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Padmasambhava
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Main page Padmasambhava[note 1] (lit. "Lotus-Born"), also known as Guru


Padmasambhava
Contents Rinpoche, was an 8th-century Indian Buddhist master. Although there
Featured content was a historical Padmasambhava, nothing is known of him apart from
Current events helping the construction of the first Buddhist monastery in Tibet at Samye,
Random article at the behest of Trisong Detsen,[1] and shortly thereafter leaving Tibet
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due to court intrigues.[2]
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A number of legends have grown around Padmasambhava's life and
Interaction
deeds, and he is widely venerated as a 'second Buddha' across Tibet,
Help Nepal, Bhutan, and the Himalayan states of India.[3][4] Statue of Padmasambhava 123 ft. (37.5 m)
About Wikipedia high in mist overlooking Rewalsar Lake,
Community portal In Tibetan Buddhism, he is a character of a genre of literature called Himachal Pradesh, India
Recent changes terma,[2] an emanation of Amitbha that is said to appear to tertns in
Contact page visionary encounters and a focus of guru yoga practice, particularly in the Part of a series on
Rim schools. The Nyingma school considers Padmasambhava to be a Tibetan Buddhism
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founder of their tradition.[5]
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1 Historical sources
Special pages
Permanent link 2 Mythos
Page information 2.1 Sources Schools
Wikidata item 2.2 Early years Nyingma
Cite this page 2.2.1 Birth Kadam Kagyu (Jonang) Sakya
2.2.2 Tantra in India and Nepal Gelug (New Kadampa Tradition)
Print/export 2.3 Tibet Rim
Create a book 2.3.1 Subjection of local religions Key personalities
Download as PDF 2.3.2 Translations
Printable version First dissemination
2.3.3 Nyingma Padmasambhava ntarakita Kamalala
In other projects 2.4 Bhutan Second dissemination
3 Iconography, manifestations and attributes Atia Tilopa Naropa Milarepa
Wikimedia Commons Nyingma
3.1 Iconography
Longchenpa Patrul Rinpoche Mipham
Languages 3.1.1 General
Kagyu
3.1.2 Head Rangjung Dorje
Asturianu 3.1.3 Skin Jonang
3.1.4 Dress Dolpopa
3.1.5 Hands Sakya
Bn-lm-g
Sakya Pandita Gorampa
3.1.6 Khatvanga Gelugpa
3.1.7 Seat Je Tsongkhapa 5th Dalai Lama
3.1.8 Surrounding 14th Dalai Lama
Catal 3.2 Eight Manifestations
etina Teachings
3.3 Attributes
Deutsch General Buddhist
3.3.1 Pure-land Paradise Three marks of existence
Eesti
Espaol 3.3.2 Samantabhadra and Samantabhadri Skandha Cosmology Sasra
Esperanto 4 Teachings and practices ascribed to Padmasambhava Rebirth Bodhisattva Dharma
4.1 The Vajra Guru mantra Dependent origination Karma
Franais
Tibetan
4.2 The Seven Line Prayer to Padmasambhava
Four Tenets system Rangtong-Shentong
4.3 Termas Svatantrika-Prasagika distinction
Bahasa Indonesia 4.4 Tantric cycles Nyingma
Italiano 5 Consorts and twenty five main disciples Dzogchen Pointing-out instruction
5.1 The five main consorts or five wisdom dakinis Practices and attainment
5.2 The 'Twenty-five Main Disciples' of Padmasambhava
Lietuvi Lamrim Pramits
6 Gallery Bodhicitta Avalokitevara
Magyar
7 See also Meditation Laity
Malagasy
8 Notes Vajrayana Tantra techniques Deity yoga
Nederlands
9 References Buddhahood

10 Sources Major monasteries
11 External links Tradruk Drepung Dzogchen
Norsk Ganden Jokhang Kumbum
Polski Labrang Mindrolling Namgyal
Portugus Historical sources [edit] Narthang Nechung Pabonka
Romn Palcho Ralung Ramoche Rato
One of the earliest sources for Padmasambhava as a historical figure is Sakya Sanga Sera Shalu
Simple English the Testament of Ba (dating to the 9th or 10th centuries), which records Tashi Lhunpo Tsurphu Yerpa
Slovenina the founding of Samye Monastery under the reign of king Trisong Detsen Institutional roles
Srpskohrvatski / (r. 755797/804).[6] Other texts from Dunhuang show that Dalai Lama Panchen Lama

Suomi Padmasambhava's tantric teachings were being taught in Tibet during the Lama Karmapa Rinpoche
Svenska 10th century. In later texts, Padmasambhava's story became highly Geshe Tertn Tulku
mythologized and integrated into Tantric ritual.[7] Festivals
Trke
Chotrul Duchen Dajyur Galdan Namchot

