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03 Gaseous fuels (economics, business, marketing, policy)

This short paper highlights the unusual properties of the high-mass This paper revisited the surface mass excess in adsorption studies and
material of coal liquids isolated by their insolubility in pyridine and investigated the role of the volume of the adsorbed phase and its
solubility in N-methylpyrrolidone. The separation has been achieved by density in the analysis of supercritical gas adsorption in non-porous as
a column chromatography method. One gram quantity have been well as micro-porous solids. For many supercritical fluids tested
processed and near quantitative recovery of the sample as fractions has (krypton, argon, nitrogen, methane) on many different carbonaceous
been achieved. This fractionation permitted recourse to a broad range solids, it is found that the volume of the adsorbed phase is confined
of analytical methods, including some (e.g. 13C NMR), which require mostly to a geometrical volume having a thickness of up to a few
large sample sizes. Multiple macro analyses have been undertaken, molecular diameters. At high pressure the adsorbed phase density is
using elemental analysis, T G A proximate analysis, N M R and FT-ir in also found to be very close to but never equal or greater than the liquid
addition to the micro-analytical methods used previously-pyrolysis-gc- phase density.
ms, SEC, UV-fluorescence, probe-ms and MALDI-ms. The fractions
show increasing concentrations of large molecular mass material with 04/01247 Development of thermally conductive packing for
increasing polarity of successive eluents used in the fractionation. gas separation
Evidence from solid-state ~3C NMR and UV-fluorescence spec- Menard, D. et al. Carbon, 2003, 41, (9), 1715-1727.
troscopy show progressive structural changes with increasing apparent A new highly thermally conductive composite material made of
molecular mass. activated carbon in-situ activated within a consolidated expanded
natural graphite (CENG) matrix is developed in the specific case of gas
separation processes. According to the particular chosen testing case of
CO2/N2 mixture, the microporous characteristics of the adsorbent
fraction have been selected and the various properties of the whole
material studied. Activated carbon effective densities, overall thermal
conductivities and external heat transfer coefficients up to 650 kg m 3,
32 W m -1 K -1 and 3000 W m -2 K -1 were obtained, respectively. Two
macroscopic external shapes were realized, namely a corrugated-sheets
03 GASEOUS FUELS static mixer and a multi-axial-diffuser cylindrical monolith which will
be further tested in a pilot equipment for comparison with conven-
tional adsorbents.

Sources, properties, recovery, treatment 04/01248 Enhanced storage of hydrogen at the temperature
of liquid nitrogen
Zhou, L. et al. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2004, 29, (3),
319-322.
04101243 Gas anchor design changes used to improve gas Storage of hydrogen in activated carbon at liquid nitrogen temperature
separation in coalbed methane operations in Wyoming is considerably enhanced in terms of compression and adsorption on
Patterson, J. C. and Leonard, N. Proceedings of the Annual South- activated carbon. To reach the capacity of 4.1 kg per 100 1 of storage
western Petroleum Short Course, 2003, 50, 136-147. vessel, it needs to compress the gas to as high a pressure as 75 MPa at
Changes in the gas anchor design that improved gas separation in 298 K, but only to 15 MPa if compressed at 77 K. The pressure is
coalbed methane wells are presented. The installations were for the reduced to 6 MPa if the container is filled with pellets of activated
dewatering of gas wells and could also be used on oil wells. The carbon AX-21. Liquid nitrogen is cheap in cost and widely available.
addition of vent holes improved gas separation substantially. Therefore, storing hydrogen on activated carbon cooled by liquid
nitrogen seems feasible for the hydrogen vehicle programs.
04/01244 Methane separation from coal mine methane gas
by vacuum pressure swing adsorption 04/01249 Hydrogen in fullerites
Olajossy, A. et al. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 2003, 8 l, Schur, D. V. et al. Carbon, 2003, 41, (7), 1331-1342.
(A4), 474-482. The peculiar kind of fullerene molecule structure is also reflected in
The findings were presented from laboratory investigations and the crystal structure of fullerites. The cubic lattices of metal fullerides
computer calculation for the VPSA (vacuum pressure swing adsorp- and hydrofullerenes behave similarly to the cubic lattices of different
tion) process employed to recover methane from coal mine methane metals and alloys. They form interstitial solid solutions when impurity
gas. The separation process of coal methane gas was carried out at elements are distributed in octahedral and tetrahedral interstitial sites.
temperature of 278 K under adsorption pressure equal 300 kPa By replacement of C60 and C70 molecules in lattice sites they make up
absolute, and desorption pressure equal 25 kPa absolute. Coal mine substitution solid solutions. Forming exo- and endobedral compounds,
methane gas with the CH4 content of 55.2 vol% was enriched into the fullerene molecules, located in sites of the crystal lattice, can
methane-rich gas which contained 96-98 vol% CH4. The methane modify greatly the crystal properties with no change of crystalline
recovery efficiency reached 86-91% with the ratio for re-circulated structure. Some peculiarities of fullerite crystalline structures will be
methane to that introduced with the feed falling within P/F = 1.8-2.12. discussed in the present paper.
The methane content in the adsorption effluent gas was 11-15 vol%
under those conditions while nitrogen and oxygen were removed at 96-
98% from the methane-rich gas. That separation level of the coal mine
gas can be achieved when the methane sorption wave is brought to the
outlet point of the sorption bed at the adsorption phase, and then the Economics, business, marketing, policy
methane sorption wave is brought to the entry point of the sorption bed
at the counter-current purge phase.
04/01250 Coal-bed methane extraction and utilization
04/01245 Technical decisions in the design of facilities for Creedy, D. and Tilley, H. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical
treating and utilization of coal bed Engineers, Part A: Journal qf Power and Energy, 2003, 217, (A1), 19-25.
Bokserman, Y. A. et al. Ekotekhnologii i Resursosberezhenie, 2003, (2), This paper critically reviews the current U K and worldwide status of
14-17. (In Russian) coal-bed methane extraction and utilization technologies building on a
Two schemes to prepare coal-bed methane for utilization on the previous study funded through the Department of Trade and Industry's
Pervomaisk cupola of the Marievsk region G H K 'Luganskugol' are Cleaner Coal Technology Programme.
proposed. With the help of the DCCS-METHANE computer-based
systems, applicability of these schemes for concrete variants of an 04101251 Conversion factors and oil statistics
utilization of coal-bed methane is proved: with its delivery on gas- Karbuz, S. Energy Policy, 2004, 32, (1), 41-45.
regulating points of Pervomaisk town, in a gas-main pipeline and on World oil statistics, in scope and accuracy, are often far from perfect.
gas-diesel installations or automobile gas-filling compressor stations. They can easily lead to misguided conclusions regarding the state of
market fundamentals. Without proper attention directed at statistic
caveats, the ensuing interpretation of oil market data opens the door to
unnecessary volatility, and can distort perception of market funda-
Transport, storage mentals. Among the numerous caveats associated with the compilation
of oil statistics, conversion factors, used to produce aggregated data,
play a significant role. Interestingly enough, little attention is paid to
conversion factors, i.e. to the relation between different units of
04/01246 Adsorption of supercritical fluids in non-porous measurement for oil. Additionally, the underlying information regard-
and porous carbons: analysis of adsorbed phase volume ing the choice of a specific factor when trying to produce measure-
and density ments of aggregated data remains scant. The aim of this paper is to
Do, D. D. and Do, H. D. Carbon, 2003, 41, (9), 1777 1791. shed some light on the impact of conversion factors for two commonly

Fuel and Energy Abstracts May 2004 171