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Course on DOE Uplifting

Services Program: Record


Keeping Application

20 23 Feb 2017

Record Keeping Application in APCS


Part 1 (Analysis and Interpretation)

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Tujuan modul
SAMPLING
DATA COLLECTION
DATA COMPILATION
DATA ANALYSIS
DATA INTERPRETATION
REPORTING & COMMUNICATION

Refresh

Sistem Kawalan Pencemaran Udara


Keperluan Undang-Undang dan Garispanduan

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TYPES OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL
EQUIPMENT & SYSTEM

Particle Control
Gas & Vapor Control System
System

Settling Chambers
Gas scrubbers
Cyclonic Separator
Activated carbon
Bag Filter
Bio-Filter
Electrostatic
Gas scrubbers
precipitators
Wet collectors
Oil Mist Filter

Typical air pollution control systems

BAG FILTER WET SCRUBBER


RECYCLONE

ELECTROSTATIC
VORSEP VORTEX PRECIPITATOR
CYCLONE TUBE

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An air pollution control system
consists of:
 the extraction system
 the ducting system
 the fans
 the pollution control
equipment
 the chimney
 instrumentation system

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Dandang

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Air Pollution Control Systems

Use of engineering principles to solve


air pollution problems

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Air Pollution Control Equipment

Control Equipment for Gases - Scrubber System

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Kandungan

Konsep Standard dalam Peraturan Udara


Bersih 2014

Konsep Standard dalam Peraturan


Udara Bersih

Emission standard (had pengeluaran)

Technology standard

Operating standard

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Konsep Standard dalam Peraturan
Udara Bersih

Emission standard (had pengeluaran)


- Had spesifik mengikut sektor contoh habuk 150
mg/m3
Technology standard
Dinyatakan dalam dokumen BAT, Guidance Document
Design of Fuel Burning Document and Air Pollution
Control System
Operating standard
Dokumen pengawasan prestasi Alat Kawalan
Pencemaran Udara

Konsep Standard dalam Peraturan


Udara Bersih

Emission standard

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Konsep Standard dalam Peraturan
Udara Bersih

Technology standard
Dinyatakan dalam dokumen BAT, Guidance Document
Design of Fuel Burning Document and Air Pollution
Control System

Konsep Standard dalam Peraturan


Udara Bersih

Technology standard
Guidance Document Design of Fuel Burning
Document and Air Pollution Control System

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Konsep Standard dalam Peraturan
Udara Bersih

Operating standard
Dokumen pengawasan prestasi Alat Kawalan
Pencemaran Udara dan Continuous Emission
Monitoring System (CEMS)

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PERFORMANCE MONITORING
PARAMETERS
Pressure drop- cleaning effectiveness
Flowrate- identifying a developing leak
in the ducting or in the baghouse itself.
Opacity/stack observation- compliance
with standard
Temperature to evaluate high
temperature excursion. At least the inlet
gas temperature of the baghouse must be
monitored.

PERFORMANCE MONITORING
PARAMETERS

Dust- Significant change in dust quantity


may be indicative of baghouse failure or of
process changes.
Compressed air pressure-to ensure
effective cleaning operation (where
cleaning is effected by using compressed
air)

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Konsep Standard dalam Peraturan
Udara Bersih

Operating standard
Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS)

Description of types of CEMS;


approved CEMS
Installation requirements
Parameters to be monitored
General QA/QC requirements
Reporting requirements

Konsep Standard dalam Peraturan


Udara Bersih
Operating standard
Continuous Emission Monitoring System
(CEMS)

Specifications of computer hardware and


software for CEMS-DIS
Specifications of communication hardware and
software;
Data loading requirements and procedures;
Communication requirement and procedure;
Specifications of file and record format; and
CEMS-DIS installation, configuration and setup.

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Malaysian Standard Issued by
Department of Standards Malaysia

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Semasa bag bersih dan tiada habuk jika fan dijalankan.


