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BATCH MODULE

7.1
BATCH MODULE
BATCH
Contents

Chapter 1 Overview of the Batch Module


Batch Reactor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1
Batch Distillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2
Hardware and Software Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-3
Disk Space Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-3
Glossary of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-3

Chapter 2 Batch Distillation


Feeds and Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-2
Pressure Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-3
Condenser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-3
Liquid Holdup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-4
Global Stop Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-4
Operating Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-5
Calculation Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-6
Print Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-6
Thermodynamic Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-6

Chapter 3 Batch Reactor


Feeds and Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-2
Calculation Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-2
Utility Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-3
Global Stop Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-3
Operating Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-3
Print Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-4
Thermodynamic Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-4

Chapter 4 Interpreting the Output Reports


History Segment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-1
Unit Detail Segment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-2

PRO/II 5.11 Add-On Modules Users Guide iii


Additional Output Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
BATCH

iv Contents
BATCH
Chapter 1
Overview of the Batch Module

This chapter introduces the two batch unit operations: Batch


Reactor and Batch Distillation. A glossary of terms is also provided.

Batch Reactor
Figure 1-1: Schematic of a Batch Reactor

F1
P1

F2 Q
...

P2

Fn

Batch reaction analysis for PRO/II is available as an add-on module


to the standard release. The batch reactor unit operation allows for
the calculation of material production as a result of simultaneous
and/or sequential reactions in the liquid contents of a reactor vessel.
Phase-equilibrium analysis during the reaction process allows for
the tracking or removal of vapor-phase products at the end of the
cycle. The unit may be run in a true batch simulation mode, with the
feeds charged to the reactor vessel at the start of the cycle and

PRO/II 7.1 Add-On Modules Users Guide 1-1


product taken from the vessel at the end of the cycle, or in a semi-
batch mode where feeds may be introduced throughout the cycle.
Batch reactor calculations may also be integrated into a steady-state
BATCH

process simulation. The unit configuration automatically considers


BATCH

the presence of holding tanks for steady-flow streams to provide the


time-variant feeds to the batch unit. Implicit holding tanks are also
considered for the product streams to provide a coupling of the
time-variant process to the continuous process simulation environ-
ment. A representation of the product steady-flow stream comes
from an overall cycle time average of the quantity accumulated into
a given product.

Batch Distillation
Figure 1-2: Schematic of a Batch Column

Batch distillation for PRO/II is available as an add-on module to the


standard release. This unit operation allows for a wide range of col-
umn operating scenarios. The unit may be run in a true batch simu-
lation mode, with the feedstock charged to the stillpot prior to
distilling and products taken from the accumulator at various times,
or in a semi-batch mode where feedstock may be introduced during
the distillation process and products may be drawn from the column
or accumulator over some time interval.
Batch distillation calculations may also be integrated into a steady-
state process simulation. Holding tanks are implicit between batch
charges and the continuous flowsheet streams that provide the feed-

1-2 Overview of the Batch Module


stock for the charges. An average feedstock flow may be calculated
from the charge amount divided by the batch cycle time, but there
will be no reconciliation of this average feedstock flow with the rate
of the continuous flowsheet stream. Similarly, there is an implicit

BATCH
holding tank between each batch product and the corresponding
continuous flowsheet stream. The rate of each continuous product
stream will be set equal to the product amount divided by the batch
cycle time.

Hardware and Software Requirements


The Batch module is an add-on to PRO/II, so the standard PRO/II
hardware and software requirements apply. See Chapter 2, Require-
ments for Installation in the PRO/II Installation Guide for details.

Disk Space Requirements


The Batch Units add-on module requires an additional 1 MB of disk
space beyond the requirements for the standard PRO/II installation.

Glossary of Terms

Accumulator A vessel to hold the liquid product taken from the


condenser but not refluxed back into the column.
Cuts are periodically taken from the accumulator.

Batch Cycle The series of operations to be repeated for each


batch.

Batch Cycle Time The time between starts of successive batches.

Column Trays The ideal stages found specifically in the column


portion of the distillation configuration.

Cut A dump of the accumulator contents into a


product tank. More generally, a cut is the part of
the distillation devoted to producing the cut.

