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DOCUMENT RESUME

ED f85847 FL 011 338

TITLE Persian Basic Course; Volume I, Lesson 1-18.


INSTITUTION Defense Language Inst., Monterey, Calif.
REPORT NO 01PF47
PUB DATE Jun 66
NOTr 188p.; For related documents, see FL 011 339-350.
AVAILABLE FROM Defense Language Institute, Foreign Language Center,
Nonresident Division, Presitio 'of Monterey, CA 93940
($3.05, accomranying cassettes $6.40)
LANGUAGE English; Persian

EDRS PRICE MF01/PC08 Plut Postae.


DrSCRIPTORS *Audiolinaual Methods; Communicative Competence
(Languages); Dialogs (Language); *Grammar;
Tnstructlonal Materials; *Intensive Language Courses;
Language !Isaac: Listening Comprehension; Pattern
Drills (Tarcuace); *Persian; *Reading Comprehension:
*Second Language Instruction: Standard Spoken Usage;
Vocabulary Development; Writing Skills

ABSTRACT
The first cf 10 volumes of a basic course in Persian
is presented that is designed for use in the Defense Language
Institute's intensive programs. The course, employing the
audiolingual methodology, is deigned to train native Pnglish
speakers to level three proficiencv in comprehension and speaking and
level two proficiency in reading and writing Persian. A guide to
Persian pronunication and a drill on various Persian sounds is
presented. A section on vocabulary provides for each word a
transcription of the word w!4.1., symbol,s adopted from "Webster's
Collegiate Dictionary," +he meaning of the word. in English, and the
word in the Persian alphabet. rach oc the 18 lessons contains the
followinl: (1) a cartoon guide, (2) dialogue in Persian, (3)
idiomatic trarslati.on of the diala.gue into English, (4) recombinatior
in Persiar, () drill blacks in Persian, and (6) questions in
Persian. Tapes accompany the textc. (SW)

Peproductons supplied hy 7DPS are the best that can be made


from the original document.
***********************************************************************
01 PF4

U S DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. "PERMISSION TOREPHODUCE THIS


EDUCATION A WELFARE
MATERIAL HAS BEEN GRANTED BY
CID NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF
EDUCATION
Lf1 THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN REPRO.
CID CuCED EXACTL Y AS RECEIVED 1-ROM
THE PERSOti OR ORGANIZATION ORIGIN.
r -4 ATINGJI OCINTS 01-*VIEW OR OPINIONS
STATEb DO NOT NECESSARILY REPRE
CZ) SENT OFFICIAL NATIONAL INSTITUTE 01
EDUCATION POSITION OR POL ICY TO THE EDUCATIONAL HESOURCE6
U.1 INFORMATION CENTER (ERIC)."

PERSIAN
Basic Course

Volume I
Lesson 1 -18

June 1966

DEFENSE LANGUAGE INSTITUTE


DEFENSE LANGUAGE INSTITUTE

,!AfiS PWLICATION IS FOR USE BY THE FACULTY, STAFF, AND STUDENTS


THY DEFEME LANGUAGE INSTITUTE AS A,PART QF THE DEFENSE, LANGUAGE
INQUTRIES CONCERNIM_THESE__MkTERIALS,._INCLUDING_REQUESTS
OR AUTHORITY TO itEPRODUCE MATERIALS CONTAINED HEREIN
kE ADDRESSED TO DIRECTOR, DEFENSE LAtUAGE INSTITUTE, PfigODIO
1;1?.)trIEREY , CALIFORNIA 93944.

JJV1S R. KO
Co nel, US
Di ctor

"

tip

c,

tl
PREFACE

The Persian Course, consisting of 124 lessons in


10 volumes, is one of the Defense Language Institute's
Besic Course Series, The material was developed at the
Defense Language Institute and approved for publication
by the Institute's Curriculum Development Board,
The course is designed to train native English
language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehen-
.
sion and speaking and Level 2 proficiency in reading
and writing Persian. The texts are intended for class-
room use in the Defense LangLAge Institute's intensive
Tapes
programs employing the audio-lingual methodology.
accompany the texts,
OUTLINE

This Volume contains the following items:

A. Introduction.

a. Foreword.
b. Preface.
c. A guide to use of the material.

B. Persian Pronunciation
0

a. A guide to Persian Pronunciation.


b. Drill on various Persian sounds.

C. Lessons from one to eighteen; each lesson is comprised of the following:

a. A cartoon guide.
b. Dialogue in Persian; this is'recorded as Spirals 1 and 2.
c. Idiomatic translation of the dialogue into English. Whenever a
word that appears in one language is not necesiary to be translated
into the other, that word appears in parenthesis.
d. ReCombination in Persian; this is recorded as Spiral 3..
e. Drill Blocks in Persian; this is recorded as Spiral 4.
f. Questions in Persian; this is recorded as Spiral 5.

D. Vocabulary; for each word the following is given:

a. Transcription of the word wtth symbols adopted from Websterls


Collegiate Dictionary.
b. Meaning of the word in English.
c. Word in Persian alphabet.
I

:4

INTRODUCT ION

._
FOREWORD.

It is indeed of great importance to note that any spoken language has


other
its own speeific rules which,,in many instances, differ from those of
languages.

Every individual learns the rules of his larivage during his childhood
in a natural way, not by study. He becomes accustomed to these rules and
employs them during his daily social contacts without being'aware of.the
nature of their functions. Hence, it should be borne in mind that when a
mature person begins to learn a foreign language, he must try, on one hand,
to accustom himself to the 'implementation of a series of rules and, on the
other hand, he must always be mindful of not allowing his old habits to af-
fect his'new habits - that is, he must avoid applying the rules of his na-
tive language to the foreIgn langwage.

Since the grammatical rule of any language may appear illogical to a


person with a different native tongue, it should be understood that learning
those rules will create difficulties which will perhaps provoke the learn-
er's resistance and, in turn, impede the process of learning.

The trlith of the matter is that there are many illogical rules in any
spoken language. Natives have been accustomed to these rules since child-
hood and, for this reason, find,no fault in using them. Hence, before
learning any foreign language, it must be realized that the rules of that
langaage should be learned ap.they are formulated, and accepted for the sake
of speaking that language idiomatically. Furthermore, it must be borne in
mind that we must temporarily disregard the rules of our native language
while we exPress ourselves in a foreign language.

iii
PREFACE

A langUage is first'of,all an infinite series of vocal noises. To


understand it well, you have to learn to distinguish from all those noises
the same patterne distinguished by the native, and,you have to learn to do
it easily without keeping your mind on it. The best way to acquire that
ease and spded in. :tearing the sounds right is to learn to reproduce them
right. FUrthermore, your main job here is to reach the point where you can
carry on a conversation in Persian in such a way that a Persian can follow
what you're saying without being distracted by the queer way in yhich you
say it. So the chief aim of these le=aons is to give you the best possible
practice material in learning Persian pronunciation.

