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# Faculty of Engineering and

Materials Science

Sensor Technology
ELCT 903
Lecture # 3
Dynamic characteristics for sensor design
Part I
Sept. 23th, 2017

## Dr. Amir R. Ali

Assist. Prof. of Mechatronics Engineering
amir.ali@guc.edu.eg
C7.108
Sensor Technology Lecture # 3

Lecture # 3
Dynamic characteristics for sensor design
Part I
Contents
Zero Order Sensing System
First Order Sensing System
Second Order Sensing System
Step input
Ramp input
Sinusoidal input

## At the end of this lecture the student will know

Characteristics equation for the sensor.
Sensor types and its responses to the step, ramp and
sinusoidal input.
Copyright 2017 Dr. Amir R. Ali-Assist. Prof. of Mechatronics Engineering (2)
Sensor Technology (Part 1 of 4) Introduction for Dynamic Characteristics

Dynamic Characteristics
The sensor performance can be examined by two ways,
1. When steady or constant input signals are applied, comparison of the
steady output with the ideal case gives the static performance of the
system
2. When changing input signals are applied, comparison with the ideal
case gives the dynamic performance of the systems

Dynamic Static
Characteristics Characteristics
at Transient conditions at Steady conditions

## Copyright 2017 Dr. Amir R. Ali-Assist. Prof. of Mechatronics Engineering (3)

Sensor Technology (Part 1 of 4) Introduction for Dynamic Characteristics

Dynamic Characteristics
Dynamic characteristics tell us about how well a sensor
responds to changes in its input. For dynamic signals, the
sensor or the measurement system must be able to respond
fast enough to keep up with the input signals.

## Input x(t ) Sensor system y (t ) Output

signal signal
(Mech., Elect., Opt.)

## In many situations, we must use x(t) to infer y(t), therefore a

qualitative understanding of the operation that the sensor or
measurement system performs is imperative to
understanding the input signal correctly.
Copyright 2017 Dr. Amir R. Ali-Assist. Prof. of Mechatronics Engineering (4)
Sensor Technology (Part 1 of 4) Introduction for Dynamic Characteristics

## General Model For A Measurement System

nth Order ordinary linear differential equation (ODE) with
constant coefficient x(t ) Sensor system y (t )
(Mech., Elect., Opt.)

d n y (t ) d n 1 y (t ) dy (t )
an n
an 1 n 1
... a1 a0 y (t )
dt d t dt
System Dynamics

## d m x(t ) d m 1 x(t ) dx(t )

bm m
bm 1 m 1
... b1 b0 x(t )
dt d t dt
F ( t ) forcing function

mn
y (t ) Output from the system (t ) time
x(t ) Input to the system
a s and b s System physical parameters, assumed constant
Copyright 2017 Dr. Amir R. Ali-Assist. Prof. of Mechatronics Engineering (5)
Sensor Technology (Part 1 of 4) Introduction for Dynamic Characteristics
d n y (t ) d n 1 y (t ) dy (t )
an n
a n 1 n 1
... a 1 a0 y (t )
d t d t dt
d m x(t ) d m1 x(t ) dx(t )
bm m
bm 1 m 1
... b1 b0 x(t )
d t d t dt
xh is obtained when R.H.S.
Is consider zero. So, xh will
be vanished after certain
time Tf. Therefore, xh is
termed as
Transient Solution

## xp is obtained when R.H.S.

Is taken into consideration.
So, it will have the same
form as the excitation (i.e.
same ). So, xp is the

## The general response (xh+ xp)

state after short time Tf

## Copyright 2017 Dr. Amir R. Ali-Assist. Prof. of Mechatronics Engineering (6)

Sensor Technology (Part 1 of 4) Introduction for Dynamic Characteristics

## Linear Vs Non-linear system

Where the elastic and damping forces are linear
.
with displacement x and velocity , respectively.
(this will lead to linear differential equations)

## The elastic and/or damping forces is/are non-linear

.
with displacement x and/or velocity , respectively
(this will lead to non-linear differential equations)
Excitation 1 Response 1 x(t) = c1x1(t) + c2x2(t)
Linear
System Superposition
F1(t) x1(t)
Linear
System
Excitation 2 Response 2
Linear
System
F2(t) x2(t)
F(t) = c1F1(t) + c2F2(t)

## Copyright 2017 Dr. Amir R. Ali-Assist. Prof. of Mechatronics Engineering (7)

Sensor Technology (Part 1 of 4) Introduction for Dynamic Characteristics

d n y (t ) d n 1 y (t ) dy (t )
an an 1 ... a1 a0 y (t )
d nt d n 1t dt
d m x(t ) d m1 x(t ) dx(t )
bm m
b m 1 m 1
... b1 b0 x(t )
d t d t dt

## Linear relation Non-linear relation

Output o Output o

o i
Sensitivity Sensitivity will
o vary according to
i equals to the
slope of the i the value of the
calibration graph output
Input i Input i

## Copyright 2017 Dr. Amir R. Ali-Assist. Prof. of Mechatronics Engineering (8)

Sensor Technology (Part 2 of 4) Zero-order Systems

Zero-order Systems
All the as and bs other than a0 and b0 are zero.
d n y (t ) d n 1 y (t ) dy (t )
an an 1 ... a1 a0 y (t )
d nt d n 1t dt a0 y(t ) b0 x(t )
d m x(t ) d m1 x(t ) dx(t )
bm b ... b b0 x(t )
d tm m 1 m 1
d t
1
dt 1

y (t ) b0 b0 a0
Static sensitivity K K y (t ) x(t )
x(t ) a0 a0

## y(t ) K x(t ) The behaviour is characterized by its

static sensitivity, K and remains constant
No time lag regardless of input frequency (ideal
dynamic characteristic).