PRO/II 7.1 Add-On Modules Users Guide 1-3


Heating/Cooling Within the batch reactor, heating and cooling
Actions actions are effectively the same action - an adjust-
ment in the temperature of the vessel contents. If
BATCH

a utility fluid is to be used for the action, the fluid


BATCH

type and requested direction of the temperature


change determine the feasibility of the action.
Within the batch distillation unit, heating occurs
in the stillpot and cooling in the condenser.

Operating The batch recipe: a prescription of what to do


Policy when, and how, during each batch cycle. Specifi-
cation of the operating policy is divided into parts
called Policy Segments.

Policy Segment A slate of related operating actions or conditions


which may contain:
Reasons to start the Policy Segment.
Pre-operation actions (e.g., charge the vessel,
preheat the reactor).
The distill or react action.
Reasons to stop or pause the distill or react
action, or to stop or pause modifications (e.g.,
a continuous charge) to the current distill or
react action.
Post-operation actions (e.g., end a distillation
cut, discharge the reactor vessel).

Stages Refers to the distinct zones in the batch distilla-


tion configuration for which vapor-liquid equilib-
rium calculations are performed. Stages include
the stillpot, the column trays, and the condenser.
The accumulator is not a stage, but is merely a
collection vessel for the distilled liquid product.

1-4 Overview of the Batch Module


BATCH
Chapter 2
Batch Distillation

The batch distillation unit simulates a batch rectifier comprising a


stillpot, column, condenser, and accumulator. Only vapor-liquid
separation may be modeled. The stillpot, the column trays, and the
condenser are all theoretical stages. The main Batch Distillation
dialog box is shown in Figure 2-1.
Figure 2-1: Batch Distillation Dialog Box

There is no limit to the number of stages that may be considered in


a batch distillation model, although at least two stages must be
specified. The stages are considered linked, with the equilibrium
vapor from each stage entering the next higher stage and the equi-
librium liquid from each stage feeding the next lower stage. The
condenser is always designated as stage number one, and the stillpot
is always assigned the highest stage number.

PRO/II 7.1 Add-On Modules Users Guide 2-1


The following must be supplied for the batch column:
Number of theoretical stages
BATCH

Maximum simulation time: When the calculated time reaches


BATCH

this value, all calculations will stop. Note this is the simulated
distillation time and not the elapsed computer time.

Note: If you change the number of stages in the unit, you


must redefine all data that refer to specific stage numbers
including pressure or liquid holdup profiles, output reports,
and segment start or stop conditions.

Feeds and Products


Batch column feed and product streams are added as part of the
flowsheet construction in the process flow diagram (PFD). Feed
streams are used as sources for the batch column charges. There is
no limit to the number of feed streams or charges, but an initial
charge must be made to the stillpot before distillation may be per-
formed. Further charges may be supplied during the operation of the
unit. Charges to the stillpot may be instantaneous or continuous,
while charges must be continuous to a column tray. A charge to the
first stage, the condenser or reflux splitter, is not allowed.
The first feed stream is attached to the stillpot. Additional feed
streams may be attached to the sides of the unit (at any point along
the sides). Each stream may be used for any number of charges.
Liquid products may be drawn from the accumulator, from the still-
pot, or from any stage in the column at any time. Draws from the
accumlator or stillpot may be instantaneous. Continuous draws may
be taken from any location except the accumlator. Cut products,
which dump the total accumulator product into a product stream,
can also be defined.
In addition, three special products are present at the end of a simula-
tion. These are:
The heel, i.e., the liquid in the stillpot and drained from the
trays at the end of the distillation;
The accumulator residue, i.e., the contents of the accumulator
and reflux splitter at the end of the distillation;
The accumulated overhead vapor from a partial condenser.

2-2 Batch Distillation


The heel and accumulator residue must be defined as product
streams. An overhead product is required to specify a partial or
mixed condenser. Separate streams must be attached to the unit for
every draw or cut product.

BATCH
Pressure Profile
The pressure must be defined for all stages in a column. The
tray pressures are defined in the Batch Distillation Pressure Profile
dialog box, which is selected by clicking Pressure Profile....
Tray pressures can be supplied via radio buttons in this dialog box
on an overall or tray-by-tray basis. For the overall mode, supply the
condenser pressure as well as one of the following:
Pressure drop per tray (defaults to 0.0 psi).
Column pressure drop (defaults to 0.0 psi).
Stillpot pressure.