The 3econdary purpose of theta leesons is to give,you the most useful


practice possible in Persian word patterns by providing you with the pat-
terns and then'actually making you handle them, change them, and make them
work, just as if you were pushing and pulling and manipulating the parte
of a.machine. If you spend enough time and effort on these lessons, if
you learn everything in them thoroughly, you'll have an enormous advaD-
tage throughout the first four months of the course. -And that's the hard-
est part of the course. If you are all right'at the end of four months, the
remainder will come easy. You'll still have to study, of course, but the
worst is over. s-

The most important point to keep in mind while learning these lessons
and it remains important during the entire course - is this: Hurry up and
make your first five thousand mistakes, and be sure to get as much profit
from them as possible. The fastest way to learn a language is to make
plenty of mistakes at the start, provided you're made aware of each mistake
at once and then correct it. So don't be timid and embariassed abOut your
mistakes. Everybody expects them and vou need to make them. If you wait
to say something in Persian until you're absolutely sure you can say it
just right, you'll never Am anything. Throw youreelf into thiepractice
with enthusiasm and you'll come out all right. And NEVER feel any EMBAR-
RASSMENT whenzourvinetructor correcte

iv
1.

A GUIDE TO USE OF THEMATEIITAL..._

In additton to texts, a.set of phonograph records are issued to


'you. These records a the most important part of each lesson, and will en-
'able you to memorize i USE THEM AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE.

For each lesson 5 spirals are recorded, and they are as follOws: .

Spiral 1. Dialogue spoken at nermal speed.

Spiral 2. Repetition of the dialogue at normal speed, but with a pause '

after each Utterance. During the pause, repeat the utterance ,

clearly. DON'T WHISPER OR MUMBLE.


. -
Spiral 3. Recombination spoken atqlormal speed. This is a recombina-,
tion of werds and phrases of the dialogue and words and
. phrases of preceding dialogues.

Spiral 4, Drill Blocks spoken at normal speed. These ialustrate the


patterns and phrases co`qtained in the dialogue separately,
.using the vocabulary of previous lessens, in order to faci-
litate the assimilation of new pattermwithout being
4
troubled by'hew vocabulary.

Spiral 5. A nuMber of questions, spoken at.'nprmal speed, on the dia-


logue, and recombination. After.each question there is a
pause, during which you are to aniwer the question with-S
complete statement.

HOW TO PREPARE AN ASSIGNMENT ,

In preparing an assignment, the following steps are recommended as the


best procedure

1. Listen twice to Spiral 1 of the lesson assigned for the next day.
Don't refer to your book.

2. Listen to and repeat Spiral 2 of the preceding day's lesson once.

3. Listen to Spiral 1 of the assigned lesson on6e. Refer to the car-


toon.guide as an aid and to translation of dialogue if necessary.

Listen to Spiral 3 and Spiral 4 of the preceding lesson once.

5. Listen to Spiral 1 of the assigned lesson until you can understand


every utterancv as it is being spoken. Refer te the cartoon guide
e.s an aid and to translation of dialogue if necessary.

9
6. Litten to and repeat Spiral 2 of the assigned lesson. twice.

0 7. Listen twice tO 6Piral 3 of de assigned lesson.

8. Listen'to and repeat Spiral 2 of the assigne 14,sson.

9. Listen once to Spirals 3 and 4 of the assig d legson.


\-
10. Repeat step 8.
NTh

11. Listen to Spiral 1 Of the assigned lessonconce.


I

12. Try to'speak all of the assigned dialogue (Spiral 1).' If you get
stuck, chec that particular utterance in the cartoon.guide or the
translations before you go on. If you.still cannot remember,
Ilisteito and repeat Spiral 2. TrSi to say each utterance ad fast
'as it is spoked,onAthe record and with as much naturalness. Refer
to the cartoon guide ta remember the sequence of the dialogue. .!

,
,
13. Listen to Spiral 4 Of the assigned lesson until you caeunderstand .

. every utteranee. .,

14. Repeat step 12. ,

15. Repeat step 9. 41Mi

16. Repeat step 12.

17.. Listen to and answer the questions on Spiral 5 of the assigned


lesson.

18. Repeat itep 12 until'you can',recite the dialogue easily and


fluently-.

19. The next morning, just befor2oing to class, repeat/step 12.

USE THESE STEPS AS A CHEMIST':

The procedure suggested above is csnsidered minimum preparation. It


can be aacomplished in less than the time you are expected to study autside
of class hours. If you want 6 do better, and consequently spend more time
in preparation, the first thing you should do is to expand on the review of ,

preceding dialogues, especially Spiral 2. The next thing is to increase the


number of times you practiaelSpirals 3 and 4'of thei assigned lesson. Your
best bet on weekends is/6, practice Spirald 3 and 4 of all the lessons
ysou've had; but not to tlie.point of keeping you from,relaxing and getting
your mind off yoilr Persian. If you've studied the way you're suppoted to,
A

you owe it to yourself and.the Army to relaX.

vi
6

Nothing,,,has been said about the hours when you


shouid accomplish the
suggestedotne preparation because individual circumstances vary so widely.'
out that if you can do at.least 30
I. is oorthwhile, however, to point
The best thing
-minutes of your studying before dinner, you'reobetter off.
study for at least
is tb.-take a 30-minute break after your last class, then
30-minutes,. then eat dinner and relay for a short time afterward, and
Ainally go back to finish your assignment.
much
It's alway.4 4 temptation to think that you.could learn just.e0a
Don't believe it.
and o it more pleasantly by studying With a friend.
Unless you and your friend have the willpower of a Puritan minister, and
unless one of you is an experienced language teacher and has'a native
Persian pr unciation, avoid trying to study together for more.thanthirty
.mlivites a ay.

However, it can be rewarding to stUdy togeth4r for abOut half an hour


a day if.you limit your joint study toAwo.specific things Ind'only those
two:

1.Dividing between the two of you the roles in the dialogue and
trying,to recite the dialogue without hesitation.' This applies to both
the assigned dialogUe and any' preceding one.

Trying to adapt the dialogues 'you've had to a little conver-


.2.
sation'between the two of you without attempting/to say anything not-spe-
cifically included in the lesSons. youlve,had,

There-is.no short cut to language learning. The materials and frain-


ing aids given you are intended tomake the process of aqquiring Persian
as casy and effective as pos;ible. Now it all depends oh y.s2m. If you do
your part well, followHinE!tructions, and donq get easily discouraged,
you will succeed and before longyou wilj be speaking Persian.'

J.

vii
..^.^".

c.

PERe'IAN PRO/IUNCIAT I.()

10.
vili
GUIDE TO PRONUNCIATION

2he following symbols have been adopted from Webster's Collegiate


Dictionary for a guide in representing various Persian sounds.

a. Vowels and their approximate equivalent sounds in English:

English eouivalent of sounds


Symbols,

a add

end

obey
o
arm

, - fond
oo (yay)

(y;)
even
e

o
old

b. Con6o1ants and their anprJximate equivalentitsounds in English:

Symbols tiOish ,Inuivalent of sounds

a' (alef) a mild gutteral oound


non-existant in English

b (4) bed

.2eep
P (p;)

t (t;)
toy

s (4). see

41oke
j (J;m)

ch (ch) chair

h (hg) hen

x (khe) as in German "achn

d (61) day
English tiouivalent of soumds
Srmbol,

z (zal) zone

(4) rose !rolled "r")


r

z (zi) zebra

zh (zh;) 1208.1

s (sin) seen

sh (shin) she

$ (sid) sad

z (zgd) zeal

t (ti) train

(a) zoo

a' (;3rn)
a gutteral sound, non-
existant in English.

q (ghiyn) a gutteral sound, non-


existant in English,
clnse to Parisian "rm.

f (f) four

q (ghgf) a gutteral sound, non-


existant in English,
close to Parisian "r".

