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Section 1.

4 Linear Equations in One Variable 37

Expanding Your Skills


61. What is the identity element for addition? Use it in an example.

62. What is the identity element for multiplication? Use it in an example.

63. What is another name for a multiplicative inverse?

64. What is another name for an additive inverse?

65. Is the operation of subtraction commutative? If not, give an example.

66. Is the operation of division commutative? If not, give an example.

67. Given the rectangular regions:

x A x B C

y1z y z

a. Write an expression for the area of region A. (Do not simplify.)

b. Write an expression for the area of region B.

c. Write an expression for the area of region C.

d. Add the expressions for the area of regions B and C.

e. Show that the area of region A is equal to the sum of the areas of regions B and C. What property of
real numbers does this illustrate?

Linear Equations in One Variable Section 1.4

1. Definition of a Linear Equation in One Variable Concepts


An equation is a statement that indicates that two quantities are equal. The fol- 1. Definition of a Linear Equation
lowing are equations. in One Variable
2. Solving Linear Equations
x 5 24 p 1 3 5 11 22z 5 220
3. Clearing Fractions and
All equations have an equal sign. Furthermore, notice that the equal sign sep- Decimals
arates the equation into two parts, the left-hand side and the right-hand side. A 4. Conditional Equations,
solution to an equation is a value of the variable that makes the equation a true Contradictions, and Identities
statement. Substituting a solution to an equation for the variable makes the right-
hand side equal to the left-hand side.
38 Chapter 1 Review of Basic Algebraic Concepts

Equation Solution Check


x 5 24 24 x 5 24
Substitute 24 for x.
24 5 24 Right-hand side equals left-
hand side.
p 1 3 5 11 8 p 1 3 5 11
Substitute 8 for p.
8 1 3 5 11 Right-hand side equals left-
hand side.
22z 5 220 10 22z 5 220
Substitute 10 for z.
221102 5 220 Right-hand side equals left-
hand side.
Throughout this text we will learn to recognize and solve several different types
of equations, but in this chapter we will focus on the specific type of equation called
a linear equation in one variable.

Definition of a Linear Equation in One Variable


Let a and b be real numbers such that a 0. A linear equation in one vari-
able is an equation that can be written in the form
ax 1 b 5 0

Notice that a linear equation in one variable has only one variable. Further-
more, because the variable has an implied exponent of 1, a linear equation is
sometimes called a first-degree equation.

Linear equation in one variable Not a linear equation in one variable


4x 2 3 5 0 4x2 1 8 5 0 (exponent for x is not 1)
4 3 4 3
5p 1 10 50 5p 1 10 q 50 (more than one variable)

2. Solving Linear Equations


To solve a linear equation, the goal is to simplify the equation to isolate the vari-
able. Each step used in simplifying an equation results in an equivalent equation.
Equivalent equations have the same solution set. For example, the equations
2x 1 3 5 7 and 2x 5 4 are equivalent because x 5 2 is the solution to both
equations.
To solve an equation, we may use the addition, subtraction, multiplication, and
division properties of equality. These properties state that adding, subtracting, mul-
tiplying, or dividing the same quantity on each side of an equation results in an
equivalent equation.

Addition and Subtraction Properties of Equality


Let a, b, and c represent real numbers.
Addition property of equality: If a 5 b, then a 1 c 5 b 1 c.
Subtraction property of equality: If a 5 b, then a 2 c 5 b 2 c.
Section 1.4 Linear Equations in One Variable 39

Multiplication and Division Properties of Equality


Let a, b, and c represent real numbers.
Multiplication property of equality: If a 5 b, then a ? c 5 b ? c.