Ting Vit
Mythos [edit] Losar Monlam Sho Dun

Texts
Edit links Sources [edit]
Kangyur Tengyur
See also: Namtar (biography) Tibetan Buddhist canon
Nyangrel Nyima zer (1136-1204) was the principal architect of the Mahayana sutras Nyingma Gyubum
Padmasambhava mythos according to Janet Gyatso.[8] Guru Chwang Art
(12121270) was the next major contributor to the mythos.[8] Sand mandala Thangka Wall paintings
Ashtamangala Tree of physiology
In the eleventh and twelfth centuries there were several competing terma
Festival thangka
traditions surrounding Padmasambhava, Vimalamitra, Songtsn Gampo,
and Vairotsana.[9] At the end of the 12th century, there was the "victory of History and overview
the Padmasambhava cult,"[10] in which a much greater role is assigned to History Timeline
Outline Culture
the role of Padmasambhava in the introduction of Buddhism to Tibet.[11]
Index of articles

Early years [edit] Tibetan Buddhism portal

Birth [edit] v t e

According to tradition, Padmasambhava was incarnated as an eight-year-


old child appearing in a lotus blossom floating in Lake Dhanakosha, in the kingdom of Oddiyana.[12] While some
scholars locate this kingdom in the Swat Valley area of modern-day Pakistan, a case on literary, archaeological, and
iconographical grounds can be made for placing it in the present-day state of Odisha in India.[13] Padmasambhava's
special nature was recognized by the childless local king of Oiyna and was chosen to take over the kingdom, but he
left Oddiyana for northern parts of India.[14][15]

Tantra in India and Nepal [edit]


Main articles: Tantra and Vajrayana
In Rewalsar, known as Tso Pema in Tibetan, he secretly taught tantric
teachings to princess Mandarava, the local king's daughter. The king found out
and tried to burn him, but it is believed that when the smoke cleared he just sat
there, still alive and in meditation. Greatly astonished by this miracle, the king
offered Padmasambhava both his kingdom and Mandarava.[16]
Padmasambhava left with Mandarava, and took to Maratika Cave[17] in Nepal to
practice secret tantric consort rituals. They had a vision of buddha Amityus
and achieved what is called the "phowa rainbow body,"[note 2] a very rare type of
spiritual realization. [note 3] Both Padmasambhava and one of his consorts,
Mandarava, are still believed to be alive and active in this rainbow body form by
their followers. She and Padmasambhava's other main consort, Yeshe Tsogyal, Statue of Princess Mandarava at
who reputedly hid his numerous termas in Tibet for later discovery, reached Rewalsar Lake.
Buddhahood. Many thangkas and paintings show Padmasambhava in between
them, with Mandarava on his right and Yeshe Tsogyal on his left.[18]

Tibet [edit]
Main articles: Tibet and History of Tibet

Subjection of local religions [edit]


According to Sam van Schaik, from the 12th century on a greater role was assigned to Padmasambhava in the
introduction of tantric Buddhism into Tibet:
According to earlier histories, Padmasambhava had given some tantric teachings to Tibetans before being
forced to leave due to the suspicions of the Tibetan court. But from the twelfth century an alternative story,
itself a terma discovery, gave Padmasambhava a much greater role in the introduction of Buddhism to
Tibet, and in particular credited him with travelling all over the country to convert the local spirits to
Buddhism.[11]

According to this enlarged story, King Trisong Detsen, the 38th king of the Yarlung dynasty and the first Emperor of
Tibet (742797), invited the Nalanda University abbot ntarakita (Tibetan Shiwatso) to Tibet.[19] ntarakita started
the building of Samye.[19] Demonical forces hindered the introduction of the Buddhist dharma, and Padmasambhava
was invited to Tibet to subdue the demonic forces.[20] The demons were not annihilated, but were obliged to submit to
the dharma.[21][note 4] This was in accordance with the tantric principle of not eliminating negative forces but redirecting
them to fuel the journey toward spiritual awakening. According to tradition, Padmasambhava received the Emperor's
wife, identified with the dakini Yeshe Tsogyal, as a consort.[23]

Translations [edit]
Main article: Tibetan Buddhism
King Trisong Detsen ordered the translation of all Buddhist Dharma Texts into
Tibetan. Padmasambhava, Shantarakita, 108 translators, and 25 of
Padmasambhava's nearest disciples worked for many years in a gigantic
translation-project. The translations from this period formed the base for the
large scriptural transmission of Dharma teachings into Tibet. Padmasambhava
supervised mainly the translation of Tantra; Shantarakshita concentrated on
the Sutra-teachings.[citation needed]

Nyingma [edit]
Statues of Padmasambhava,
Main article: Nyingma Buddha and Amitayus at Namdroling
Padmasambhava introduced the people of Tibet to the practice of Tantric Monastery.
Buddhism.[21][24]
He is regarded as the founder of the Nyingma tradition. The Nyingma tradition is the oldest of the four major schools of
Tibetan Buddhism.[note 5] The Nyingma tradition actually comprises several distinct lineages that all trace their origins to
Padmasambhava.
"Nyingma" literally means "ancient," and is often referred to as "Nga'gyur" "[note 6] or the "early translation school"
because it is founded on the first translations of Buddhist scriptures from Sanskrit into Tibetan, in the eighth
century.[note 7]
The group particularly believes in hidden terma treasures. Traditionally, Nyingmapa practice was advanced orally
among a loose network of lay practitioners. Monasteries with celibate monks and nuns, along with the practice of
reincarnated spiritual leaders are later adaptations,[25] though Padmasambhava is regarded as the founder of Samye
Gompa, the first monastery in the country.[26] In modern times the Nyingma lineage has been centered in Kham in
eastern Tibet.

