processing terms,
and leaves unpredictable gaps of time between each character.

In synchronous transmission, we send bits one after another without start or stop bits
or gaps. It is the responsibility of the receiver to group the bits.

Timing becomes very important, therefore, because the accuracy of the received
information is completely dependent on the ability of the receiving device to keep an
accurate count of the bits as they come in.
The advantage of synchronous transmission is speed. With no extra bits or gaps to
introduce at the sending end and remove at the receiving end, and, by extension, with
fewer bits to move across the link, synchronous transmission is faster than
asynchronous transmission. For this reason, it is more useful for high-speed
applications such as the transmission of data from one computer to another. Byte
synchronization is accomplished in the data link layer.

Figure 4.35 Synchronous transmission


In real-time audio and video, in which uneven delays

between frames are not acceptable, synchronous
transmission fails.
For example, TV images are broadcast at the rate of 30
images per second; they must be viewed at the same
If each image is sent by using one or more frames,
there should be no delays between frames.
For this type of application, synchronization between
characters is not enough; the entire stream of bits must
be synchronized.
The isochronous transmission guarantees that the data
arrive at a fixed rate.

Shift register
Thekey to digital communication is to
convert data in analog form to digital form.
The signal frequency.


The Nth harmonic.

f Nth harmonic N (number of harmonic) f (signal frequency)

Nyquist Frequency, fN The minimum sampling frequency

Twice the highest analog frequency content of the signal.

Minimum sampling rate 2 f Nth harmonic

An information signal to be transmitted

digitally is a rectangular wave with a period
of 53.4 s . It has been determined that the
wave will be adequately passed if the
bandwidth includes the seventh harmonic.

a) The signal frequency.

b) The fifth harmonic.
c) The minimum sampling frequency (Nyquist
A harmonic of a wave is component frequency of
the signal that is an integer multiple of
the fundamental frequency, i.e. if the fundamental
frequency is f, the harmonics have frequencies 2f,
3f, 4f, . . . etc.

The harmonics have the property that they are all

periodic at the fundamental frequency, therefore
the sum of harmonics is also periodic at that

Harmonic frequencies are equally spaced by the

width of the fundamental frequency and can be
found by repeatedly adding that frequency.

For example, if the fundamental frequency (first

harmonic) is 25 Hz, the frequencies of the next
harmonics are: 50 Hz (2nd harmonic), 75 Hz (3rd
harmonic), 100 Hz (4th harmonic) etc.
What are the TWO (2) basic principles of data
What is aliasing. Explain its effect in an A/D
converter and suggest a way to eliminate the
problem of aliasing.
Discuss the example of A-D and D-A listed below:
Flash Converters (A-D)
R-2R (D-A)

Date of Submission : Friday, 11th July 2014

A/D conversion is a process of sampling or measuring the analog
signal at regular time intervals.
At the time indicated by the vertical dashed line, the
instantaneous value of the analog signal is measured and a
proportional binary number is generated to represent that
As a result, the continuous analog signal is translated to a series
of discrete binary numbers representing sample.

Sampling process:
Frequency of sampling, f the reciprocal of the sampling interval
Sufficient number of samples to retain the high frequency
information in the analog signal. Minimum sampling frequency is
twice the highest analog frequency content of the signal (Nyquist
Frequency, Fn 2fm, fm is the frequency of the input signal)
For bandwidth limited signal, fn = 2(f2-f1)
When a continuous function, x(t), is sampled at a constant
rate, fs (samples/second), there is always an unlimited
number of other continuous functions that fit the same set
of samples.

But only one of them is bandlimited to fs (hertz), which

means that its Fourier transform, X(f), is 0 for all |f|
fs (see Sampling theorem).

It follows that if the original function, x(t), is bandlimited

to fs, which is called the Nyquist criterion, then it is the
one unique function the interpolation algorithms are
In terms of a function's own bandwidth (B), as depicted
above, the Nyquist criterion is often stated as fs > 2B.
And 2B is called the Nyquist rate for functions with
bandwidth B. When the Nyquist criterion is not met (B >
fs), a condition called aliasing occurs, which results in
some inevitable differences between x(t) and a
reconstructed function that has less bandwidth.
In most cases, the differences are viewed as distortion.
An alias is a signal that is mistakenly sampled
when the sampling frequency is less than twice
the input frequency.

Alias signal will be recovered by a D/A converter

instead of the desired signal.

To use a low pass filter called an antialiasing

filter, usually placed between the modulating
signal source and the A/D converter input.
To ensure that no signal with a frequency greater
than one half of the sampling frequency is
D-A converter translate the multiple binary
numbers back to the equivalent analog voltage.
Because the input binary numbers represent
specific voltage levels, the output of the D-A
converter has a stairstep characteristic.
Since the steps are very large, the resulting
voltage is only an approximation to the actual
analog signal.
However, the stair steps can be filtered out by
passing the D-A converter output through a low
pass filter with an appropriate cutoff frequency.

Use a large resistive voltage divider and multiple analog

The resistive voltage divider divides the dc reference
voltage range into a number of equal increments.
Each tap on the voltage divider is connected to a separate
analog comparator.
All the other comparator input are connected together and
driven by the analog input voltage.
Some comparators will be on and others will be off,
depending on the actual value of input voltage.
The comparators operate in such a way that if the analog
input is greater than the reference voltage at the divider
tap, the comparator output will be binary 1.
The other comparator outputs will be binary 0.
The encoder logic, which is a special combinational logic
circuit, converts the 7-bit input from the comparators to a
3 bit binary output.
The principles of A-D Converters
The principles of D-A Converters
D-A Converters:
1. R-2R
2. String
3. Weighted Current Source
A-D Converters:
1. S/H Circuit (Sample and Hold Circuit)
2. Successive Approximations Converters
3. Flash Converters