5 1provided c 02.
a b
Division property of equality: If a 5 b, then
c c

Example 1 Solving Linear Equations


Solve each equation.
1 w
a. 12 1 x 5 40 b. 2 p 5 2 c. 4 5 d. 2x 5 6
5 2.2

Solution:
a. 12 1 x 5 40
12 2 12 1 x 5 40 2 12 To isolate x, subtract 12 from both sides.
x 5 28 Simplify.
Check: 12 1 x 5 40 Check the solution in the original equation.
12 1 1282 0 40
40 5 40 True statement
1
b. 2 p52
5

25 a2 pb 5 25122
1
To isolate p, multiply both sides by 25.
5
p 5 210 Simplify.
1
Check: 2 p52 Check the solution in the original equation.
5

2 12102 0 2
1
5
252 True statement
w
c. 45
2.2

2.2142 5 a b ? 2.2
w
To isolate w, multiply both sides by 2.2.
2.2
8.8 5 w Simplify.
w
Check: 4 5 Check the solution in the original equation.
2.2
8.8
40
2.2
454 True statement
d. 2x 5 6
2112x2 5 21162 To isolate x, multiply both sides by 21.
x 5 26 Simplify.
40 Chapter 1 Review of Basic Algebraic Concepts

Check: 2x 5 6 Check the solution in the original equation.


21262 0 6
656 True statement

Skill Practice Solve the equations.


6 3 t
1. x 2 5 5 211 2. 2 y 5 2 3. 5 5 4. 2a 5 22
5 5 16

For more complicated linear equations, several steps are required to isolate
the variable.

Steps to Solve a Linear Equation in One Variable


1. Simplify both sides of the equation.
Clear parentheses.
Consider clearing fractions or decimals (if any are present) by multi-
plying both sides of the equation by a common denominator of all
terms.
Combine like terms.
2. Use the addition or subtraction property of equality to collect the variable
terms on one side of the equation.
3. Use the addition or subtraction property of equality to collect the constant
terms on the other side of the equation.
4. Use the multiplication or division property of equality to make the coef-
ficient of the variable term equal to 1.
5. Check your answer.

Example 2 Solving Linear Equations


Solve the linear equations and check the answers.
a. 11z 1 2 5 51z 2 22 b. 231x 2 42 1 2 5 7 2 1x 1 12
c. 243 y 2 31y 2 52 4 5 216 2 5y2

Solution:
a. 11z 1 2 5 51z 2 22
11z 1 2 5 5z 2 10 Clear parentheses.
11z 2 5z 1 2 5 5z 2 5z 2 10 Subtract 5z from both sides.
6z 1 2 5 210 Combine like terms.
6z 1 2 2 2 5 210 2 2 Subtract 2 from both sides.
6z 5 212

Skill Practice Answers 6z 212 To isolate z, divide both sides of


5
1 6 6 the equation by 6.
1. x 5 26 2. y 5
2 z 5 22 Simplify.
3. t 5 80 4. a 5 2
Section 1.4 Linear Equations in One Variable 41

Check: 11z 1 2 5 51z 2 22 Check the solution in the


original equation.
111222 1 2 0 5122 2 22
222 1 2 0 51242
220 5 220 True statement

b. 231x 2 42 1 2 5 7 2 1x 1 12
23x 1 12 1 2 5 7 2 x 2 1 Clear parentheses.
23x 1 14 5 2x 1 6 Combine like terms.
23x 1 x 1 14 5 2x 1 x 1 6 Add x to both sides of the
equation.
22x 1 14 5 6 Combine like terms.
22x 1 14 2 14 5 6 2 14 Subtract 14 from both sides.
22x 5 28
22x 28 To isolate x, divide both sides
5
22 22 by 22.
x54 Simplify.
Check: 231x 2 42 1 2 5 7 2 1x 1 12 Check the solution in the
2314 2 42 1 2 0 7 2 14 1 12
original equation.