Bhutan [edit]
Main articles: Bhutan, History of Bhutan, and Buddhism in Bhutan
Bhutan has many important pilgrimage places associated with Padmasambhava. The most famous is Paro Taktsang or
"Tiger's Nest" monastery which is built on a sheer cliff wall about 500m above the floor of Paro valley. It was built
around the Taktsang Senge Samdup (stag tshang seng ge bsam grub) cave where he is said to have meditated in the
8th Century. He flew there from Tibet on the back of Yeshe Tsogyal, whom he transformed into a flying tigress for the
purpose of the trip.[citation needed] Later he travelled to Bumthang district to subdue a powerful deity offended by a local
king. According to legend, Padmasambhava's body imprint can be found in the wall of a cave at nearby Kurje
Lhakhang temple.[citation needed]

Iconography, manifestations and attributes [edit]

Iconography [edit]
General [edit]
He has one face and two hands.[27][28]
He is wrathful and smiling.[27]
He blazes magnificently with the splendour of the major and minor marks.[27]
Head [edit]
On his head he wears a five-petalled lotus hat,[27][29] which has
Three points symbolizing the three kayas,
Five colours symbolizing the five kayas,
A sun and moon symbolizing skilful means and wisdom,
A vajra top to symbolize unshakable samadhi,
A vulture's feather to represent the realization of the highest view.[28]
His two eyes are wide open in a piercing gaze.[27]
He has the youthful appearance of an eight-year old child.[28]

Skin [edit]
His complexion is white with a tinge of red.[28]

Dress [edit]
Padmasambhava. Wall painting at
On his body he wears a white vajra undergarment. On top of this, in layers, Paro bridge (Bhutan)
a red robe, a dark blue mantrayana tunic, a red monastic shawl decorated
with a golden flower pattern, and a maroon cloak of silk brocade.[27]
On his body he wears a silk cloak, Dharma robes and gown.[29]
He is wearing the dark blue gown of a mantra practitioner, the red and yellow shawl of a monk, the maroon cloak of
a king, and the red robe and secret white garments of a bodhisattva.[28]

Hands [edit]
In his right hand, he holds a five-pronged vajra at his heart.[27][28][29]
His left hand rests in the gesture of equanimity,[27]
In his left hand he holds a skull-cup brimming with nectar, containing the vase of longevity that is also filled with the
nectar of deathless wisdom[27][28] and ornamented on top by a wish-fulfilling tree.[29]

Khatvanga [edit]
The khavga is a particular divine attribute of Padmasambhava and intrinsic to his iconographic representation. It is a
danda with three severed heads denoting the three kayas (the three bodies of a Buddha, the dharmakaya,
sambhogakaya, and nirmanakaya), crowned by a trishula, and dressed with a sash of the Himalayan Rainbow or Five
Pure Lights of the Mahabhuta. The iconography is utilized in various Tantric cycles by practitioners as symbols to
hidden meanings in transmitted practices.
Cradled in his left arm he holds the three-pointed khatvanga (trident) symbolizing the Princess consort Mandarava,
one of his two main consorts.[27][29] who arouses the wisdom of bliss and emptiness, concealed as the three-pointed
khatvanga trident.[28] Other sources say that the khatvanga represents the Lady Yeshe Tsogyal, his primary
consort and main disciple.[30]
Its three points represent the essence, nature and compassionate energy (ngowo, rangshyin and tukj).[28][29]
Below these three prongs are three severed heads, dry, fresh and rotten, symbolizing the dharmakaya,
sambhogakaya and nirmanakaya.[28][29]
Nine iron rings adorning the prongs represent the nine yanas.[28][29]
Five-coloured strips of silk symbolize the five wisdoms[28]
The khatvanga is also adorned with locks of hair from dead and living mamos and dakinis, as a sign that the Master
subjugated them all when he practised austerities in the Eight Great Charnel Grounds.[28][29]

Seat [edit]
He is seated with his two feet in the royal posture.[27][28][29]

Surrounding [edit]
All around him, within a lattice of five-coloured light, appear the eight vidyadharas of India, the twenty-five disciples
of Tibet, the deities of the three roots, and an ocean of oath-bound protectors[29]
There are further iconographies and meanings in more advanced and secret stages.[citation needed]

Eight Manifestations [edit]


