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Mini project on

8-Point DFT

Submitted By:
DFT:
The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is a fundamental transform in digital signal
processing,with applications in frequency analysis, fast convolution, image processing,
etc. Moreover, fast algorithms exist that make it possible to compute the DFT very
efficiently. The algorithms for efficient computation of the DFT are collectively called fast
Fourier transforms (FFTs).
EX:.

The following summarizes how the 8-point DFT works, row by row, in terms of fractional
frequency:
0 measures how much DC is in the signal

1/8 measures how much of the signal has a fractional frequency of +1/8

1/4 measures how much of the signal has a fractional frequency of +1/4

3/8 measures how much of the signal has a fractional frequency of +3/8

1/2 measures how much of the signal has a fractional frequency of +1/2

5/8 measures how much of the signal has a fractional frequency of +5/8

3/4 measures how much of the signal has a fractional frequency of +3/4
7/8 measures how much of the signal has a fractional frequency of +7/8

Equivalently the last row can be said to have a fractional frequency of +1/8 and thus

measure how much of the signal has a fractional frequency of 1/8. In this way, it could

be said that the top rows of the matrix "measure" positive frequency content in the signal

and the bottom rows measure negative frequency component in the signal.

Applications
The Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) is one of the most important tools in Digital Signal
Processing.. This is a direct examination of information encoded in the frequency, phase, and
amplitude of the component sinusoids. For example, human speech and hearing use signals with
this type of encoding.
Second, the DFT can find a system's frequency response from the system's impulse response, and
vice versa. This allows systems to be analyzed in the frequency domain, just as convolution
allows systems to be analyzed in the time domain. Third, the DFT can be used as an intermediate
step in more elaborate signal processing techniques.
The Discrete Fourier Transform(DFT) converts a finite sequence of equally spaced samples of a
function into same length sequence of equally spaced samples of the discrete Fourier transform
(DTFT), which is a complex valued function of frequency.
A fast fourier transform algorithm computes the discrete Fourier transform of a sequence, or its
inverse. Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) is discrete version of FT which transforms a signal
(discrete sequence) from Time Domain representation to it's Frequency Domain representation,
while Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is an efficient algorithm for calculation of DFT. DSPs
dominate the area of waveform, speech, and image coding.
They are extremely suitable processors to implement filters, transforms, and many other signal-
processing tasks. More importantly, they are flexible. When a more efficient coding scheme is
discovered or a new coding standard is issued, DSPs can be used immediately for
implementation.
The primary reason for using a DSP instead of a traditional microprocessor is speed, the ability
to move samples into the device, carry out the needed mathematical operations, and output the
processed data.
Program:-
clear all
clc;
N = 8;
j=sqrt(-1);
xn = [2,2,2,2,1,1,1,1];
xk = zeros (1,N);
for k = 0:1:N-1
for n = 0:1:N-1
xk(k+1) = xk(k+1)+xn(n+1)*exp(-j*2*pi*k*n/N);
end
end
disp ('The DFT sequence is,');xk
disp ('The Magnitude sequence is,');Magxk= abs(xk)
disp ('The phase sequence is,');Phaxk = angle(xk)

Wk=0:1:N-1;
subplot(2,2,1)
stem(Wk,Magxk);
title('Magnitude spectrum')
xlabel('k'); ylabel('Magxk')
subplot(2,1,2)
stem(Wk,Phaxk);
title('Phase spectrum')
xlabel('k'); ylabel('PhaXk')
OUTPUT:-
The DFT sequence is,

xk =

12.0000 1.0000 - 2.4142i -0.0000 - 0.0000i 1.0000 - 0.4142i 0 - 0.0000i 1.0000


+ 0.4142i -0.0000 - 0.0000i 1.0000 + 2.4142i

The Magnitude sequence is,

Magxk =

12.0000 2.6131 0.0000 1.0824 0.0000 1.0824 0.0000 2.6131

The phase sequence is,

Phaxk =

0 -1.1781 -2.1426 -0.3927 -1.5708 0.3927 -2.7220 1.1781