Ada bacaan static pressure pada hood (SPh), bag filter
differential pressure (P), Differential Fan Static Pressure
(SP), Fan Ampere (A), dan Volumetric Flow Rate (Q)

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(SP)

Semasa bag sedut habuk . Ada bacaan static pressure pada


hood (SPh -menurun), bag filter differential pressure (P-
menikngkat), Differential Fan Static Pressure (SP -
meningkat), Fan Ampere (A - menurun), dan Volumetric Flow
Rate (Q - menurun)

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Undang-Undang Berkaitan
Keperluan Menjalankan
Pengawasan Prestasi dan
Menyeleggara Rekod

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Peraturan 9, PUB 2014


Pemantauan prestasi sistem
kawalan pencemaran udara

Melengkapkan premis dengan


kemudahan, kelengkapan atau peralatan
yang berkaitan bagi menjalankan
pemantauan prestasi
Menjalankan pemantauan prestasi bagi
komponen sistem kawalan pencemran
udara sebagaimana yang ditentukan
Ketua Pengarah

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Peraturan 10, PUB 2014
Penyelenggaraan Rekod

Menyelenggara rekod bagi proses


pengilangan, penyelenggaraan dan
pemantauan prestasi SKPU
Rekod disimpan bagi sekurang-
kurangnya 3 tahun dan hendaklah
disediakan untuk pemeriksaan

Peraturan 16, PUB 2014


Pemantauan berkala

Rekod pemantauan berkala disimpan


bagi sekurang-kurangnya 3 tahun dan
hendaklah disediakan untuk pemeriksaan

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Peraturan 17, PUB 2014
Pemantauan pengeluaran secara
berterusan

Keputusan penilaian pemantauan


berterusan disimpan dan disenggara
bagi tempoh sekurang-kurangnya 3 tahun

Peraturan 18, PUB


Perisytiharan Pengeluaran

Pemunya atau penghuni yang


menjalankan mana-mana aktiviti atau
industri yang ditetapkan dalam Jadual
Pertama mengemukakan perisytiharan
pengeluaran dalam apa-apa bentuk yang
ditentukan oleh Ketua Pengarah

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Guidelines

Technical Guidance On: Performance Monitoring of Air


Pollution Control Systems

The Planning Guidelines for Environmental Noise Limits &


Control

The Guidelines for Noise Labeling and Emission Limits of


Outdoor Sources

The Planning Guidelines for Vibration Limits and Control

Guideline for the installation & maintenance of Continuous


Emission System (CEMS)

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Malaysian Standard

MS1596:2003 - Determination of concentration and mass


flow of particulate matter in flue gas for stationary source
emissions

MS1723:2003 Performance evaluation of air pollution


control and treatment system : Mechanical dust collectors

MS 2564:2014 - Performance criteria and test procedures


for continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS)

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BAG FILTERS

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Application
very high collection efficiencies and able to
handle wide variations in gas flow rate and
dust composition.
used in the ceramic, chemical, foundry,
grain, metalworking, pharmaceutical, food,
mining, rubber products, plastic, steel and
woodworking industries.
High filtration efficiencies of 995 % for
particles down to 1 m at temperatures up to
260 C.

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Types of Baghouse Dust Collectors

Mechanical shaker
Reverse Air
Pulse Air/Reverse Jet

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PERFORMANCE MONITORING
PARAMETERS

Pressure drop- cleaning effectiveness


Flowrate- identifying a developing leak in the
ducting or in the baghouse itself.
Opacity/stack observation- compliance with
standard
Temperature to evaluate high temperature
excursion. At least the inlet gas temperature of
the baghouse must be monitored.

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PERFORMANCE MONITORING
PARAMETERS

Dust- Significant change in dust quantity


may be indicative of baghouse failure or of
process changes.
Compressed air pressure-to ensure
effective cleaning operation (where
cleaning is effected by using compressed
air)

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TECHNICAL GUIDANCE ON : PERFORMANCE
MONITORING OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL
SYSTEM
( Technical Guidance Document Series Number : DOE-APCS-5)

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Performance monitoring of air pollution
control equipment- example of cyclones

Preventive maintenance
Type of cyclone Frequency Procedure/task
Single cyclones Daily Record cyclone pressure drops.
Check stack (if cyclone is only
collector).
Record fan motor amperage
Inspect dust discharge hopper to
assure dust is removed.
Weekly Check fan bearings.
Check gaskets, valves, and other
openings for leakage.
Monthly Check cyclone interior for erosion,
wear, corrosion, and other visible
signs of deterioration.