k (kgf) kook

g (ggf) Lo

1 (lim) leg

m (mim) wan

n (nan)

v (viv) value

h (14) hat

Y (Yg) zes
BRILL ON yARIOUS PERSIAN SOUNDS

31

aa
CP jou
ae ao
Pa. ,
(A)

aa aoo ae ao

(b)

b be b ba bOO b bi)

(
(p)

pa pe po pc-TO Pe Po

(t )

sa s; so so-i) , se- so

(j)
670- je jo

(ch) ( E.)

cha che cho cha choo che cho

(h)

ha h; hoo he ho

I
xa xe xo Ica xoo xe xo
J.
da de do da doo de do

(z) ( e ) e ( )

za zp zo za zro ze zo

(r) (J )

ra re ro ra reci re ro

(zh) (3 )

zhg zhei zh61 zhe zho

(sh) (LA )

shil she. slat shi shOO she sh-o-

(q) ( ) 1 ( L)
qa qe qt qa qoo qe qo

(f)
fa fe, fo fa foo fe fo

(k)

ka ket koo ke ko

(g)
v
ga ge go ga goo g-E= go
s

.111.

la le lo la loo le lo

xii
(m)

ma me mo moo me mo

(n)

ma ne no na n66 ne no

(v)

va ye vo va
. voo ye vo

ya ye yo ya yoo ye yo
MESHED

RENO' NISHAPURtiah.
BABOL

_TEHRAN

HAMADAN
.
F.
QUM

KASHAN

ISFAHAN YE ZO
p.
L. al Eft
AHWAZ

SH IRAZ

RE

I RANSHAHR I

BANDAR ABBAS \
AL..
CHAH BAR
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DIA.LOGUE ONE
( repri1s L watt 2)

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DIALOGUB OWN
(Translation)

1, Hello!
Hello!

2; What is this?
This is (af book.

3. What is that?
Mat Is (a) pencil.

4. Where ik(the) book?


(The) book is here.

5. Where is (the) pencil?


(The) pencil isthere.

6. Is this (a) table?


Yam, this is (a) table.

7. Where is (the) ahair?


(The) chair is there.

B. Who is he?
He is (a) student.

9. 15 he (an) officer?
Yes, he is (an) officer.

10. Who is (a) soldier?


He is (a) soldier.

* Whenever a word that appears in one language %a not necessary


to be translated into the other, that word appears in parentheses
throughout this volume.
RECOMINATION ONE
(Spiral 3)

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DRILL gLOCICS OLE
(Spiral if)

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QUEST/ONS ONE
(Spiral 5)

a.
1

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10

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DIALOGUE TWO
(Spirals 1 and 2)

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12
.DIALOGUE TWO
(rranslation)
c+

1. Hello gentlemen!
Hello sir!

2. How are you*?


Thank you, I am fine.

3. Are we student(s)?
Yes, we are student(s).

4. Who is he?
He is Captain Jones.

5. Who is (the) teacher?


Mr. Rid is (the) teacher.

6. Are they officer(s)?


Yes, they are officer(s).

7. Are you soldier(s)?


Yes, we are'soldier(s).

8. Are you (an) officer?


Yes, I am (an) officer.

9. What is his name?


His name is Captain Jones

10. What is (the) teachfils name?


(Th4) teacher's name is Mr. Rid.

* In Persian, as in English, the second person plural it usually


used in place of the second person singular, in speech as well as
in writing.

13
RECOMBINA,TION TWO
(Spiral 3)

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surr

Zermo I

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DRILL BLOCKS TWO
(Spiral 4)

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QUESTIONS TWO
(Spiral5 )

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DIALOGUE THRE E*
(Spirals 1 and 2)

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DIALOGUZ THRICX
(Translation)

0
1. (Do) you have book(e)? to

Yes, we have book(s).

2. (Do) you have (a) pencil?


Yes, I have (a) pencil.

3. (Do) I have paper?


-.Yes, you have paper.

4. Who hasAa) note-book?


(The)fteacher has (a) note-book.

5. What (do) I have?


You have (a) book.'

6. What is this?
This is (an). eraser.

7. .Whit is that?
'That is (a) blackboard.

8. What (does) that sergeant have?


He has (a) pencil and (a) pen.

lit (do ) they have?


They also have pencil(s) and pen(s).

10. (Po) all of (tho)' studfhts have iook(s)?


Yes, all of them have book(s).
RECOMBINATION THREE.
(Spiral 3)

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QUESTION5 THREE
(Spiral 5)

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(

tHIMNI MOOSAN CAPITAL, GIST SY SNOW-CAPPtI) MOUNTAINS

New apartment houses, substantial homes, foieign embassies, government


buildings Ind shops line the paved streets of Iran's capital. Tbe
ruggedly beautiful Mburz Mountains can be seen from all parts of Teheran.
1118SON rotra
5

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9

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27
4I.
DIALOGU1 TOUR
(Spirals 1 and 2)

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DIALOGUB YOUR
(Trams Wiwi)

1. Where is my book?
Your book is on (the) table.

2. Where is his book?


His booi is also on (thw) table.

3. Where is.(the) tapher's chair?


(The) teacher's chair is pear (the) window.

4. How many pencil(s) (does) lie have?


H. has only one pencil.

,5. Rom many 1188k(s) (does) Capt. Jones have?


He has two book(s)

6: (Do) you have three notebook ( )7


les, I have three notebook (s).

7. How many wirdow(s) (does) xhis room have?


This room has four windcw(s).

8. How many door(s) (does) this roan have?


This room has one door.

9. Where is (the) eraser?


.(The) eraser is on (the) table.

10. How many picture(s) are on (the) wall?


(There) are five picture(s) on (the) wall.

preceded by numeral
* Nouns ars net pluralized when they ars
or adverbial adjeotive.

29 10
AZCOMBINATIO1 YOUR
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32 51
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Photigyeph by Maynard Owen !Mame


A MORE RECENT THRONE OR 3CURES THE JEWELED PEACOCK DAIS IN OLiLISTAN..PALACE
Scholars believe the graceful structure behind the jeweled chair contains parts of the famous Mogul royal
seat at Delhi, which was carried to Persia in 1739 by Nadir Shah (page 326). Across the back two carved
peatocks spread their glittering tails, inlaid with rubies, emeralds, and pearls. At the top shines a revolving
sun of diamonds, Dragons of green enamel support two steps by which former monarchs iv, ended to the
platform, there to sit cross-legged in oriental fashion.

33
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34
(Spirals 1 ,and 2)

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36 t'
DIALOGUZ FIT!
(!ranslation)

1. How do you feel?


Very well,:thank you:

2. Are you teacher(s)?


No, we are not teacher(s).

3. Am I (a) major?
No, you are not (a) major.
.10

4.. Are you (in) officer?


No, I am not (an) officer.

5. Are all of (the) officers in class?


No, all ef (the) officers are not in class.

6. Is (the) chalk on (the) table?


No, (the) chalk is not on'(the) table.

7. Then, where is (the) chalk?


(The) chalk is under (the) table.

8. I. (the) lamp on (the) table?


.No, (the) lamp is not on (the) table.

9. How many map(s) are on (the) wall?


(There) are three map(s) on the) wall.

10. Good-bye, gentlemen!


Good-bye, sirs

37"
R1COMBINATION FITZ
(Spiral 3)

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(Spiral 5)

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. Tehran Traffic Mixes, American Automobiles and Trudks, Handmade Buses, Pushcarts, Bicycles, and Open Carried*.
Vehicular confusion ircreases with the capital's growth as a Middle East Metropolis. Taxis are replacing carriages. Most intersections have policemen or lights; at some
it's evcry man for himself. The British Bank of Iran and the Middle East (kft) stands on the Maidan-i-Sepah, the city's *On square,

60 61
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P.