23102 1 2 0 7 2 152
01202
252 True statement
c. 243y 2 31y 2 52 4 5 216 2 5y2
243y 2 3y 1 154 5 12 2 10y Clear parentheses.
24322y 1 154 5 12 2 10y Combine like terms.
8y 2 60 5 12 2 10y Clear parentheses.
8y 1 10y 2 60 5 12 2 10y 1 10y Add 10y to both sides of the
equation.
18y 2 60 5 12 Combine like terms.
18y 2 60 1 60 5 12 1 60 Add 60 to both sides of the
equation.
18y 5 72
18y 72 To isolate y, divide both sides
5
18 18 by 18.
y54 Simplify.
Check: 243y 2 31y 2 52 4 5 216 2 5y2
243 4 2 314 2 52 4 0 216 2 51422
2434 2 31212 4 0 216 2 202
2434 1 34 0 212142
24172 0 228
228 5 228 True statement
42 Chapter 1 Review of Basic Algebraic Concepts

Skill Practice Solve the equations.


5. 7 1 2 1y 2 32 5 6y 1 3 6. 412t 1 22 2 61t 2 12 5 6 2 t
7. 33 p 1 21p 2 22 4 5 41p 2 32

3. Clearing Fractions and Decimals


When an equation contains fractions or decimals, it is sometimes helpful to clear
the fractions and decimals. This is accomplished by multiplying both sides of the
equation by the least common denominator (LCD) of all terms within the equa-
tion. This is demonstrated in Example 3.

Example 3 Solving Linear Equations by Clearing Fractions


Solve the equation.

w 1 w 2 1 5 1w 2 42
1 1 1
4 3 2

Solution:

w 1 w 2 1 5 1w 2 42
1 1 1
4 3 2
1 1 1
w1 w215 w22 Apply the distributive
4 3 2 property to clear
parentheses.

12 ? a w 1 w 2 1b 5 12 ? a w 2 2b
1 1 1
Multiply both sides
4 3 2 of the equation by
the LCD of all terms.
In this case, the LCD
is 12.

12 ? w 1 12 ? w 1 12 ? 1212 5 12 ? w 1 12 ? 1222
1 1 1
Apply the
4 3 2 distributive
3w 1 4w 2 12 5 6w 2 24 property.
7w 2 12 5 6w 2 24
7w 2 6w 2 12 5 6w 2 6w 2 24 Subtract 6w
w 2 12 5 224
w 2 12 1 12 5 224 1 12 Add 12 to both
sides.
w 5 212

w 1 w 2 1 5 1w 2 42
1 1 1
Check:
4 3 2

12122 1 12122 2 1 0 1212 2 42


1 1 1
4 3 2

12162
1
Skill Practice Answers 23 2 4 2 1 0
2
1 8
5. y 5 2 6. t 5 2
2 3 28 5 28 True statement
7. p 5 0
Section 1.4 Linear Equations in One Variable 43

TIP: The fractions in this equation can be eliminated by multiplying both


sides of the equation by any common multiple of the denominators. For
example, multiplying both sides of the equation by 24 produces the same
solution.

24 ? a w 1 w 2 1b 5 24 ? 1w 2 42
1 1 1
4 3 2
6w 1 8w 2 24 5 121w 2 42
14w 2 24 5 12w 2 48
2w 5 224
w 5 212

Skill Practice Solve the equation by first clearing the fractions.


3 1 2 1
8. a1 5 a1
4 2 3 3

Example 4 Solving a Linear Equation with Fractions


x22 x24 x14
Solve. 2 521
5 2 10

Solution:
x22 x24 2 x14
2 5 1 The LCD of
5 2 1 10 all terms in
the equation
is 10.

10 a b 5 10 a 1 b
x22 x24 2 x14
2 Multiply both
5 2 1 10
sides by 10.
2 5 1

?a b2 ?a b5 ?a b1 ?a b
10 x22 10 x24 10 2 10 x14
Apply the
1 5 1 2 1 1 1 10
distributive
property.
21x 2 22 2 51x 2 42 5 20 1 11x 1 42 Clear fractions.
2x 2 4 2 5x 1 20 5 20 1 x 1 4 Apply the distributive
property.
23x 1 16 5 x 1 24 Simplify both sides of
the equation.
23x 2 x 1 16 5 x 2 x 1 24 Subtract x from both
sides.
24x 1 16 5 24
24x 1 16 2 16 5 24 2 16 Subtract 16 from both
sides.
24x 5 8
Skill Practice Answers
8. a 5 22
44 Chapter 1 Review of Basic Algebraic Concepts

24x 8
5 Divide both sides
24 24
by 24.
x 5 22 The check is left to the
reader.