Padmasambhava is said to have taken eight forms or manifestations (Tib. Guru Tsen Gye) representing different
aspects of his being, such as wrath or pacification for example. According to Rigpa Shedra the eight principal forms
were assumed by Guru Rinpoche at different points in his life. The Eight Manifestations of Padmasambhava belong to
the tradition of the Revealed Treasures (Tib.: ter ma).[31]
Guru Orgyen Dorje Chang (Wylie: gu ru U-rgyan rDo-rje 'chang, Sanskrit:
Guru Uddiyana Vajradhara) The vajra-holder (Skt. Vajradhara), shown dark
blue in color in the attire of the Sambhogakaya. Depicted in union with
consort. (See image + description)
Guru Shakya Senge (Wylie: shAkya seng-ge, Skrt: Guru kyasimha) of
Bodh Gaya, Lion of the Sakyas, who learns the Tantric practices of the
eight Vidyadharas. He is shown as a fully ordained Buddhist monk. (See
image)
Guru Pema Gyalpo (Wylie: gu ru pad ma rgyal-po, Skrt: Guru Padmarja)
of Uddiyana, the Lotus Prince, king of the Tripitaka (the Three Collections of
Scripture). He is shown looking like a young crowned prince or king. (See
image + description)
Guru Pema Jungne (Wylie: pad ma 'byung-gnas, Skrt: Guru Padmakara)
Lotus-arisen, the Saviour who teaches the Dharma to the people. He is
shown sitting on a lotus, dressed in the three robes of a monk, under which
A wrathful manifestation of
he wears a blue shirt, pants and heavy Tibetan boots, as protection against Padmasambhava
the cold. He holds the diamond-scepter of compassionate love in his right
hand and the yogi's skull-bowl of clear wisdom in his left. He has a special
trident called khatvanga of a wandering Yogi, and wears on his head a Nepalese cloth crown, stylistically designed
to remind one of the shape of a lotus flower. Thus he is represented as he must have appeared in Tibet. (See
image + description) , on wikimedia commons
Guru Loden Chokse (Wylie: gu ru blo ldan mchog sred; Skrt: Guru Mativat Vararuci[32]) of Kashmir, the Intelligent
Youth, the one who gathers the knowledge of all worlds. He is shown in princely clothes, beating a hand-drum and
holding a skull-bowl. (See image + description)
Guru Nyima Ozer (Wylie: gu ru nyi-ma 'od-zer, Skrt: Guru Suryabhasa or Sryarami[32]), the Sunray Yogi, who
illuminates the darkness of the mind through the insight of Dzogchen. He is shown as a naked yogi dressed only in
a loin-cloth and holding a Khatvanga which points towards the sun. (See image + description)
Guru Dorje Drolo, (Wylie: gu ru rDo-rje gro-lod, Skrt: Guru Vajra ?) the fierce manifestation of Vajrakilaya
(wrathful Vajrasattva) known as "Diamond Guts", the comforter of all, imprinting the elements with Wisdom-
Treasure. (See image + description)
Guru Senge Dradog (Wylie: gu ru seng-ge sgra-sgrogs, Skrt: Guru Simhanda[32]) of Nalanda University, the Lion
of Debate, promulgator of the Dharma throughout the six realms of sentient beings. He is shown in a very fierce
form, dark blue and imitative of the powerful Bodhisattva Vajrapani, holding a thunderbolt scepter in one hand and
a scorpion in the other. (See image)
Padmasambhava's various Sanskrit names are preserved in mantras such as those found in the Yang gsang rig 'dzin
youngs rdzogs kyi blama guru mtshan brgyad bye brag du sgrub pa ye shes bdud rtsi'i sbrang char zhe bya ba[32]

Attributes [edit]
Pure-land Paradise [edit]
Main article: Pure land
His Pureland Paradise is Zangdok Palri (the Copper-Coloured Mountain).[33]

Samantabhadra and Samantabhadri [edit]


Padmasambhava said:

My father is the intrinsic awareness, Samantabhadra (Sanskrit; Tib. ). My mother is the ultimate
sphere of reality, Samantabhadri (Sanskrit; Tib. ). I belong to the caste of non-duality of the sphere
of awareness. My name is the Glorious Lotus-Born. I am from the unborn sphere of all phenomena. I act in
the way of the Buddhas of the three times.

Teachings and practices ascribed to Padmasambhava [edit]

The Vajra Guru mantra [edit]


The Vajra Guru (Padmasambhava) mantra Om Ah Hum Vajra Guru Padma
Siddhi Hum is favoured and held in esteem by sadhakas. Like most Sanskritic
mantras in Tibet, the Tibetan pronunciation demonstrates dialectic variation
and is generally Om Ah Hung Benza Guru Pema Siddhi Hung. In the Vajrayana
traditions, particularly of the Nyingmapa, it is held to be a powerful mantra
The Vajra Guru Mantra in Lanydza
engendering communion with the Three Vajras of Padmasambhava's and Tibetan script.
[34]
mindstream and by his grace, all enlightened beings. In response to Yeshe
Tsogyal's request, the Great Master himself explained the meaning of the mantra although there are larger secret
meanings too.[35] The 14th century tertn Karma Lingpa has a famous commentary on the mantra.[36]