L238011 SIX

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43
DIALOGUE SIX
(Spinas 1 and 2)

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44
DIALOGUR SIX
(Translation)

1. What color is yaur book?


Ny book is taus.

2. (DO you have (a) brief ease?


No, I (do) not have (a) brief.oase.

3. Is(the)teaoher's brief case red,


No, (the) teadher's brief ease is yellow.

4. (Doss) he have (a) wallet?


No, he (does).not.have (a) wallet.

5. (to) ve havelwief earte(s)?


No, we (do) not have brief oass(s).

6. (toes) Capt. Jones have eigarette(s)?


74s, he has oigarette(s).

(Do) I have (a) lighter?


No, you (do) not have (a) lighter.

8. Where is (the) ash-trait


(The) ash-tray is on (the) table.

9. (Does) that lieutenant havela) lightsr?


No, he (does) not have (a) lighter.

10. (Do) they have natch(es)7


No, they (do) not have match(es).

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QUESTIONS SIX
(Spiral 5)

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50
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DIALOGUE S,ETICIT
(Spirals 1 and 2)

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DIALOGUE 8171 I
(Translation)

S. Is Lt. Nash in class today'


Yes, hwis in class teday.

2. Are you In class?


Yes, I am in class.

3. Are all (the) students in.Clatset


Yea, all (the) students are in class.

4. Is Col. Meyer also in class?


Yes, he is also irr-elass4

5. Are you in class every day?


Yes, every day I am in class.

6. Are (the) students Iranian(s)?


No, (the) students are not Iranian(s).

7. Is Pfe Jones (an) Iranianf


No, he is (an) American.

8. Are (the) teachers Iranian(s)?


Yes, they are Irarlian(s).

9. *lire is M/Sgt.Arner
M/Sgt. Arney is in(the)school.

10. Ia your teacher (a) military (man)?


No, our teacher is (a) civilian.

i
RBOOMBINATION SLTBN
(Spiral 3)

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TOMB OF SAADI IN PUBLIC PARK NEAR CITY OF SHIRAZ
r,t
79
LESSON EIGHT

58
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59
DIALOGUE EIGHT
(Spirals 1 and 2)

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DIA.LOGUB IGLT .

(Translation)

1. What (a) day is today?


Today is Tuesday.

2. What (a) day was yesterday?


Yesterday was Moll-lay..

3. Where were we yesterdir


Yesterday me were at school.

4 What (a) day is tomorrow?


Tomorrow is Wbdnesday.

5. Were you in class yesterdayl


Yes, yesterday we were in class.

6. Wbre you in(010)class yesterday?


Yes, yesterday I was in class.

7, I kthe) school open (on) Thursdays?


Yes, (the) school !..,s open (on) Thursdays.

8. Is (the) school open (on) Fridays?


Yes, (the)-school is open (on) Fridays.

9. Is (tha) school closed (on) Saturdays?


Yes, (the) school is closed (on) Saturdays.

10. Is (the) school open (on) Sundays?


No, (the) school is closed (on) Sundays.
RECGMHINATION EIGHT
(Spiral 3)

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63
QUESTIONS EIGHT
(Spiral 5)

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THE NEWLY DjtSCOVERED STAIRWAY TO ONE OF THE TWO AUL.ENCE HALLS NEAR THE ROYAL PALACES
This broad double stairway, with its many carvings, is that whirked J on the diagram en page 385.

S
;
L3133031. SIN/
DI ALOGUE NINE
(Spirals I and 2 )

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DIALOGUE WINE
(Translation)

1. Is (the) school closed tomorrow/ (holiday)


No, (the) school is not closed tomorrow.

2. (On) what (a) days is (the) school closed?


The school is closed (on) Saturdays and Sundays.

3. How many class(es) (do) you have per day?


We have six class(es) Per day.

4. What (do) you study in this class? (read)


We study Pirsi in this class.

5. Is Pixel (language) difficult?


No, Pirsi (language) is not difficult.

6. Was yesterday's lesson easy?


No, yesterday's lesson was not easy.

7. How =MY day(s) per week (do) pu study Firsi?


Ve study Pixei five day(s) per week.

8. (Does) that Army officer also study Pirsi?


No, he (does) not study Pirsi.

9. ,What (a) language (does) your friend study?


My friend studies Pirsi.

10. (Do) all students study Find.?


No, all of them (do) not study Pirsi.

69
ItECOMBINATION NINE'
(Spiral 3)

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(Spiral 5)

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DIALOGUE TE'N
(Translation)

1. What time is (it) now?


(It) is nine o'clock now.

2. What (a) time (do) you come,to school?


We come to school (at) eight o'clock.

3. Row many period(s) (do) you have per day?


We have six period(s) per day.

4. Row many period(s) (do) you have (in the) mornings?


We,have three period(s) (in the) mornings.

5. What (a) time (does) he come to school':


He comes to school (at) seven o'clock.

6. (Do) we come to school (at) seven o'clock?


No, we (do) not come to school (at) seven o'clock.

7. What (a) time (do) they come to school?


They come to achool (at) eight o'clock.

8. What (a) time (does).(the) teachei'come to class?


(The) teacher comes to.class (at) eight o'clock..

) 9. How Many reness(es) (do) you have per day?


WP have four recess(es) per day.

10. 'Now many minute(s) iv each recess?


Each recess is ten ml.nutes.
RECOMBINATION TEN
(Spiral.3)

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(Spiral '5 )

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DIALOGUE ELEV.E N
(Translat ion )

1. Wet color is your suit?


My suit is green.

2. What color is your hat?


My hais also green.

3. What ('kind of) (a) clothes (does) Mr: Rid wear?


Mr. Rid wears nivilian clothes.

4. 'What (kind of) (a) clothes (do) you wear?


We wear military uniform(s).

5. What color is iiip suit? (coat' and troumers)


Your suit',is,grey.

Are* my mhoes yellow!!


No, your shOes are black.

7. .(Do) officers wear military uniform(s)?


Tes, officers wear military unIform(s).
.
8, What,colOr is my shir07
Your shirt is white. c=1

9. Is your undershirt white?


Yes, my undershirt is white.

10. (Do) you wear black shoesoand socks?


No, I (do) not wear black shoes.and socks.

* In Persian plural inanimate Objects need not have plurai,verbs.


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(Spiral 3)

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(Spiral 5)

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N.;

Paul 1E, Case

An Anthony Eden of Bakhtiari Land


Some 3,500 years ago ,his Caucasian ancestors rode horses into
Persia. They were the Aryans fin whom Iran is named. For centuries
they dwelt in feudal isolation. The new generation reacts to modern
ways; witness this checked coat. shotgun. and cartridge case. Skullcap,
silk pantaloons, and white-canvas shoes remain trademarks of the clan.
LISSOI TWLT

90

1 1 a)
12
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00.1511

I0
DIALOGUE TWELVE
(Spirals 1 and 0

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92
DIALOGUE TW11.91
(Translation)

I. What (do)" you do in this class?


We study Farsi in this class.

2. What (does) your friend do?


My friend studies English.

3. (Do) you also study English? ,

No, lie (do) not study English.

4. Usually, what (do) you do during (the) recess?


'I drink coffee during (the) recess.

5. (Dces) that major drink coffee?


No, he drinks tea.