Condenser
The condenser for the batch distillation units is always stage one
and is defined in the Batch Distillation Condenser dialog box. This
dialog box is accessed by clicking on the Condenser button in the
Batch Distillation dialog box. Each condenser must have a liquid
product.

Note: The condenser is always defined as stage one even though


it does not function as an equilibrium stage for subcooled con-
densers.
The type of condenser is selected with the appropriate radio button:
Bubble Temperature.
Partial.
Mixed.
Subcooled, Fixed Temperature.
Subcooled, Fixed Temperature Drop.

PRO/II 7.1 Add-On Modules Users Guide 2-3


Liquid Holdup
The liquid holdup must be defined for the condenser and for all col-
umn trays in the Batch Distillation Liquid Holdup dialog box. This
BATCH

dialog box is accessed by clicking Liquid Holdup... in the Batch Dis-


BATCH

tillation dialog box. Liquid holdup may be defined overall or sepa-


rately for each column tray.
If the liquid holdup is defined on an overall basis, then both the con-
denser and the total tray holdup must be provided. The overall
holdup may be provided on a molar, weight, or liquid volume basis.
If the holdup is specified by individual stages, then the liquid
holdup (on a molar, weight, or liquid volume basis) must be sup-
plied at least for the condenser and for the tray above the stillpot
(stage N-1).

Global Stop Criteria


By default, calculations are stopped when either the mole fraction
of the initial charge in the stillpot is 0.10 or the maximum simula-
tion time is reached. The fractional basis can also be weight or liq-
uid volume, and the fraction can be set to any value between 0
and 1. Additional global stop criteria can also be defined in the
Batch Distillation Global Stop Criteria dialog box. This dialog box
is accessed by clicking the Global Stop Criteria button in the Batch
Distillation dialog box.
Additional global stop criteria include maximum or minimum quan-
tities (in the contents of the accumulator or stillpot), purities (of the
accumulator or stillpot contents, or of the vapor entering the con-
denser), and temperatures (of the stillpot contents, or the vapor
entering the accumulator). Each stop criterion can be approached
from:
Either direction (the default).
Above.
Below.
After one of these criteria is met, all policy segments that are cur-
rently running are ended. Unless the condition specifies that another
policy segment should then be started, the simulation is ended.

2-4 Batch Distillation


Operating Policy
The backbone of the operating policy is a series of sequential policy
segments that run in the order in which they appear in the Overall
Operating Policy grid in the Batch Distillation dialog box. The

BATCH
Overall Operating Policy grid contains the following elements:
Identifier: The policy segment identifier may be up to 12 characters
and must be unique. A default identifier is supplied (Pnnn, where
nnn is a number starting from 001).
Initiation Type: Each policy segment must be defined as Sequential
or Non-sequential. The main calculation is a series of sequential
segments. Non-sequential segments run in parallel to the sequential
calculation in order to define additional charges, draws, or control
actions (with their own starting and stopping criteria).
Segments: The policy segment actions are defined by clicking
Enter Data..., which accesses the Batch Distillation Policy Segment
dialog box. Each row of the Operating Policy represents one policy
segment. The segment may consist of common items such as:
Charge.
Distill.
Run Until.
End Cut.
Draw.
Control.
There may also be items which break or parallel the basic sequential
structure, such as:
Start.
and
Go To (define the next segment to be run).

Note: The first policy segment must include the initial charge to
the stillpot.

PRO/II 7.1 Add-On Modules Users Guide 2-5


Calculation Options
Only one integration/calculation option is available in this release.
Attributes for this option can be specified in the Batch Distillation
BATCH

Calculation Options dialog box. This dialog box is accessed by


BATCH

clicking Calculation Options in the Batch Distillation dialog box. The


integration method is the Semi-Implicit Trapezoidal.
Integration step sizes and tolerances are specified in this dialog box:
Tolerance (default 0.001).
Maximum Step Size (default 0.1 hr).
You can specify the type of liquid-density calculation specified as
either Rigorous (the default) or Shortcut. You can also enter the cal-
culation interval for the enthalpy balance. For a Shortcut liquid-den-
sity calculation, the default reference temperature is 77F.