The Seven Line Prayer to Padmasambhava [edit]


The Seven Line Prayer to Padmasambhava (Guru Rinpoche) is a famous prayer that is recited by many Tibetans daily
and is said to contain the most sacred and important teachings of Dzogchen.
Jamgon Ju Mipham Gyatso composed a famous commentary to the Seven Line Prayer called White Lotus. It explains
the meanings, which are embedded in many levels and intended to catalyze a process of realization. These hidden
teachings are described as ripening and deepening, in time, with study and with contemplation.[37] Tulku Thondup
says:

Enshrining the most sacred prayer to Guru Padmasambhava, White Lotus elucidates its five layers of
meaning as revealed by the eminent scholar Ju Mipham. This commentary now makes this treasure, which
has been kept secret among the great masters of Tibet for generations, available as a source of blessings
and learning for all.

There is also a shorter commentary, freely available, by Tulku Thondup himself.[38] There are many other teachings
and Termas and widely practiced tantric cycles incorporating the text as well as brief ones such as Terma Revelation of
Guru Chwang.[39]

Termas [edit]
Main articles: Terma (Buddhism) and Terma (religion)
Padmasambhava also hid a number of religious treasures (termas) in lakes, caves, fields and forests of the Himalayan
region to be found and interpreted by future tertns or spiritual treasure-finders.[40] According to Tibetan tradition, the
Bardo Thodol (commonly referred to as the Tibetan Book of the Dead) was among these hidden treasures,
subsequently discovered by a Tibetan terton, Karma Lingpa.

Tantric cycles [edit]


Tantric cycles related to Padmasambhava are not just practiced by the Nyingma, they even gave rise to a new offshoot
of Bon which emerged in the 14th century called the New Bn. Prominent figures of the Sarma (new translation)
schools such as the Karmapas and Sakya lineage heads have practiced these cycles and taught them. Some of the
greatest tertons revealing teachings related to Padmasambhava have been from the Kagyu or Sakya lineages. The
hidden lake temple of the Dalai Lamas behind the Potala called Lukhang is dedicated to Dzogchen teachings and has
murals depicting the eight manifestations of Padmasambhava.[41] Padmasambhava established Vajrayana Buddhism
and the highest forms of Dzogchen (Mengagde) in Tibet and transformed the entire nation.

Consorts and twenty five main disciples [edit]


Many of those who gathered around Padmasambhava became advanced tantric practitioners as well as helping to
found and propagate the Nyingma tradition. The most prominent of these include Padmasambhava's five main female
consorts, also known as dakinis and his twenty five main disciples.

The five main consorts or five wisdom dakinis [edit]


See also: Shakti and Dakini
Padmasambhava had five main female tantric companions, beginning in India before his time in Tibet and then in Tibet
as well. When seen from an outer, or perhaps even historical or mythological perspective, these five women from
across South Asia were known as the Five Consorts. That the women come from very different geographic regions is
understood as mandala, a support for Padmasambhava in spreading the dharma throughout the region.
Yet, when understood from a more inner tantric perspective, these same women are understood not as ordinary
women but as dakinis; from this point of view, they are known as the "Five Wisdom Dakinis" (Wylie: Ye-shes mKha-'gro
lnga). Each of these consorts is believed to be an emanation of the tantric yidam, Vajravrh.[42] As one author writes
of these relationships:

Yet in reality, he [Padmasambhava] was never separate from the five emanations of Vajravarahi: the
Body-emanation, Mandarava; the Speech-emanation, Yeshe Tsogyal; the Mind-emanation, Shakyadema;
the Qualities-emanation, Kalasiddhi; and the Activity-emanation, Trashi [sic] Chidren.[43]
In summary, the five consorts/wisdom dakinis were:
Yeshe Tsogyal of Tibet, who was the emanation of Vajravarahi's Speech
(Tibetan: gsung; Sanskrit: vk);
Mandarava of Zahor, northeast India, who was the emanation of
Vajravarahi's Body (Tibetan: sku; Sanskrit: kya);
Belwong Kalasiddhi of northwest India, who was the emanation of
Vajravarahi's Quality (Tibetan: yon-tan; Sanskrit: gna);
Belmo Sakya Devi of Nepal, who was the emanation of Vajravarahi's Mind
(Tibetan: thugs; Sanskrit: citta); and
Tashi Kyedren (or Chidren) (sometimes called Mangala) of Bhutan, who was
the emanation of Vajravarahi's Activity (Tibetan: phrin-las; Sanskrit:
karma).[44]
While there are very few sources on the lives of Kalasiddhi, Sakya Devi, and
Tashi Kyedren, there are extant biographies of both Yeshe Tsogyal and Padmasambhava in yab-yum form
Mandarava that have been translated into English and other western with his Shakti
languages.