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BENEFIT OF PERFORMANCE
MONITORING
(i) Self regulation self monitoring
(ii) Ensure continued performance of air
pollution control system
(iii) Early indication of impending problem
(iv) Lessens possibility of sudden system
failure
(v) Record keeping requirements help in
management review

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ENFORCEMENT OF PERFORMANCE
MONITORING REQUIREMENTS

SITE INSPECTION/ENFORCEMENT

 DOE inspectors to check on the logbooks


for completeness of information on
performance monitoring data

 Verbal instruction & written directive to


improve the logbook keeping may be
issued

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OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION

3. Data Analysis & Interpretation

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1. KEY DESIGN FACTOR HOOD
RANGE OF CAPTURE VELOCITIES

Condition of Example Capture


Dispersion of velocity
Contamination (m/s)
Released with Evaporation from tanks; degreasing, etc 0.25 0.5
practically no velocity
into quiet air

Released at low Spray booths; intermittent container filling; 0.5 - 1.0


velocity into low speed conveyor transfer; welding;
moderately still air plating; pickling
Active generation into Spray painting in shallow booths; barrel 1.0 2.5
zone of rapid air filling; conveyor loading; crushers
motion
Released at high initial Grinding; abrasive blasting; tumbling 2.5 10.0
velocity into zone at
very rapid air motion
-19-

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2. KEY DESIGN FACTOR DUCT

RANGE OF MINIMUM DUCT DESIGN VELOCITIES


Nature of Contaminant Examples Design velocity
(m/s)
Vapors , gases, smoke All vapors , gases and smoke Any desired velocity
(economic optimum
velocity usually 5 10)
Fumes Welding 10 - 13
Very Fine Light Dust Cotton lint, wood flour, litho powder 12 15
Dry Dusts & Powders Fine rubber dust, Bakelite molding powder dust, jute 15 - 20
lint, cotton dust, shavings (light), soap dust, leather
shavings
Average Industrial Dust Grinding dust, buffing lint (dry), wool jute dust (shaker 18 - 20
waste), coffee beans, shoe dust, granite dust, silica
flour, general material handling, brick cutting, clay
dust, foundry (general), limestone dust, packaging
and weighing asbestos dust in textile industries
Heavy Dusts Sawdust (heavy and wet), metal turnings, foundry 20 - 23
tumbling barrels and shake - out, sand blast dust,
wood blocks, hog waste, brass turnings, cast iron
boring dust, lead dust
Heavy or Moist Lead dusts with small chips, moist cement dust, 23
asbestos chunks from transite pipe cutting machines,
buffing lint (sticky), quick - lime dust
-14-

Dust
Collector
Design
2. Air-
To-Cloth
Ratio

Remark :
Low pressure :
Shaker or reverse-air cleaning
High pressure :
Pulse-jet compressed air
-7-
cleaning

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Dust
Collector
Design
3. Can
Velocity

-18-

Dust Collector Design 3. Can Velocity

= Airstream velocity on entering the


passage areas between the filters, or
called filter passage velocity.
= Upward vertical flow
= airstream volume
(housing C.S.A filter C.S.A. )
Recommended value :

Particle size Can Velocity


Typical 5 ~ 10 m 150~200 fpm
Fines 1 ~ 5 m 75~150 fpm
Ultrafines Below 1 m 25~75 fpm
Off-line cleaning - 0 fpm
Large particles 10~100 m, 200~250 fpm
or larger -16-

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Dust Collector Design 4. Filter Media

-23-

Dust Collector Design 4. Filter Media

-24-

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Pengawasan prestasi bagi APCS

Pressure drop

Pressure drop - Cyclone

Constant pressure drop


Low efficiency 50-100 mm wg = (0.5 1 Kpa)=(5 10 mbar)

Medium efficiency 100-150 mm wg = (1 1.5 Kpa)=(10 15 mbar)

High efficiency 200-250 mm wg= (2 2.5 Kpa)=(20 25 mbar)

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Pressure drop Bag Filter

Pulse jet 100-150 mm wg = (1 1.5 Kpa)=(10 15 mbar)

Mechanical Shaker 50-150 mm wg = (0.5 1.5 Kpa)=(5 15 mbar)

Reverse Air 50-150 mm wg = (0.5 1.5 Kpa)=(5 15 mbar)

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For Packed Tower Generally 0.5 1.0 inch WG/feet packing height

MONITORING DATA THAT SHOULD BE


INCLUDED IN A RECORDKEEPING
SYSTEM

Example for scrubber

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Pressure drop
One of the most useful operating parameters monitored
on most scrubbing systems.

Pressure drop should be monitored across specific


components:
total static pressure drop of scrubber chamber
static pressure drop of mist eliminator, packing or nozzles.

Pressure drop will give an indication of any potential


plugging problems either in the mist eliminator, packing
or nozzles.

Different pressure drop value for operating record and


design record may be due to some problems with the
liquid flow rate to liquid distributor or the air flow rate
through scrubber.