## Copyright 2017 Dr. Amir R. Ali-Assist. Prof. of Mechatronics Engineering (9)

Sensor Technology (Part 2 of 4) Zero-order Systems

y(t ) K x(t )
A linear potentiometer used as position sensor is a zero-order
sensor.
x Eex Where 0 x xm and Eex is a reference
V2 Eex K
xm xm voltage
Output V2 Output voltage Eo(x)
Linear Potentiometer
(Position sensor)
V2
Slider arm
V2 Slider
Displacement (x) V1
x
xm IR x=0
V2=V1-IR(x)
Input x I
Sensitivity equals to the slope of the Eex
calibration graph
Copyright 2017 Dr. Amir R. Ali-Assist. Prof. of Mechatronics Engineering (10)
Sensor Technology (Part 2 of 4) Zero-order Systems

Zero-order Systems
Input and output are related by an equation of the type

y(t ) K x(t )
Zero-order is the desirable response of a sensor
No delays
Infinite bandwidth
The sensor only changes the amplitude of the input
signal
Zero-order systems do not include energy-storing
elements Could the Micro-optical Sphere
considered as a zero-order system? Why?
Copyright 2017 Dr. Amir R. Ali-Assist. Prof. of Mechatronics Engineering (11)
Sensor Technology (Part 2 of 4) Zero-order Systems
Equilibrium Optical cavities could be model as mechanical
system
position
Input force
At t = F Fo sin(t )
m
0s
At t = 2,500 5
m

(pm)
0.5s 2,000 4
1,500 3

(V/m)
E-Field, [V/m]

Sphere deflection,
At t = 1,000 2
m

d, [pm]
500 1
1s

E-Field,
0 0
-500 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 -1
At t = -1,000 -2
1.5s m -1,500 -3
-2,000 -4
-2,500 -5
At t = Time, [s]
m
2s 4 pm
Sensitivit y 1
0.002 pm / Vm 1
2000Vm

## Copyright 2017 Dr. Amir R. Ali-Assist. Prof. of Mechatronics Engineering (12)

Sensor Technology (Part 2 of 4) Zero-order Systems
Equilibrium Optical cavities could be model as mechanical
system
position
Input force
At t = F Fo sin(t )
m
0s
At t =
0.5s m
x10-3
2.0

|d/dE| , [pm/Vm-1]
At t = 1.5
m Bandwidth
1s
1.0
At t = 0.5
1.5s m
0.0
0 200 400 600 800 1000
At t = E-field frequency, [Hz]
m
2s

## Copyright 2017 Dr. Amir R. Ali-Assist. Prof. of Mechatronics Engineering (13)

Sensor Technology (Part 3 of 4) First-order Systems

First-order Systems
All the as and bs other than a1 ,a0 and b0 are zero.
d n y (t ) d n 1 y (t ) dy (t )
an a n 1 ... a 1 a0 y (t )
d nt d n 1t dt dy (t )
d m x(t ) d m1 x(t ) dx(t ) a1 a0 y(t ) b0 x(t )
bm m
bm 1 m 1
... b1 b0 x(t ) dt
d t d t dt
1
a1 dy (t ) a1 dy (t ) b
y (t ) Kx(t ) y (t ) 0 x(t ) a0
a0 dt a0 dt a0

## dy(t ) a1 is the systems time b0

y(t ) Kx(t ) constant K is the static
dt a0 (dimension of time) a0 sensitivity

## Time lag The transducer that contains storage element

cannot respond instantaneously to the change in
the input
Copyright 2017 Dr. Amir R. Ali-Assist. Prof. of Mechatronics Engineering (14)
Sensor Technology (Part 3 of 4) First-order Systems

## First-order Systems Spring elements

Mass elements
dy(t ) Inertial elements
y(t ) Kx(t ) Capacitor
dt Cavity

## Can be written in terms of the D operator

2
d d
D D 2 2 ...etc
dt dt
Dy(t ) y(t ) Kx(t )
(D 1) y(t ) Kx(t )
T.F.
y (t ) K x(t ) K y (t )

x(t ) ( D 1) ( D 1)
Copyright 2017 Dr. Amir R. Ali-Assist. Prof. of Mechatronics Engineering (15)
Sensor Technology (Part 3 of 4) First-order Systems