6. What (a) time (do) you eat breakfast?


I eat breakfast at 7:30.

7. Where (do) you eat lunch?


I eat lunch at home.

8. (Do) they eat lunch at home?


No, they (do) not eat lunch at home.

9. What (a) time (do) you eat dinner?


Usually, I eatAinner at 7:00.

10. What (do) you do at home (in the) evenings?


I study Farsi at home (in the) evenings.
RECOMBINATION TWELVE
(Spiral 3)

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DIALOGUE THIATEE'll
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(Spira1.0 1 and 2)

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DIALOGUE THIRTEEN
(T ranslat i on

1. Capt. Jones, how many. child(ren) (do) you have?


I have two child(ren), one bny and one girl.

2. (D0) your children go to school?


Yes, they so to,school.

3. In what (a) grade is your son?


My son is in (the) first grade.

4. In what (a) grade is your daughter?


My daughter ls.in (the) third grade.

5. What (a) time (do) (the) children go to school?


(The) children go to school (at) 9:00 A.M. (nine in morning)

6. Where (do) you gaJon the) holidayrit (*hen the school is closed)
(On the) holidays I go to (the) movie(il.

7. .
(Does) your wife also go with you? , (come with you)
Tes, she also goes with me.

8. What (do) you do at home,(in the) evenings?


(In the) evenings, I read book(s) at home.

9. Usually, what time (do) you (go to) sleep?


Usually, I (go to) sleep (at) 10:00 o'clock.

10. (Do the) children also (go to) sleep (at) 10:00 o'clock?
No, they (go to) sleep (at) 7:00 o'clock.
RECOMBINATION THIRTEEN
'(Spiral 3)

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(Spiral 5)

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l()(--,
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106
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DIALOGUE FOURTEEN
(Spirals 1 and. 2)

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108
DIALOGUR FOURWII
(Translation)

1, ( ) Captain, are you hungry?


Yee, I am very hungry.

2, Who is thirsty?
Colonel Jones ill thirsty.

3. What (do) you do when you are thirstyl


When I au thirsty, I drink (eat) water.

What (do) you do when you are hungryl


When I am hungry, I eat (food).

5. Who prepares (fixes) food for you?


Nywdfe prepares food for me.

6. Who prepares food for him?


His wife prepares food for him.

7. What (a) tits (do)you go (to) home (in the )afternoon(s)


(In the) afternoon(s), I go(to) home at 5:00 o'clock.

EL" What (do) you do when you go (to) home ?


When I go (to) home, I eat supper.

9. What (supper)(do)you sat tonight?


I eat soup, salad, and fish.

10. Usually, what (do) you eat (for) breakfast?


I eat eggs, bread, and butter.
PECOMBINATION FOURTEEN
(Spiral 3)

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LESSON !WEIN

114
DIALOGUE FIFTEEN
(Spiya le 1 and 2)

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(Translation)

1. What (haw much) is your weight?


),(7 weight is 130 lb(s).

2. What is (the) height of Captain Arney?


His height is six feet (foot),

3. How'sany finger(s) (does) each hand have?


Bach hand has five finger(s).
;

4, How many toe(s) (finger) (does) ach foot have?


Mach foot has five toe(a),

5. What color are (is) your eyes?


My eyes are (is) blue.

6. Is your hair(s) black?


Yes, my hair(s) is black.

7. With what (do) you wash (*) your Taco?


I wash my face (*) with water and soap.

8. With ,what (does) he wash his face (*)?


H. also washes his face (*) with water and.soap.

9. (Does) be also wash his mouth (*)?


Yes, he also washes his mouith (*).

10. (Do) yea brush your teeth (*)?


Yes. I brash my teeth (*),

* We will signify the use of the postnositior used after definite


direct objects in Nrsian and hereafter in this book by: (*).
RECOABINALTION FITTE1111
(Spiral 3)

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121
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114 Roots beached neer Pahlevi, Inn's most important harbor on Casiiian
115
Sea. Hereabouts, Iran -and Russia have vied over fishing rights,
for centuries. Sturgeon, whose eggs form world-famed delicacy caviar,
sNwn 'in Iranian rivers but are caught in Russian-dominated sea.
10

123
DIALOGUE SIXTEEN
(Spirals 1 and 2)

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DIALOGUN SIXTZEN
(Translation)

1. Where (do) you go this (day) afternoon?


I go (to) home this (day) afternoon.

2. 'Where (did) you go last night?


Last night I went to ) movies.

3. (Did) you go to (the) movies (the) night before last?


No, (the) night before last I'(did) not go to (the) movies.

4. Where (did) you go yesterday?


Yesterday I went to my sister's house.

5. How old is your sister? (How many year(s) your sister has?)
-4. My sister is twenty year(s) old.

6. (Does) your brother go to school?


No, my brother (does) not go to school.

7. Where Are your parents? (father and mother)


My parents are,in New York.

8. What (dOes) he do at home (in the) evening(s)?


He learns his lesson(*) (in the) evening(s).

9. (Do) we also learn our lesson(s) (*)?


yes, we also leain our lesson(s) (*).

10. (Do) all'of (the) students learn their(*) lesson(s)?


Yes, all of (the) students learn their(*) lesson(s). 4

/
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(Spiral 5)
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131
DIALOGUE SEVENTEEN
(Spirals 1 and 2)
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132
DIALOGUS SZVENTZEN
(Translation)

I. What (do) you see in this class?


I see (a).blackboard, table(s) and chair(s).

2. What (do).you see outside (the) class?


I see tree(s)'and grass outside (the) class.

Which lesson(*) (did) you learn last night?


Last night we learned lesson sixteen(*).

Was lessontifteen difficult?


No, (it) was not too difficult.'

5. How was lesson fourteen?


Lesson fourteen was. easy.

6. What lesson (a) (*) (do) you learn now?


Noi we learn lesson seventeen(*).

7. What (a) lesson is after lesson seventeen?


Lesson eighteen is after lesson seventeen.

8. (Did) you learn lesson eleven (*) well?


Yes, I learned it (*) well.

9. (Did) you learn lessons twelve and thirteen(*)?


No, I (did) not learn them (*) well.

10. I (shall) see you (*) tomorrow at eight o'clock.


Very well, good-bye till tomorrow.

1 5 '4'4
133
RICCOMBINATION.) SEVENTEEN
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s J11 .4;1- L.t .1


.01.) JL 11 or
cs, I j j.41, ; 1 )41 .1
1;1.3. I 4041 i I LAI b

134
DRILL BLOCKS SEVENTEEN
(Spiral 4)

PI"!
Lt . 14:te VSIOT

I J6r*S8
1.64 _13 tie:: Le I kirg P- --T
-14 N.

T Lk I 44! ce AO'S. CJI I 11.