Print Options
Click Print Options... in the Batch Distillation dialog box to access
the Batch Distillation Print Options dialog box. You can select or
deselect several different types of reports that will be provided in
the output. For some of these, you may be required to modify the
stage and component set to be reported.

Thermodynamic Options
Batch distillation only simulates VLE systems. The system for the
unit is selected by clicking the Thermodynamic Systems button in
the Batch Distillation dialog box, which displays the Thermody-
namic Systems dialog box. It is also possible to define different ther-
modynamic systems for individual sections of the unit.

2-6 Batch Distillation


BATCH
Chapter 3
Batch Reactor

The Batch Reactor unit operation simulates the operation of a batch


or semi-batch reactor by solving the transient heat and material bal-
ances based on supplied reaction stoichiometry and kinetic data.
The batch cycle ends when the last of its policy segments ends,
when no policy segment is active, when a discharge action is initi-
ated, or when a global end condition is met. This global end condi-
tion overrides any ending conditions set up by the policy actions.
The reaction stoichiometry must be defined in the Reaction Data
Sets dialog box before the reactor performance can be specified. See
Chapter 8, Using PRO/II Data Entry Windows (Reaction Data), of
the PRO/II Users Guide for information on specifying reaction
sets. Kinetic data may be entered in the Reaction Data Sets dialog
box or in the Batch Reactor dialog box itself (Figure 3-1).
Figure 3-1: Batch Reactor Dialog Box

PRO/II 7.1 Add-On Modules Users Guide 3-1


Note: Any data entered in the Reaction Data Sets dialog box will
be passed to the Batch Reactor and used as default values. Reac-
tion data entered in the Batch Reactor overrides data entered in
BATCH

the reaction set for that unit only.


BATCH

Currently, the Batch Reactor supports only liquid-phase reactions.


A reaction may produce one or more vapor constituents. Whether
the vapor constituent(s) will return to the liquid phase and again be
available for reaction(s) will be determined by equilibrium analysis
done at the end of each time step.
The following must be also be supplied for the Batch Reactor:
Reaction set.
Maximum batch time.
When the batch cycle time reaches this value, all calculations will
stop. Note that this is the simulated reaction time from the start of
the batch cycle of this unit, not the elapsed computer time.

Feeds and Products


Feed and product streams are added as part of the PFD flowsheet
construction. At least one feed and one product stream are required
for the Batch Reactor. The interface between this transient unit
operation and the main steady-state flowsheet is handled through a
holding tank concept. Each feed stream goes to a holding tank, and
the associated charge comes from that holding tank. The bulk prod-
uct goes into holding tanks.
When the batch cycle has completed, equilibrium calculations are
carried out on the contents of the product holding tank.
Product phases are specified by clicking Product Phases... in the
Batch Reactor dialog box.

Calculation Options
Only one integration/calculation option is available in this release.
Tolerance for this option and tolerance for equilibrium calculations
can be specified in the Batch Reactor Calculation Options dialog
box. This dialog box is accessed by clicking Calculation Options in
the Batch Reactor dialog box.

3-2 Batch Reactor


The calculation method used is LSODA (Livermore Solver for
Ordinary Differential Equations, Variation A). By default, the
LSODA tolerance is 0.001.
If equilibrium calculation tolerances are specified, these calcula-

BATCH
tions are done only if the change in temperature, pressure, or con-
centration between successive time steps is greater than the
specified tolerance. It is recommended that these tolerances be used
if the problem uses electrolyte thermodynamics. By default, equi-
librium calculations are done at each time step.

Utility Fluids
To define utility fluids for heating or cooling the batch reactor dur-
ing any of the policy segments, click Utility Fluids. You may define
as many utilities as you need in the Batch Reactor Utility Fluids
dialog box. The utilities are allocated to reactor heating or cooling
actions in the Policy Segment Heat and Policy Segment Cool dialog
boxes.

Global Stop Criteria


The maximum and minimum operating temperatures of the reactor
are defined by clicking Global Stop in the Batch Reactor dialog box.
When either is violated, the calculation of all policy segments stops.