## First-order Systems : Step Response

The step input function is defined as x(t )
Ideal response
x0 for t 0 xs

x xs for t 0
0
At t >= 0, the first order system t
dy (t ) The solution of this differential
y (t ) Kxs
dt equation at (t >= 0)
t
at t a1 b0
y (t ) Kxs 1 e

K
y(t ) Kxs a0 a0
Copyright 2017 Dr. Amir R. Ali-Assist. Prof. of Mechatronics Engineering (16)
Sensor Technology (Part 3 of 4) First-order Systems

## First-order Systems : Step Response

t
at t a1 b0
y (t ) Kxs 1 e

K
y(t ) Kxs a0 a0

y (t )
Design perspective
y Ideal response
point of view
Kxs
For larger the longer
Larger time will take to reach the
x
Copyright 2017 Dr. Amir R. Ali-Assist. Prof. of Mechatronics Engineering (17)
Sensor Technology (Part 3 of 4) First-order Systems

## First-order Systems : Step Response

Error in measurements at any time is defined as:
Get rid of the static
y
em x sensitivity effect
y (t )
Ideal
K
actual y Ideal response
t
xs xs 1 e
Kxs

t
xs e 0
x
at t 0 at t
em xs em 0
Copyright 2017 Dr. Amir R. Ali-Assist. Prof. of Mechatronics Engineering (18)
Sensor Technology (Part 3 of 4) First-order Systems

## First-order Systems : Step Response

Error in measurements at any time is defined as:
Get rid of the static
y em
Non-dimensional step
em x sensitivity effect response of first-order
K instrument

t

xs
xs xs 1 e

t
xs e
t
em
Normalized error e t
xs

Copyright 2017 Dr. Amir R. Ali-Assist. Prof. of Mechatronics Engineering (19)
Sensor Technology (Part 3 of 4) First-order Systems

## First-order Systems : Step Response

Here, we define the term error fraction as
t
em
Normalized error e
xs

t
e
t

em 1 e

## Non-dimensional step response of first-order

instrument
Copyright 2017 Dr. Amir R. Ali-Assist. Prof. of Mechatronics Engineering (20)
Sensor Technology (Part 3 of 4) First-order Systems

## First-order Systems : Ramp Response

The ramp input function is defined as x(t )
x 0 for t 0 x s

x x s t for t 0
0
At t >= 0, the first order system t t
dy (t )
y (t ) Kxs t The solution of this differential equation
dt after applying the initial condition, gives

t
y (t ) Kx s e t

Copyright 2017 Dr. Amir R. Ali-Assist. Prof. of Mechatronics Engineering (21)
Sensor Technology (Part 3 of 4) First-order Systems

## First-order Systems : Ramp Response

Error in measurements at any time is defined as:
y Get rid of the static at t
em x
K sensitivity effect em xs
t
x s t x s e t

t
x s t x se x s t x s
Error xs
t
x se x s

Error Error

## Copyright 2017 Dr. Amir R. Ali-Assist. Prof. of Mechatronics Engineering (22)

Sensor Technology (Part 3 of 4) First-order Systems

## First-order Systems : Frequency Response

Sinusoidal Response
The sinusoidal function is defined as 1
f , 2f
T
x(t ) xs sin t for t 0
The first order system xs

dy(t )
y(t ) Kxs sin t
dt
The solution of this differential equation
y(t ) A sin(t ) tan 1 Kxs
A
Where A = amplitude of the steady state response
and = phase shift 1
2 2

## Copyright 2017 Dr. Amir R. Ali-Assist. Prof. of Mechatronics Engineering (23)

Sensor Technology (Part 4 of 4) Second-order Systems

Second-order Systems
In general, a second-order measurement system subjected to
arbitrary input, x(t)
d 2 y(t ) dy(t ) 1
a2 a a y (t ) b x (t )
dt 2 1
dt
0 0 a0

a2 d 2 y (t ) a1 dy (t ) b0
2
y(t ) x(t )
a0 dt a0 dt a0
a1 a0 b0
n K
2 a0 a2 a2 a0
the damping ratio, the natural is the static
dimensionless angular frequency sensitivity
Copyright 2017 Dr. Amir R. Ali-Assist. Prof. of Mechatronics Engineering (24)
Sensor Technology (Part 4 of 4) Second-order Systems

Second-order Systems
a1
2
a2 d y (t ) a1 dy (t ) b0
y(t ) x(t ) 2 a0 a2
2
a0 dt a0 dt a0
a0
n
K a2
b0
2 a1 a2 a1 K
2 a0
n 2 a0 a2 a0 a0

1 1 a2
1 d y(t ) 2 dy (t )
2

n 2
a0 a0 y (t ) Kx(t )
n dt
2 2
n dt
a2
Copyright 2017 Dr. Amir R. Ali-Assist. Prof. of Mechatronics Engineering (25)
Sensor Technology Next Lecture

Next Lecture

## Dynamic characteristics for sensor design

(Part II)
Second Order Sensing System
Step input, Ramp
input, Sinusoidal input

Thank you!
Copyright 2017 Dr. Amir R. Ali-Assist. Prof. of Mechatronics Engineering (26)