Temperature
Temperature measurements across the scrubber can reveal
liquid distribution problems (indicated by excess gas
temperature)
Emergency flush system protect scrubber components from liquid
distribution problems.

The scrubber inlet temperature is monitored to prevent high


inlet gas temperature.
Higher Inlet gas temperature could cause excessive liquid
evaporation

The scrubber outlet temperature is monitored to evaluate


scrubber operation and to protect downstream equipment from
excessive temperature.
High outlet temperature may cause poor liquid distribution or
plugging of liquid inlet.

Temperatures are measured by thermometer or thermocouple.

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Liquid flow rate
The liquid feed rate as well as the water make up
rate should be monitored to ensure effective
scrubbing system.

Higher liquid flow rate will cause flooding


occurred and results in high pressure drop
A pulsating airflow occurred in the tower and
greatly reduced pollutant removal efficiencies.

pH water/scrubbing liquid
Prevent scaling and corrosion problems and also to
maintain effective gas pollutant removal.

The pH of the chemical and scrubbing liquid feed


streams and the recycle liquor systems should be
monitored.

If the pH water or scrubbing liquid from operation


record is lower or higher than the design record,
chemical dosing pump will become malfunction.
The chemical solvent fails to be pumped into the
reservoir to neutralize the water.

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Other operating data that also need to be
monitored such as:

Fan current
Fan RPM
Recycle bleed rate
Chemical addition rate
Liquid solids concentration

Case study

PERFORMANCE MONITORING RECORD

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AIR POLLUTION CONTROL
SYSTEMS

BAG FILTER
DUST
COLLECTOR
COMPONENTS

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INTRODUCTION OF PULSE-JET
DUST COLLECTOR

Filter Cleaning - uses compressed air


- 4 to 7 bar pressure
- directed through fixed blowpipe
Typical diaphragm valves open for 50 to 200 msec to
- inflate filter
- deliver a reverse-air blast that breaks up & clean
the filter cake off the dusty side of the bag.
Energy requirement : Mainly to overcome the filter
pressure drop (delta P)

OPERATION OF DUST COLLECTORS

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DESCRIPTION OF DUST COLLECTOR

1. As dust laden air enters the dust collector housing through


the inlet duct, a baffle plate deflector directs the heavier dust
particles into the hopper.
2. The remaining lighter dust particles are drawn against the
outer surfaces of the filter bags where they are retained.
3. Clean air passes through the filter bags and leaves the clean
air chamber via an outlet duct.
4. As dust accumulates on the filter bags, periodic cleaning of
the bags are necessary to maintain continuous operation.
5. This periodic cleaning of bags is achieved by introduction of
timed, momentary reverse pulse of compress air through a
specially designed blow pipe mounted above each filter bag.
6. Only a portion of the filter bags are clean at one time, allowing
the remaining filter bags to continue their filtering action.

DESCRIPTION OF DUST COLLECTOR

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DESCRIPTION OF DUST COLLECTOR

DESCRIPTION OF DUST COLLECTOR

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MECHANICAL
SHAKER TYPE
BAG FILTER
DUST
COLLECTOR

Bag Filter Dust Collector


Principal Limitations

1. Temperature < 260 C, unless exotic filter


material is used.
2. Condensation of vapors
- Dew point must be < actual gas temperature
3. Fire & explosion, esp with combustible materials.
4. Filter cannot collect wet, oily & adhesive dust.

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HOOD
&
DUCT

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PRINCIPLES OF DUCT DESIGN

- TAPERED DUCT SYSTEM


- Maintains transport velocity

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DUCT DESIGN VELOCITIES

The type of material being transported in the


duct
Average Industrial dust 18 to 23 m/s
Minimum velocity
- to prevent settling and plugging of the duct
Excessively high velocities
- Wasteful of Power
- Rapid abrasion of ducts

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BAG F ILTER DUST
COLLECTOR
DESIGN

Dust Collector Key Design


Factors

1. Particle & Air stream Characteristics


2. Air to cloth ratio (Sizing the filter area)
3. Filter media
4. Pressure drop
5. Collection Efficiency

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Key Design Factors 1. Particle Size

Collect particles down to 0.3 micron size at


99.99% efficiency
Most efficient for fine-particle for 0.5 micron &
up.