Le IAA'S

ce I GA.: 0 Lte.1 oaf JisIjG IjL t


clam ).,--01. l'Utf te; flr'"

g
0111 ija I j flak. L
IlAte us*

ei1541J ;)14J(.1r.j.1 141: 40; 4 IJ j,X.J(110")hi


": j J1.1 J JJI II C.; .05 4 I,j,I v.)," ,I
4I ..; J,51.4,

4 IJ,IjiijJ .)LI
4.

Jr,..;
QUESTIONS SEVENTEEN
(Spiral 5)

jf JL I j 1p.jJ fl J

tz.;fi
Jr. A:See
IpJJ r1 j -4,
cr. I _o

" J J e rat. I i.; L.:

IJa-wJJ obJJ1):
T 4.. 4.i. r I die b

T J

Atx.r: Imr)(5' , *-1

JJL 456 rt.r.ii


Ar A: Le'
jr...1. .1 r
T No. j Li ci,.a L. 1t
SI
J 4;6t'" OUL sub;), I 0

136
f;
9

LESS,ON l'IGHT1311

to,,2
DI*1104U3 1IGHT3311
(Spirals 1 and 2)

j4:41- L Jis. isaJ101))..w


LI, 616j ;I g r,s41.4,

11 At 1.41:ds )1 jut. 4.r. v..


. zat L., cp

(.0 441.;;

is .40 J-ita cr- 41-: __t


r.:1)-ive trivii;14AL),J e

1 4;1 aq4;11; "


tji 44, cs-A I 4-0,.;
I,, Jag: 1
I ; 14.; 14.:

Y
4..; I J.; 4).4 r:

Ir..; I. j.afs

A; I 4 Ler j I 4.1.:

Lee I; L-4 1
rt:441:: 1.;?. Leo 1. 4.4

r
I rj,i6r1.7.5-1J).; ,01:011
! j 6.4.1
r. DIALOGUE EIGHTEEN
c c
(Translation)
,

1. How are you (how is your health), Capt. Arney?


Thank you, I am fine (from your kindness it ii fine).

2. What iime (do) you wake up (in the) morning(s).


I wake up at six o!clock (in the) morning(s),

3.. What (do) you do before coming to eche 11


Usially I read (the) newspaper.

4. (Do) you read (a) Persian newspaper?


No, I read (an) English newspaper.

(a) languages:(dP) you Inow?


'Illhat

I know French and English.

6. Is (the) pronunciation of Trench diff cult?


No, (the) pronunciation of 1"rench-1s ot difficult.
..

7. Who (does) not know Frenah?


My wife (does) not know French.

8. (Does) that corporal know Ygrst?


. Yes, he knows Firsi.

9. (po) you write Fgrsi?


Yee, we wrj.te

10. Gentlemen, tomorrot. we read Book Two (*).


Very well, goodbye till tomorrow:
RECOMBIN-ATION EIGHTEEN
(Spiral 3)

At:4* 46, cre. I


.1
Ar j jJ
.14.;113.?... J,

is!I)--4t ff..":b$
4. Lr-Ji; ok.; 4.6.6

cogJU C))
4. tike L.016;
,

1.4 t$01' a"; LY' L143 " J 411 (5:5

4,11-601:j 44- Li;Ji


41 st. tr. j 4.; I I

I j; .11a.a; ea;

4- J 4T 1.144
,
r
(4. J Slt 41 J 44f 41 j I tit'.4

)4'.' J14:1 Li's L. 4-:" 044.1 4.44*C. J

I 4...1
4 J. ;a1,..: 414..4 J 1.1b e\J 1"41011

..A.A. 4-r L).311' j .1-6%,

I
r 1-11%44.

L)

L0.4 I
DRILL BLOCKS EIGHTEEN
(Spiral 4)

. to-4:e J I iitt L t f /-47"*. )1 Jr:. cp

lte Lz_o _y

.1; 01;1 ..),-4t* )14 r


r , I 4...! c.,AL 1 cf... 4 Lida L-.4-r v.
0....1..te.; )1 aL cs j 411 c.aL.

cratit I ; L.4; ,wl.th. 14;


I

I J; t:,) j uji44.4 440j1J-; 01:#j ":7

rAtt J is t Ly., )1 ; (:).*

tr.". 11
)1 ...r
Litt I "'":1

re.,"""..-:',-'-kr.jlice(4;
hust: Le.-4-11: I I

r ).-4;,.)(541. 4T cArt. -14T j Utel.

r;11-it-,7.1:s4...j.L.:. 41 Ait.14 , huijo


QUESTIONS EIGHTEEN
(Spiral 5)

L.J 14.1

t .;1 1 j tr. ji; j La.

L-4;

1J 41:" J ;JJ _t
0,,j1; J .0
4rat J'; Leh cry. 0.1 chi L i 1
16 )t Atj Y
4:J1 , 4I J.; j I JJ
)1411 Ls:AL. ce. I J);

4.:j1 4.0144

4,1;J
at! rA 1P4t ,

lb I 6/-N.S. 0.41 j hi 30
I.

II

,1

Wr
Co.

a sib watar

a blue

a slain easy
Mr: , Sir
u
saqaye Mr. ( of )

a 'aqayan 'Gentlemen

to come

a lin that (adj. , pronoun)


a sinji there (adv. )
a liahi they, those , them, their

lArti eh army

a from, of
shtimi Fine, I'm well
bd nist ,(expression)
is (to be); 3rd pers . sing., present
of verbo badin
a se am name

a siitiq room

a silf sir officer


a 'La I am, my; 1st pers . sing. verb
ending

a siart5bs today
a siffriiia American

a 'Ind they are ; 3m1 pars sing, verb ending

a singt sht finger

146
English

a'ab he, she, his, her

allvvil first

ati you are; 2nd pers. sing, verb ending

alirini Iranian

aria you are; 2nd pers. pl. verb erding

Alia we are; 1st pers.:pl. verb ending'

&lin this (adj. and pronoun)

a'inji here

alishin they, ,their

ar.
t
ba with If

1314 open

b;r;dir brother JJIX


I/ I it
baraye for

b;ch; child
"
bacheha children d*?

4441
baste closed
.
besyar very
;I
baadaz after
40
baadaz-zohr afternoon J41 j lAjlt

bll; yes

brod Jps, she was; 3rd pers. sing., patt


of verbJ, birodan

1.47 1
`Ty

bdm I was; 1st pers. ging:, past of


verbo 1,1 , boodin

brodi you were; 2nd pore. sing., past


of vertb pt bo-Odin

bTode-d you were 2nd pers. pl.., past of


vertb J bFodan

we were; 1st pers. pl.t.past of


verb It J boodan

they were; 3rd pers. pl.., past of


.

verb 3Jj, bobdin


to (prep.) 4f

b;c1 piesh-ave'd you wake up; 2nd pers. pl. of the


compound verb.
bidir shtdin j
b;ran , out, outside

b:(7st twenty
`r

pa foot
panzdih fifteen
petda'r fa nor
-
pareshab the night before last
pas then
boy, son

pesarsa my son
v fivo
panj
w
panjare winiow

pinjahimii Thursday

148
piCol money

pcind powd

prhan shirt

Peish before

p(701:z zthr before noon

-t your; insep. poss. pronoun,


2n1 pers. sing.

ta till, until, to

tn your; insep. poss. pronoun,


2nd pers. pl.

titXtios blackboard, board


w w
taxte pakkon eraser (for blackboard)
A 41=
toxme mom' egg
w 4.44
teems thirsty
vp
taatel closed, holiday j."1261143.

talaffoz pronunciation

tt you (thou), your (thy)


separable pronoun (poss.
or . -41.), 2nd pers. sing.

p
jomae

joorab 3 OCk31

14 9
*
eh

chay tea

cheraq lamp

cheshm eye

chetor haw

ch:nd how many

che what

chlehWr four
d do Let
chihiirdsik fourteen

chlsal;ir ehish4 Uhdnesday 4:44 JLer

what day 3s
che rooze
4:moottir
ch est what i3

%AI
J
hal
"
hale show
condition

how are you?


j
chetorast (expression)

hal now

.
xanan wife, lady
.16

xanomash his wife

xida hiiaz good-bye

xliar s is ter
J-01)-;-

xaharmm my sister 61,a


)-A-
xoob fins, well, good

very crka,.
xeyle

150 ,
. t
sm.