Operating Policy
To define one or more operating policy segments for the unit, use
the Operating Policy grid in the Batch Reactor dialog box. Each
row in this grid represents one policy segment. The policy segment
may consist of several actions, such as:
React Until.
Charge.
Discharge.
Heat.
Cool.

PRO/II 7.1 Add-On Modules Users Guide 3-3


The starting condition for each policy segment must be defined, i.e.:
Time.
BATCH

Temperature.
BATCH

Fraction (of component(s)).


Percent (of component(s)).
Amount (of component(s)).

Note: At least one policy statement must be defined for the Batch
Reactor.
The Operating Policy grid contains the following elements:
Identifier: The policy segment identifier may be up to 12 characters
long and must be unique. A default identifier is supplied (Pnnn,
where nnn is a number starting from 001).
Policy Segments: The policy segment actions are defined by clicking
Enter Data..., which accesses the Batch Reactor Policy Segment
dialog box.

Print Options
To specify output reports to be generated during the calculation,
click Print Options... in the Batch Reactor dialog box. As the calcu-
lation is transient, data cannot be stored for every possible time dur-
ing the calculation. Therefore, reports must be specified before the
simulation is run to save the necessary data.

Thermodynamic Options
The thermodynamic system for the unit is selected by using the
Thermodynamic System drop-down list in the Batch Reactor dialog
box. Batch Reactor allows the use of electrolyte thermodynamic
methods.

3-4 Batch Reactor


BATCH
Chapter 4
Interpreting the Output Reports

To view results of the batch unit simulations, select Generate


Report from the Output menu.

Note: You can also click the Generate Reports button on the tool-
bar to generate the output report.
This action produces an ASCII output report as part of the results
file for the entire simulation.
Calculation information specific to the batch units appears in two
sections of this output report:
In the history segment, and
In the unit detail segment of the report file for all unit opera-
tions.

History Segment
The history segment information typically gives information about
the initiation of a given policy segment and, if applicable to the par-
ticular policy segment, some information about the time integration
operations. This information is also displayed in a Messages dialog
box while the simulation is running and help determine whether the
time integrations are going astray or whether the integration appears
to be proceeding well.

PRO/II 7.1 Add-On Modules Users Guide 4-1


Unit Detail Segment
The output of greatest interest to the user is provided in the unit
detail section. For each batch unit, output is given for:
BATCH
BATCH

The steady-state feeds and products associated with the batch


unit.
The charge of the batch unit from a specified FEED stream
used as a feedstock source for the batch unit.
Production detail and how a batch product stream is associated
back to a simulation flowsheet, steady-state product stream.
Specifications on the unit (e.g., number of stages in the distilla-
tion configuration).
Operating Policy definition through the Policy Segment specifi-
cations.
General operation stopping criteria.

Additional Output Options


The level of output described above simply defines the problem that
was solved. Additional output is specified by the user and is in the
form of operational and conditional information at time steps
throughout the batch cycle analysis.
By default, time detail information is stored for output at the start of
each policy segment. Further specification is possible. In the batch
distillation unit, you may request output of specific properties as a
function of time (and given for each stage unless a restriction is
placed on which stages to include in the output), or you may request
summary snapshots in time of the conditions for the entire column.
For both the batch reactor and batch distillation units, a finer detail
in time for the output may be requested and a restriction placed on
which components to consider in the output. In this manner, you
may generate detailed information during a specific time period in
which there are rapid changes in composition or operating condi-
tions (e.g., in a batch distillation when a light-end component is
finally depleted from the column and a sharp change in temperature
is needed to maintain an overhead vapor flowrate, or in a batch reac-
tor when production of a given chemical species reaches a critical
concentration such that the kinetics trigger a shift in overall reactant
utilization).

4-2 Interpreting the Output Reports


In the batch distillation unit, all summary snapshot time information
is generated in an increasing time sequence, even if defined for out-
put on different print requests). The time profile output follows, but
retains the grouping as possibly defined in the different print

BATCH
requests.