Key Design
Factors
2. Air-
Air -To-
To-
Cloth
Ratio
(nominal
filtration
velocity)

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Key Design
Factors
2. Air-
Air -To-
To-
Cloth
Ratio
(nominal
filtration
velocity)

Key Design Factors 3. Filter Media

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Key Design Factors 3. Filter Media

Key Design Factors 3. Filter Media

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Key Design Factors 3. Filter Media

Fabric Characteristic Chart

Key Design Factors 4. Pressure Drop

Magnehelic differential
U-Tube Manometer Reading
pressure gauge

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Dust Collector Key Design Factors
Summary
Baghouse operating $ are reduced if :

1. High air-to-cloth ratio


2. Low Delta P
3. Long life
In each case, the key to operation at minimum $ is the filter
media selected. This selection is crucial, but not easy,
because many, often conflicting, requirements must be
met.

Pulse-
Pulse-jet fabric filters
cleaning common problems
1. Low compressed air pressure due to leaks
2. High compressed air pressure due to improper
regulator settings
3. Diaphragm valve malfunction
4. Compressed air delivery tube misrotation or
failure
5. Timer or differential pressure gauge/ sensor
failure
6. Excessive cleaning frequency

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FAN
DESIGN

PURPOSE OF FAN
TO PROVIDE THE DESIRED AIR FLOW
VOLUME & NECESSARY STATIC
PRESSURE IN AN AIR HANDLING SYSTEM.
PHYSICALLY MOVE THE CONTAMINATED
AIR THROUGH THE DUST CONTROL / LEV
SYSTEM, & EXHAUST IT OUT TO THE
ATMOSPHERE
GENERAL MECHANICAL VENTILATION
FOR COMFORT & SAFETY PURPOSE.

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TYPE OF FAN
1. AXIAL FLOW FAN
2. - FLOW PARALLEL TO FAN SHAFT
- LOWER PRESSURE
- LARGE VOLUME OF AIR
- HIGHER NOISE LEVEL

1. CENTRIFUGAL FAN

2. - WIDELY USED FOR HVAC, INDUSTRIAL VENTILATION, PNEUMATIC


CONVEYING & AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEMS.
- FLOW PERPENDICULAR TO FAN SHAFT

- HIGH PRESSURE

- HIGH VOLUME

- - LOWER NOISE LEVEL

TYPE OF CENTRIFUGAL FAN

BACKWARD FORWARD RADIAL


CURVED BLADE
CURVED

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CENTRIFUGAL FANS
1. Radial-blade fans
- used for heavy dust loads
- straight, radial blades do not clogged with
materials, and they withstand considerable
abrasion
- have medium tip speeds and medium noise
factors

CENTRIFUGAL FANS
1. Backward curved fans
- operate at higher tip speeds, and thus are more
efficient
- material may build up on the blades, these fans
should be used after a dust collector
- noisier than radial blade fan
- commonly used for large volume dust collection
systems because of their higher efficiency

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CENTRIFUGAL FANS
1. Forward curved fans

- low space requirements, low tip speeds, and a


low noise factor
- usually used against low to medium static
pressure

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CENTRIFUGAL FAN DRAWING

CENTRIFUGAL FAN DRAWING

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CENTRIFUGAL FAN DRAWING

CENTRIFUGAL FAN DRAWING

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DIRECT AND BELT-
BELT-DRIVEN
COMPARISON

FAN SPECIFICATIONS
1. AIR FLOW RATE (CFM, M3/HR, M3/MIN)

2. PRESSURE AT WHICH THIS FLOW IS PRODUCED (STATIC


PRESSURE)
3. AIR TEMPERATURE
4. SPEED OR ROTATION
5. POWER REQUIRED

6. EFFICIENCY
7. NOISE LEVEL

8. DRIVE TYPE (BELT- OR DIRECT-DRIVEN)


9. TYPE OF MATERIAL TO BE HANDLED
10. SPACE REQUIREMENTS

11. CONSTRUCTION

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FAN PRESSURE

FAN TOTAL PRESSURE (TP) REPRESENTS


ALL ENERGY REQUIRED FOR MOVING AIR
THROUGH THE SYSTEM
FAN TP = FAN STATIC PRESSURE (SP)+
FAN VELOCITY PRESSURE (VP)

FAN PERFORMANCE CURVE

Shows graphically all possible combinations


of volumetric flow & static pressure for given
system

Fan & system operate only on their own


curve, so combination can operate only where
the curves intersect

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FAN PERFORMANCE CURVE

Fan curve
Operation point

System curve

FAN PERFORMANCE CURVE

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FAN
PERFORMANCE
CURVE

PERIODIC PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE

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CEMS

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