Skill Practice Solve.


1 x13 3x 2 2
9. 2 5
8 4 2

The same procedure used to clear fractions in an equation can be used to clear
decimals.

Example 5 Solving Linear Equations by Clearing Decimals


Solve the equation. 0.55x 2 0.6 5 2.05x

Solution:
Recall that any terminating decimal can be written as a fraction. Therefore,
the equation 0.55x 2 0.6 5 2.05x is equivalent to
55 6 205
x2 5 x
100 10 100
A convenient common denominator for all terms in this equation is 100. Mul-
tiplying both sides of the equation by 100 will have the effect of moving the
decimal point 2 places to the right.

10010.55x 2 0.62 5 10012.05x2 Multiply both sides by 100 to clear


decimals.
55x 2 60 5 205x
55x 2 55x 2 60 5 205x 2 55x Subtract 55x from both sides.
260 5 150x
260 150x
5 To isolate x, divide both sides by 150.
150 150
60
2 5x
150
2
x 5 2 5 20.4
5
Check: 0.55x 2 0.6 5 2.05x
0.55120.42 2 0.6 0 2.05120.42
20.22 2 0.6 0 20.82
20.82 5 20.82 True statement

Skill Practice Solve the equation by first clearing the decimals.


Skill Practice Answers 10. 2.2x 1 0.5 5 1.6x 1 0.2
3
9. x 5 10. x 5 20.5
14
Section 1.4 Linear Equations in One Variable 45

4. Conditional Equations, Contradictions,


and Identities
The solution to a linear equation is the value of x that makes the equation a
true statement. A linear equation has one unique solution. Some equations,
however, have no solution, while others have infinitely many solutions.

I. Conditional Equations
An equation that is true for some values of the variable but false for other val-
ues is called a conditional equation. The equation x 1 4 5 6 is a conditional equa-
tion because it is true on the condition that x 5 2. For other values of x, the
statement x 1 4 5 6 is false.

II. Contradictions
Some equations have no solution, such as x 1 1 5 x 1 2. There is no value of
x that when increased by 1 will equal the same value increased by 2. If we tried
to solve the equation by subtracting x from both sides, we get the contradiction
1 5 2. This indicates that the equation has no solution. An equation that has no
solution is called a contradiction.
x115x12
x2x115x2x12
152 1contradiction2 No solution

III. Identities
An equation that has all real numbers as its solution set is called an identity.
For example, consider the equation x 1 4 5 x 1 4. Because the left- and right-
hand sides are identical, any real number substituted for x will result in equal
quantities on both sides. If we solve the equation, we get the identity 4 5 4. In
such a case, the solution is the set of all real numbers.
x 1 45x14
x2x145x2x14
454 1identity2 The solution is all real numbers.

Example 6 Identifying Conditional Equations, Contradictions,


and Identities
Solve the equations. Identify each equation as a conditional equation, a con-
tradiction, or an identity.
a. 33x 2 1x 1 12 4 5 22 b. 513 1 c2 1 2 5 2c 1 3c 1 17
c. 4x 2 3 5 17

Solution:
a. 33x 2 1x 1 12 4 5 22
33x 2 x 2 14 5 22 Clear parentheses.
33214 5 22 Combine like terms.
23 5 22 Contradiction
This equation is a contradiction. There is no solution.
46 Chapter 1 Review of Basic Algebraic Concepts

b. 513 1 c2 1 2 5 2c 1 3c 1 17
15 1 5c 1 2 5 5c 1 17 Clear parentheses and combine like terms.
5c 1 17 5 5c 1 17 Identity
050
This equation is an identity. The solution is the set of all real numbers.