/daram I have; 1st pers. sing. pries.


of the verb 0:41j, dishtin

darad he has; 3rd pers. sing. pros. of


the verb4IJ, dishtin

darard they have; 3rd pers. pl. pres. of


the verb 03,41 , dishtiin

dare you have; 2rd pers. sing. pres. of


the verb , dishtin

dared you have; 2n1 pers. pl. pres. of


the verb 03.41.3, dishtin
.
darem we have; 1st pers. pl. pres. of
al
the verb 4..rww, dishtin
J. w w
doxtaram my daughter

dar door
S.
dar .in

, de.rixt tree
S.
dars lesson

dorost mekonad he or she prepares, makes; 3rd pers.


sing. of the .compound
jj , dorost kit'rdan

dast hand

notebook, office'
S.
daqeqe minute

dandatn tooth
do two
411,

A davazdah twelve

dood; gray

dooat friend
j
shinbi Monday

d'avvam second

mouth

dihinish his or her mouth

\ carat yesterday

\ashlb last night


\

evar wall

ten

he, she went; 2nd pers. sing.


past of the verboaj, riftan

rtt I went; let.pors. sing. past of the


verboaj , riftin
they went; 3rd pets..pl. past of the
vertoad raftan
r;ft-e- you (thou) went;. 2nd pers. sing, past
of the verb oaj, raftan
. -
rafted you went; 2nd pers. pl. past of the
verb ejaj

zglfte-m we went; 1st pers.vplt past of the


verb , rattan

rang color
_
roozname newspaper

rcrciz day

rooye on

152
zIbin language, tongue 0 It )
zard yellow Jjj
0 ot)
z ang period, bell
. . . ...

zange tafreh recess

zet-r under 14)

ar Pirih:n; undershirt trui lev. .e.3


.. ... e. ...
zer segare ash tray a Jt.t." Ai

44.4, tJ`

sialt clock, watch, hour

sea year
-
sotvan lieutenant
"
sarbaz soldier

srba'z y ?.1 Pfc

sarjookeh corporal
w 41,

s a rgord major
*.
sargoroohban M/Sgt

sarvan captain

sarhang colonel

seTfead white

salam a foi a! of greeting

snp soup
41,
sevvom third

se three

s; shamb Tuesday
sWh black

sezdah thirteen

segar cigarette Aew


s;1411.i movie, obviate, LAtw

eh

-sh his her; insep. poss. pronoun,


3rd pers. sing.

,sh'igerid student sort4

sh;ggrda students 01414


sham dinner els

.shan their; insep. poss. pronoun, 3rd 14


pers. pl., e.g., 16
darseshan Obi". J4
sanzdilh sixteen J).;14

sat) night

sh;sh six 4./t4

shiavir trousers

shtii you

shimbi Saturday 144


Saturday night
F..: j4
shimbi shit)

-
saboon soap

Babb morning

stbhgneh bregkfast
, -
sandale chair
1k0 w
sad.o.panjah hundred and fifty 4414

154
4Ik
aarit face

sciarit;ah .his or her face 4.013J10


*, *
e'
zOhr noon

al ,.* t..

Omer -afternoon )4411

&oaks picture urSil

*.* t.

-
qaza food I

'01.* ui

farse Persian

faranseh French, Frame


-
farda tomorrow

faqat "17_

fandak cigarette lighter

q;c1 height

ciermeiz red

q4a',11v. coffee

Aciibra match t=r.t

I It coat zmIs

ketab book r
koja where

155' ,7,9
kare butter

kifsh shoe(s)

hat

who

ki-st who is

ket briefcase
4.s
4

-gach chalk

gorosne hungry

sergeant
0163/
goroohban
s,011
1
_
lebas clothes

lotf kindness, grace

-am (pessaram) wy; insep. poss. pronoun,


lst person

we, our; sep. pronoun, lst


pers. pl.

madnr mother

min our; insep. poss. pronoun


1st perse pl.

mihi fish

mtteshlarim thank you

nidid pencil

steedd pik kOn eraser (p!ncil)

msdrisi school
thank yovi

mesviik tooth brush

mesvik mWzinad he brushes (teeth); 3rd pers.


sing. of the verb
)
misvik.zZdin

mesvak mezanam I brush (teeth); 1st pers. sing. eke 01 pooh.


pres. of the comeou0 verb
J j ijI }ow 9 we* zidar.
w " - -
mesvak mune you (thou) bruBh (teeth); 2nd Pers. ti ;SI 9.1ft
sing. pres. of the compound rsrb
j yoa,* laavak adin
you brush (teeth); 2nd pers. pl.
pros. -pf the compound verb 4g;te
ei PM priks mieviik zidin

mesvik Meziriiim we brush (teeth); 1st pers. pl. ow: ;eel di' I *me
pre's. of the comeound verb
J ; $0419A mesviik zidin
mesvik they brush (teeth); 3rd pers. pl. ,A;,;;64411,ars
mizinind pres. of the compound verb
j ,mevkzidn
miishkel difficult, hard

moalallem teacher

mialmoblin normally, usually

man I, my
w
manzil home, house 4.1 Pis

moo hair PA

me a particle which is a general


sign of the..indicative present
rt.14. via *in
you (thou) come; 2nd pers.,,sing.
pre9. of the verb jial

aniadan
mialialid you come; 2n4opers. pl. of the" tilt TgA
verb 0 4,1 I Wan
,

mialialin we come; lat pors. l.pres. of the


verb rmadan
'

he, she comes; 3rd pers. 131.74.,


pres. qf the verb 043 , amadan
4.
I.come; 1st pers. sing. pros. of the
verb jaT, imidin

aialiyind they come; 3rd per!, pl. pres. of Ajar


the verb Iimitdin

nbnd he, she sees; 3rd pers. sing. pros.


of the verb , dgdin
41/4:614

mgbinim I see; 1st pers. sing. pres. of


the vrb . , dgain

mebgnii you (t.hou) see; 2nd pers. sing. pres


dt the verb lj
dgain

Mebio-nid you see; 2nd tars, pl. prows. of klitte


the verb jet diaan

mebenem we see; 1st pers. pl.spres. of the rkiffe


verb jatx, dedan

"ibgnaind they see; 3rd pers. pl. pros. of 44e:3/4*.


the verb 04:j , didin

mgpdOsh'id he, she wecrs; 3rd pers. sing. pres. te


of the verboAt.tAl , palishiean

mepoosham I wear; 1st pers. sing. pros. of the


verb irt," , pcioshiain

!roe-p6h; you (thou) wear, :Ind pers. sing. pres. opt re*
of the vev'o Je...1, , 0310e-din

mipshed you wear; 2nd pers. pl. nes. of the he*


verb 4.44,4 , poOshidan

mepooshrm we wear; 1st pers. pl. pres. of the (VI teiA


verb 44, paishidin

15E
mipikeht:nd the:: wear; 3rd pers. pl. pres, of the J-14 Ne
verb 0 44 pOshidlin
he, she :.leepe; 3rd pers, sing. pros. Otr
of the verb 0 4.10. , xabdn
.
mexabam I sleep; 1st pers. bing. pres. of the tr: Ott
verb 0 400. , xbdan
Mixib;nd they sleep; 3rd pers. pl. pros. of the tut I *Sir
verb 0410. xibidin
_
meLabe you (thou) sleep; 2nd pers, sing. pros. Le I Phe
of the verb 0 , xibidin

me 7:abed you slecp; 2nd pers. pl. pres. of the ,AtA


verb 0 4,10. , xibidan
_
mexabem we sleep; 1st pers. pl. pros, of the *Ate
verb 0 je 1 , xabidn

mxand he, she reads; 3rd _lore. sing. pros. of


the verb c..14;1,;. xiardin
I read; 1st pers. sing, pres.
mexanam
verbjI. , xindin
of the
r' I otaa.
"
Me Xatle you (thou) read; 2nd pers. sing. pres. .1
ur Ove
of the verb 0 LI , xarxin

mexaned you mad; 2nd pers. pl. pres. of the verb 400"
xndn
.
mexanem we read; lst pers. pl. pres. of the verb fr1 Pvi .