The 'Twenty-five Main Disciples' of Padmasambhava [edit]


The Twenty Five Main Disciples (Tibetan: , Wylie: rje 'bangs nyer lnga) also called the disciples of
Chimphu.[45] In various lists these include:
King Trisong Detsen (Tibetan: , Wylie: khri srong lde'u btzan)

Denma Tsmang (Tibetan: , Wylie: ldan ma rtse mang) [46]


Dorje Dudjom of Nanam (Tibetan: , Wylie: rdo rje bdud 'joms) [47]
(image on Wikimedia commons)
Khyechung Lotsawa (Tibetan: , Wylie: khye'u chung lo ts ba)
Gyalwa Changchub of Lasum (Tibetan: , Wylie: la sum rgyal
ba byang chub) [48] (image on Wikimedia commons)
Gyalwa Choyang (Tibetan: , Wylie: rgyal ba mchog dbyangs)
[49]
Gyalwe Lodro of Dr (Tibetan: , Wylie: rgyal ba'i blo gros) [50]
Jnanakumara of Nyak (Tibetan: , Wylie: gnyags dzny' na ku
ma ra) [51]
Kawa Paltsek (Tibetan: , Wylie: ska ba dpal brtsegs) [52]
Denma Tsemang
Khandro Yeshe Tsogyal, the princess of Karchen (Tibetan:
, Wylie: mkhar chen bza' mtsho rgyal)
Konchog Jungn of Langdro (Tibetan: , Wylie: lang gro dkon mchog 'byung gnas) [53]
Lhapal the Sokpo (Tibetan: , Wylie: sog po lha dpal) [54]
Namkhai Nyingpo (Tibetan: , Wylie: nam mkha'i snying po)
Zhang Yeshe De (Tibetan: , Wylie: zhang ye shes sde)
Lhalung Pelgyi Dorje (Tibetan: , Wylie: lha lung dpal gyi rdo rje) [55]

Palgyi Senge (Tibetan: , Wylie: dpal gyi seng ge) [56]


Palgyi Wangchuk (Tibetan: , Wylie: dpal gyi dbang phyug) [57]
Palgyi Wangchuk of Odren (Tibetan: , Wylie: 'o dran dpal gyi dbang phyug) [58]
Palgyi Yeshe (Tibetan: , Wylie: dpal gyi ye shes)
Rinchen Chok of Ma (Tibetan: , Wylie: rma rin chen mchog) [59]
Sangye Yeshe (Tibetan: , Wylie: sangs rgyas ye shes) [60]
Shubu Palgyi Senge (Tibetan: , Wylie: shud bu dpal gyi seng ge)
Vairotsana, the great translator (Tibetan: , Wylie: bai ro tsa na)
Yeshe Yang (Tibetan: , Wylie: ye shes dbyangs) [61]
Yudra Nyingpo of Gyalmo (Tibetan: , Wylie: g.yu sgra snying po)

Also:
Vimalamitra (Tibetan: , Wylie: dru med bshes gnyen)
Tingdzin Zangpo (Tibetan: , Wylie: ting 'dzin bzang po) [62]
(image on Wikimedia commons)

Gallery [edit]

Palgyi Sengge

Padmasambhava statue The Holy Statue of Guru Entrance to Dawa Puk,


in Hemis Monastery, Padmasambhava at Guru Rinpoche's cave,
Ladakh, India. Samdruptse, Namchi, Yerpa, 1993.
Sikkim, India.

Statue of Guru Rinpoche Mantra of


in his meditation cave at Padmasambhava in
Yerpa, Tibet Tibetan script.

See also [edit]