Note: Because of the amount of calculation information that can


be generated, you should exercise caution in selecting the level of
calculation output.
The default information generated is, by design, minimal in order to
allow a quick overview of how the unit performed in the given sim-
ulation. As the performance is analyzed, you may need to examine a
particular property more closely during a time segment to ensure
proper unit operation. The additional output generation print
options are designed for this purpose.

PRO/II 7.1 Add-On Modules Users Guide 4-3


BATCH
BATCH

4-4 Interpreting the Output Reports


BATCH
Index

A limitations , 3-2
operating policy , 3-3
overview , 1-1
Accumulator , 1-3, 2-2 print options , 3-4
product stream , 3-2
schematic , 1-1
B thermodynamic options , 3-4
tolerance , 3-3
Batch cycle utility fluids , 3-3
operations , 1-3 Bubble temperature , 2-3
time , 1-3, 3-2
Batch distillation
accumulator , 2-2 C
calculation options , 2-6
charges to the stillpot , 2-2
Calculation options
condenser , 2-3 batch distillation , 2-6
dialog box , 2-1 batch reactor , 3-2
draws , 2-2 maximum step size , 2-6
feed stream , 2-2 tolerance , 2-6, 3-3
global stop criteria , 2-4
Calculations
liquid holdup , 2-4
equilibrium , 3-2
operating policy , 2-5
stopping , 2-4
overview , 1-2
Charge , 2-5, 3-3, 4-2
pressure profile , 2-3
print options , 2-6 Column trays , 1-3
product stream , 2-2 Condenser , 2-3
schematic , 1-2 Cool , 3-3
stillpot , 2-2 Cut , 1-3
thermodynamic options , 2-6
tray pressure , 2-3
Batch reactor D
calculation options , 3-2
data entry , 3-2
dialog box , 3-1 Discharge , 3-3
feed stream , 3-2 Disk space requirements , 1-3
global stop criteria , 3-3 Draws , 2-2
holding tank , 3-2

PRO/II 7.1 Add-on Modules Users Guide I-1


E simulation time , 2-2
step size , 2-6
Messages , 4-1
Equilibrium calculations , 3-3
Minimum operating temperatures , 3-3
BATCH

F O
Fluids, utility , 3-3
Operating policy , 1-4
batch distillation , 2-5
batch reactor , 3-3
G identifier , 2-5, 3-4
initiation type , 2-5
Global stop criteria policy segments , 3-4
batch distillation , 2-4 segments , 2-5
batch reactor
Output reports
, 3-3 generating , 4-1
Glossary , 1-3 history segment , 4-1
time detail information , 4-2
unit detail segment , 4-1
H
Hardware requirements , 1-3
P
Heat , 3-3
Policy segments , 3-3
Heating/cooling actions , 1-4
amount , 3-4
History segment information , 4-1 charge , 2-5, 3-3
Holding tank , 3-2 control , 2-5
cool , 3-3
definition , 1-4
K discharge , 3-3
distill , 2-5
Kinetic data , 3-1 draw , 2-5
end cut , 2-5
fraction , 3-4
go to , 2-5
L heat , 3-3
identifier , 2-5, 3-4
Liquid holdup , 2-4 percent , 3-4
Liquid products , 2-2 react until , 3-3
LSODA calculation method , 3-3 run until , 2-5
temperature , 3-4
time , 3-4
M Pressure profile , 2-3
Print options
Maximum batch distillation , 2-6
batch time , 3-2 batch reactor , 3-4
operating temperatures , 3-3 Production detail , 4-2

PRO/II 7.1 Add-on Modules Users Guide I-2


R Stillpot , 2-2
Streams
feed , 2-2, 3-2
Reaction set , 3-2 product , 2-2, 3-2
Reaction stoichiometry , 3-1

BATCH
Reports , 4-1
Requirements T
disk space , 1-3
hardware/software , 1-3
Temperature, condenser , 2-3
Results , 4-1 Thermodynamic options
batch disillation , 2-6
batch reactor , 3-4
S Tolerance , 2-6
Tray holdup , 2-4
Segment
Tray pressures , 2-3
options , 2-5
Software requirements , 1-3
Stages U
definition , 1-4
number of , 2-1
Unit detail segment information , 4-2
Step size , 2-6
Utility fluids , 3-3

I-3 Index
BATCH