,L;1}A xi*ndin

xanarrl they read; 3rd pers. pl. pres. of the ..sz I ove
verb t.J
xsintlin
_ pers. sirlg. pres. of Jj
mexorad he, she eats; 3rd
the verb 0 J j$.81. xordin
mexoram I eat; let pers. sing. pres. of the verb t OVA
Ja0. xordan

mexore you (thou) eat; 2nd pers, sing. pres. of 9-5 JPS."
the verb 0Jj , xrda

mexored you oat; 2.rvi pers. pl.. pres, of the verb


Nordan

159 1 Q9
we eat; 1st pers. pl. pres. of tht
mixarim
verb ts 1.4. xcirdin
Ate
WixOrind they eat; 3rd pers. pl. pros. of the Oar.0...1 41

verb 0 JJ pik. 'Cardin

adinid he, Ihe knows; 2nd pers. sing. pros. tul


of the verb eilial.9 ,dstin
_ .
..

medanam I know; 1st pers. sing. pros. of the


verb 01,41J dinistin

mil-dini you (thou) know; 2nd pers. sing. pros . ur .


of the verb augalj , dinistan

medinid you know; 2nd pers. pl. pros. of the 4.41.1.4.


verb cilmaJIJ , dinestin

midinind they know; 3rd peru. pl. pros. of the


verb ciim.JIJ , dinestin

midinim we know; lst pers. pl. pros. of the re I 4.4


verb ciumalj , dinistin
- . .
meravad he, she goes; 3rd pers. sing. pres. rt.*
of the verb oaj , riftgn
- . .
meravam I go; 1st pers. ing. pres. of the r X:*
verb oad , riftin /
1

'-
-
merave you (thou) go; 2nd pers. sing. pres. of
the verb eprjj , riftgn
-
meraved you go; 2nd per,. pl; pres. of the 61/4 Jr
verb 0144, , rgftin
-
meravem we go; 1st pers. pl. pres. of the
verb oaj , riftin

meravand they go; 3rd pers. pl. pres. of the


verb _IA riftin
'

you (thou) wash; 2211 pers. sing. pres. d 'Ate


of the verb 02,....1 sh8st1n

mishaalid you wash; 2nd pers. pl. pros. of the 'Ate


verb 01.4, shitustin

mishaarim we wash; 1st pers. pl. pres. of the rt" t4tce


verb 01...2, , sh8stin
nce-shiioi4d he, she washtds; 3rd pers, sing. pres.
of the verb 01.0.41 , shtstin
meshEcoyiim I wash; 1st pers. sing. pres. of the
. verb oz.......`, , shtstlin
Mish6Opind they wash; 3rd pers. pl. pres. of the
Ni verb 0:....: ,shtistin
Tnekonad he, she does; 3rd pers. sing. pros.
of the verb tj , kirdin
4
mekonam I do; 1st pers. sing. pros. ot the
verb t...) Jel , kIrdin
-
mekone you (thou) do; 2nd pers. sing. pres.
of the verb j , kirdin

ycA2. do; 2nd pers. pl. pres. of the


verb j JS , kirdin
niektn;M we do; let pers. pl. pres. of the
verb tj , kardiri
-
mekonand they do; 3rd pers. pl. pros. of the
verb j j,, kinign
he, she writes; 3rd pers. sing, pros.
of the verb CIA"
nevit'shan
mi'Leiviam I write; 1st pers. sing. hres. of the
verb 040-* a nevershtin

ninysj you(thou) write; 2nd pers. sing. pros.


of the verb CY" -6' Pa neveshtin
mituivi oil you write; 2nd pers. pl. pres. of the
verb - ne'veshtiinII.,

miAviaim we write; 1st pers. pl. pres. of the


verb nev4shtin
iinevi Bind they write; 3rd per.' p1. pres. of the
verb ).; , rAveshta'n
4

p.

161
na or ns no, not; a contraction of at (n1h),"not"
or "no," it is used to make negative
verbs and is salmi attached at the
beginning of the word with which it
goo,, with the exception of the negative
form of the present tense of the verb
0J11/. badan, which uses (.0 , ni,
0.g., ast.

bread 01;
nin

nazdek near. close


dip=
nacishe map

nein half fti

10.1* $
,
Va and P

.
vazn weight 0; ,

vticiti; when

ha sign of plural LA

hir each ,ka

hi'st is; 3rd pers, sing. pres. of the 47.....a


verb t.) J), , boodan
hZatIll I as; lat pers. sing. prea, of the ra"41
verb 0J,, . boodan

h;stind they are; 3rd pers. pl. pres. of the .1;:bc.16


verb 0 J,I , hoodan
h's ti you (thou) are, 2nd pers, sing. pres. tit....6
of the verb 0 J)1, boodan
' hA'stid you are; 2nd pers. pl. pros. of the
verb 0 J h , boodan
h.4ste-6- we are; lst pers. pl. pros. of the 'w

J pl , boodan

hasht eight

I6z / Q0
hilft;h week
JAA
hefdidh seventeen

ham also
4&1111
hImg all,
do Asitio
aidih eighteen

4.04

a, of; euphonic sound,


indefinite article
"
yad gereft he, she learned; 3rd pers. sing. past 4j;11/14
of the compound verb
yid gereftin

yid ger;ftim I learned; 1st pers. sing, past ofstIr ra Jig


compound verb 0.4ASJIg Yad
geriftin

yad gerefte you (thou) learned; 2nd pers. sing. past Oa/ 4
of the compound verb
yad gerikitin
" -
yad gerefted you learned; 2nd pers. pl. past of the
compound verb co/ yid
geriftin

yad gereftem we learned; 1st pers. pl. past of tha OA 4


compound verb
geriftin
CAVA yad

j .. 4
Jott; 40:
gad gereftand they learned; 3rd pers. pl. past of the
compound verb cozadwgjL. , Yid
gireftin

yid m;ari'd he, she learns; 3rd pers. sing. pres. of J ._.Ail
- 4
the.,compound verb cpli,c4. , yad
gireftin
4

yid Migirim I learn; 1st pers. sing. pres. of the


compound verb
geriftin
014/4 3rid

163
gad vivre you (thou) learn; 2nd pers. sing. pres.
of the compound veeb orjAajite yid,

gireftin
yid miige-rid you learn; 2n1 pers. pl. pries. of the
compound verb cja j I ,. Yid
giriftin

sie-girim we learn; let pore. pl. pres. of the


oompound verb ,
gereftin
yid iigirind they learn; 3rd pers. pl. pres. of the
compound verb cra,r jit. yid
gereftin
yazdh eleven
yk One

.74kishimh4 Sunday