Crazy wisdom
Dampa Sangye
Dudjom Rinpoche
Kb Daishi

Notes [edit]
1. ^ Sanskrit Padmasambhva; Tibetan: , Wylie: pad+ma 'byung gnas (EWTS); Mongolian ,
lovon Badmajunai, Chinese: (pinyin: Linhushng)
2. ^ Wylie 'pho ba chen po, pronounced Phowa Chenpo
3. ^ Wylie: 'ja' lus, pronounced Jal.
4. ^ The subjection of concurring deities and demons is a recurrent theme in Buddhist literature. See also Vajrapani and
Mahesvara and Steven Heine's "Opening a Mountain".[22]
5. ^ The other three being the Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug
6. ^ Tibetan: , Wylie: snga 'gyur, ZYPY: Nga'gyur, "school of the ancient translations.
7. ^ The Tibetan script and grammar was actually created for this endeavour.
References [edit]
1. ^ Kvrne, Per (2013). Tuttle, Gray; Schaeffer, Kurtis R., eds. The Tibetan history reader. New York: Columbia University
Press. p. 168. ISBN 9780231144698.
2. ^ a b Schaik, Sam van. Tibet: A History. Yale University Press 2011, page 34-5, 96-8.
3. ^ "Padmasambhava" . Encyclopdia Britannica. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
4. ^ Buswell, Robert E.; Lopez, Jr., Donald S. (2013). The Princeton dictionary of Buddhism . Princeton: Princeton
University Press. p. 608. ISBN 9781400848058. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
5. ^ Harvey, Peter (2008). An Introduction to Buddhism Teachings, History and Practices (2 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press. p. 204. ISBN 9780521676748. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
6. ^ van Schaik, Sam; Iwao, Kazushi (2009). "Fragments of the Testament of Ba from Dunhuang". Journal of the American
Oriental Society. 128 (3): 477487. ISSN 0003-0279
7. ^ Mayer, Rob; Padmasambhava in early Tibetan myth and ritual: Part 1, Introduction.
http://blogs.orient.ox.ac.uk/kila/2011/05/06/padmasambhava-in-early-tibetan-myth-and-ritual-part-1/
8. ^ a b Gyatso, Janet (August 2006). "A Partial Genealogy of the Lifestory of Ye shes mtsho rgyal" . The Journal of the
International Association of Tibetan Studies (2).
9. ^ Davidson, Ronald M. Tibetan Renaissance. pg 229. Columbia University Press, 2005.
10. ^ Davidson, Ronald M. Tibetan Renaissance. pg 278. Columbia University Press, 2005.
11. ^ a b Schaik, Sam van. Tibet: A History. Yale University Press 2011, page 96.
12. ^ Trungpa (2001) 26. For debate on its geographical location, see also the article on Oddiyana.
13. ^ Keown, Damien (2003). A Dictionary of Buddhism (1 ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 203.
ISBN 9780198605607. Retrieved 11 February 2016. (Subscription required (help)).
14. ^ Morgan (2010) 208.
15. ^ Tsogyal (1973) volume I deals with Padmasambhava's life in India.
16. ^ Lama Chonam and Sangye Khandro, translators. The Lives and Liberation of Princess Mandarava: The Indian Consort of
Padmasambhava. (1998). Wisdom Publications.
17. ^ http://www.treasuryoflives.org/institution/Maratika
18. ^ http://www.treasuryoflives.org/paintings/view/Padmasambhava/35
19. ^ a b Snelling 1987, p. 198.
20. ^ Snelling 1987, p. 196, 198.
21. ^ a b Snelling 1987.
22. ^ Heine 2002.
23. ^ 'Guru Rinpoche' and 'Yeshe Tsogyal' in: Forbes, Andrew ; Henley, David (2013). The Illustrated Tibetan Book of the
Dead. Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books. B00BCRLONM
24. ^ Harvey 1995.
25. ^ Sherpa, Lhakpa Norbu (2008). Through a Sherpa Window: Illustrated Guide to Sherpa Culture . Kathmandu, Nepal:
Vajra Publications. ISBN 978-9937506205.
26. ^ Norbu 1987, p. 162.
27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, Illuminating the Excellent Path to Omniscience
28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Chkyi Drakpa, A Torch for the Path to Omniscience: A Word by Word Commentary on the Text
of the Longchen Nyingtik Preliminary Practices .
29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Patrul Rinpoche, Brief Guide to the Ngndro Visualization
30. ^ John Huntington and Dina Bangdel. The Circle of Bliss: Buddhist Meditational Art. Columbus Museum of Art, Columbus,
Ohio, and Serindia Publications, Chicago. 2004. p. 358.
31. ^ Khenchen Palden Sherab Rinpoche The Eight Emanations Of Guru Padmasambhava ; Rigpawiki Eight Manifestations
of Guru Rinpoche ; For the eight manifestations as terma, see: Padmasambhava - 8 Froms: Dorje Drolo .
32. ^ a b c d Boord 1993, p. 115.
33. ^ Schmidt and Binder 1993, pp. 252-53.
34. ^ Sogyal Rinpoche (1992). The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying, pp. 386-389 Harper, San Francisco. ISBN 0-7126-5437-
2.
35. ^ Khenpo Namdrol's Padmasambhava Global Project for World Peace
36. ^ Benefits and Advantages of the Vajra Guru Mantra
37. ^ White Lotus: An Explanation of the Seven-line Prayer to Guru Padmasambhava by Mipham Rinpoche, Ju and translated
by the Padmakara Translation Group
38. ^ Commentary on the Seven Line Prayer to Guru Rinpoche
39. ^ Lotsawa House|Seven Line Prayer, Accomplishing the Lama through the Seven Line Prayer: A Special Teaching from the
Lama Sangd, The Terma Revelation of Guru Chwang
40. ^ Laird (2006) 90.
41. ^ Ian A. Baker: The Lukhang: A hidden temple in Tibet .
42. ^ Dowman, Keith. (1984). Sky Dancer: The Secret Life and Songs of the Lady Yeshe Tsogyel. p. 265.
43. ^ Gyalwa Changchub and Namkhai Nyingpo, Lady of the Lotus-Born: The Life and Enlightenment of Yeshe Tsogyal,
Shambhala (1999, pp. 3-4)
44. ^ Tibetan Wylie transliteration and Sanskrit transliteration are found in Dowman, Keith. (1984). Sky Dancer: The Secret
Life and Songs of the Lady Yeshe Tsogyel. p. 193.
45. ^ RigpaShedra
46. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Denma Tsemang" . The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious
Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
47. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Nanam Dorje Dudjom" . The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan
Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
48. ^ Dorje, Gyurme (August 2008). "Lasum Gyelwa Jangchub" . The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious
Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
49. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Gyelwa Choyang" . The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious
Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
50. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Gyelwai Lodro" . The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious
Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
51. ^ Garry, Ron (August 2007). "Nyak Jnakumara" . The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters.
Retrieved 2013-08-10.
52. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Kawa Peltsek" . The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious
Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
53. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Langdro Konchok Jungne" . The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan
Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
54. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Sokpo Pelgyi Yeshe" . The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious
Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
55. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Lhalung Pelgyi Dorje" . The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious
Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19.
56. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Lang Pelgyi Sengge" . The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious
Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19.
57. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Kharchen Pelgyi Wangchuk" . The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan
Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19.
58. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Odren Pelgyi Wangchuk" . The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan
Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19.
59. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Ma Rinchen Chok" . The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious
Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19.
60. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (December 2009). "Nubchen Sanggye Yeshe" . The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan
Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19.
61. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Yeshe Yang" . The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious
Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19.
62. ^ Leschly, Jakob (August 2007). "Nyang Tingdzin Zangpo" . The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious
Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-19.
Sources [edit]
Berzin, Alexander (November 1011, 2000). "History of Dzogchen" . Study Buddhism. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
Bischoff, F.A. (1978). Ligeti, Louis, ed. "Padmasambhava est-il un personnage historique?". Csoma de Krs Memorial
symposium. Budapest: Akadmiai Kiad: 2733. ISBN 963-05-1568-7.
Boord, Martin (1993), Cult of the Deity Vajrakila, Institute of Buddhist Studies, ISBN 0-9515424-3-5
Dudjom Rinpoche The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism: Its Fundamentals and History. Translated by Gyurme Dorje and
Matthew Kapstein. Boston: Wisdom Publications. 1991, 2002. ISBN 0-86171-199-8.
Guenther, Herbert V. (1996), The Teachings of Padmasambhava, Leiden: E.J. Brill, ISBN 90-04-10542-5
Harvey, Peter (1995), An introduction to Buddhism. Teachings, history and practices, Cambridge University Press
Heine, Steven (2002), Opening a Mountain. Koans of the Zen Masters, Oxford: Oxford University Press
Jackson, D. (1979) 'The Life and Liberation of Padmasambhava (Padma bKa thang)' in: The Journal of Asian Studies 39:
123-25.
Jestis, Phyllis G. (2004) Holy People of the World Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1576073556.
Kinnard, Jacob N. (2010) The Emergence of Buddhism Minneapolis: Fortress Press. ISBN 0800697480.
Laird, Thomas. (2006). The Story of Tibet: Conversations with the Dalai Lama. Grove Press, New York. ISBN 978-0-8021-
1827-1.
Morgan, D. (2010) Essential Buddhism: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.
ISBN 0313384525.
Norbu, Thubten Jigme; Turnbull, Colin (1987), Tibet: Its History, Religion and People, Penguin Books, ISBN 0140213821
Snelling, John (1987), The Buddhist handbook. A Complete Guide to Buddhist Teaching and Practice, London: Century
Paperbacks
Sun, Shuyun (2008), A Year in Tibet: A Voyage of Discovery, London: HarperCollins, ISBN 978-0-00-728879-3
Taranatha The Life of Padmasambhava. Shang Shung Publications, 2005. Translated from Tibetan by Cristiana de Falco.
Thondup, Tulku. Hidden Teachings of Tibet: An Explanation of the Terma Tradition of the Nyingma School of Tibetan
Buddhism. London: Wisdom Publications, 1986.
Trungpa, Chgyam (2001). Crazy Wisdom. Boston: Shambhala Publications. ISBN 0-87773-910-2.
Tsogyal, Yeshe. The Life and Liberation of Padmasambhava. Padma bKa'i Thang. Two Volumes. 1978. Translated into
English by Kenneth Douglas and Gwendolyn Bays. ISBN 0-913546-18-6 and ISBN 0-913546-20-8.
Tsogyal, Yeshe. The Lotus-Born: The Lifestory of Padmasambhava Pema Kunsang, E. (trans.); Binder Schmidt, M. & Hein
Schmidt, E. (eds.) 1st edition, Boston: Shambhala Books, 1993. Reprint: Boudhanath: Rangjung Yeshe Publications, 2004.
ISBN 962-7341-55-X.
Wallace, B. Alan (1999), "The Buddhist Tradition of Samatha: Methods for Refining and Examining Consciousness", Journal of
Consciousness Studies 6 (2-3): 175-187 .
Zangpo, Ngawang. Guru Rinpoche: His Life and Times. Snow Lion Publications, 2002.

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