c. 4x 2 3 5 17
4x 2 3 1 3 5 17 1 3 Add 3 to both sides.
4x 5 20
4x 20
5 To isolate x, divide both sides by 4.
4 4
x55
This equation is a conditional equation. The solution is x 5 5.
Skill Practice Answers
11. The equation is a contradiction. Skill Practice Solve the equations. Identify each equation as a conditional
There is no solution.
12. The equation is an identity. The equation, an identity, or a contradiction.
solution is the set of all real 11. 2125x 2 12 5 2x 2 12x 1 6 12. 213x 2 12 5 61x 1 12 2 8
numbers.
13. The equation is conditional. The 13. 4x 1 1 2 x 5 6x 2 2
solution is x 5 1.

Section 1.4 Practice Exercises


Boost your GRADE at Practice Problems e-Professors
mathzone.com! Self-Tests Videos
NetTutor

Study Skills Exercises


1. Some instructors allow the use of calculators. Does your instructor allow the use of a calculator? If so, what
kind?

Will you be allowed to use a calculator on tests or just for occasional calculator problems in the text?

Helpful Hint: If you are not permitted to use a calculator on tests, you should do your homework in the same
way, without the calculator.

2. Define the key terms.


a. Equation b. Solution to an equation c. Linear equation in one variable
d. Conditional equation e. Contradiction f. Identity

Review Exercises
For Exercises 36, clear parentheses and combine like terms.
3. 8x 2 3y 1 2xy 2 5x 1 12xy 4. 5ab 1 5a 2 13 2 2a 1 17

5. 213z 2 42 2 1z 1 122 6. 216w 2 52 1 314w 2 52


Section 1.4 Linear Equations in One Variable 47

Concept 1: Definition of a Linear Equation in One Variable


For Exercises 712, label the equation as linear or nonlinear.
7. 2x 1 1 5 5 8. 10 5 x 1 6 9. x2 1 7 5 9

10. 3 1 x3 2 x 5 4 11. 23 5 x 12. 5.2 2 7x 5 0

13. Use substitution to determine which value is the solution to 2x 2 1 5 5.


a. 2 b. 3 c. 0 d. 21

14. Use substitution to determine which value is the solution to 2y 2 3 5 22.


1 1
a. 1 b. c. 0 d. 2
2 2

Concept 2: Solving Linear Equations


For Exercises 1544, solve the equations and check your solutions.
t 3
15. x 1 7 5 19 16. 23 1 y 5 228 17. 64x 5 22 18. 52
8 4

7 5 12 2 3 7
19. 2 5 2 z 20. 2 5 4b 21. a 1 52 22. 2 1 x 5 2
8 6 13 5 8 24

23. 2.53 5 22.3t 24. 24.8 5 6.1 1 y 25. p 2 2.9 5 3.8 26. 24.2a 5 4.494

27. 6q 2 4 5 62 28. 2w 2 15 5 15 29. 4y 2 17 5 35 30. 6z 2 25 5 83

31. 2b 2 5 5 2 32. 6 5 2y 1 1 33. 31x 2 62 5 2x 2 5 34. 13y 1 4 5 51y 2 42

35. 6 2 1t 1 22 5 513t 2 42 36. 1 2 51p 1 22 5 21p 1 132

37. 61a 1 32 2 10 5 221a 2 42 38. 81b 2 22 1 3b 5 291b 2 12

39. 2235 2 12z 1 124 2 4 5 213 2 z2 40. 33w 2 110 2 w24 5 71w 1 12

41. 612y 1 42 2 312y 2 32 5 2y 1 5 1 5y 42. 13 1 4w 5 2512w 2 62 1 21w 1 12

43. 14 2 2x 1 5x 5 24122x 2 52 2 6 44. 8 2 1p 1 22 1 6p 1 7 5 p 1 13

Concept 3: Clearing Fractions and Decimals


For Exercises 4556, solve the equations.

1p 2 52 5 p 1 p 1 1
2 1 5 3 1 1 9 2 1 3 1
45. x2 52 x1 2 x 46. 2 y 1 4 5 2 y 1 47.
3 6 12 2 6 2 10 5 5 5 10

1q 1 22 5 2 q 2 1 2
5 7 1 3x 2 7 3 2 5x 3 2 6x 2y 2 4 5y 1 13 y
48. 49. 1 5 50. 5 1
6 9 3 2 3 5 5 4 2

12q 1 62 2
4 5q 2 6 q 23a 1 9 2a 2 5 a 1 2
51. 2 50 52. 2 2 50 53. 6.3w 2 1.5 5 4.8
3 6 3 15 5 10

54. 0.2x 1 53.6 5 x 55. 0.751m 2 22 1 0.25m 5 0.5 56. 0.41n 1 102 1 0.6n 5 2
48 Chapter 1 Review of Basic Algebraic Concepts

Concept 4: Conditional Equations, Contradictions, and Identities


57. What is a conditional equation?

58. Explain the difference between a contradiction and an identity.

For Exercises 5964, solve the following equations. Then label each as a conditional equation, a contradiction, or
an identity.
59. 4x 1 1 5 212x 1 12 2 1 60. 3x 1 6 5 3x 61. 211x 1 41x 2 32 5 22x 2 12

62. 51x 1 22 2 7 5 3 63. 2x 2 4 1 8x 5 7x 2 8 1 3x 64. 27x 1 8 1 4x 5 231x 2 32 2 1

Mixed Exercises
For Exercises 6596, solve the equations.
65. 25b 1 9 5 271 66. 23x 1 18 5 266 67. 16 5 210 1 13x

68. 15 5 212 1 9x 69. 10c 1 3 5 23 1 12c 70. 2w 1 21 5 6w 2 7

71. 12b 2 15b 2 8 1 6 5 4b 1 6 2 1 72. 4z 1 2 2 3z 1 5 5 3 1 z 1 4 73. 51x 2 22 2 2x 5 3x 1 7

c c 3c d d 5d 7
74. 2x 1 31x 2 52 5 15 75. 2 1 51 76. 2 1 5
2 4 8 5 10 20 10

77. 0.7518x 2 42 5 16x 2 92 78. 2 14z 2 32 5 2z


2 1
79. 71p 1 22 2 4p 5 3p 1 14
3 2

1x 1 32 2 5 12x 1 52
1 1 1
80. 61z 2 22 5 3z 2 8 1 3z 81. 43 3 1 513 2 b2 1 2b4 5 6 2 2b 82.
3 6 6

3 9 5 5 y23 2y 1 1
83. 3 2 x 5 9 84. 2 4w 5 85. 1 5
4 10 2 4 8 2

2 x12 5x 2 2 2y 2 9 3 2 5 1
86. 2 5 87. 1 5y 88. x2 x235 x25
3 6 2 10 2 3 6 2

1 5
89. 0.48x 2 0.08x 5 0.121260 2 x2 90. 0.07w 1 0.061140 2 w2 5 90 91. 0.5x 1 0.25 5 x 1
3 4

1 7
92. 0.2b 1 5 93. 0.3b 2 1.5 5 0.251b 1 22 94. 0.71a 2 12 5 0.25 1 0.7a
3 15

95. 2 y 1 5 a5 2 yb
7 1 1 3
96. 5x 2 18 2 x2 5 2 324 2 13 1 5x2 2 13 4
8 4 2 4

Expanding Your Skills


97. a. Simplify the expression. 221y 2 12 1 31y 1 22 98. a. Simplify the expression. 4w 2 812 1 w2
b. Solve the equation. 221y 2 12 1 31y 1 22 5 0 b. Solve the equation. 4w 2 812 1 w2 5 0
c. Explain the difference between simplifying an
expression and solving an equation.