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WASTEWATER

TREATMENT
Why Treat Wastewater?
Fisheries
Clean water is critical to plants and animals
that live in water
Wildlife Habitats
Rivers and ocean waters are critical habitats
of species of fish and other aquatic life.
Migratory birds use the areas for resting and
feeding
Recreation and Quality of Life

Health Concerns
Goals for Treating Wastewater

Remove solids

Reduce organic matter and

Restore oxygen
Wastewater Treatment
On-site
Treat wastewater at the location where it is
generated

Off-site
Treat wastewater at a central location where
many sources are combined
Wastewater Treatment Processes

Preliminary
Primary
Secondary
Advanced or Tertiary
Sludge Treatment
Wastewater Treatment Stages

PRELIMINARY

PRIMARY Primary Sludge


SLUDGE
TREATMENT
SECONDARY Secondary Sludge

TERTIARY
Preliminary
Treatment
Preliminary Treatment
Objective :
Smooth out fluctuations in flow rate and
concentration to provide more consistent
treatment

Removal of large solids that could damage


equipment
Preliminary Treatment
Done by storing excess
wastewater during high flow
periods
Wastewater is released
during low flow periods
Results in more consistent
treatment
Preliminary Treatment
Removal of Large Solids / Oil

Rotating
Drum Screen Bar screens Grinder

Grit Removal Oil Skimmer


Primary Treatment
Primary Sedimentation
Objective
Remove suspended solids
Organic solids also contain BOD
Typically, remove 70% of incoming solids,
30% of BOD
Done in tanks called clarifiers

An empty primary An active primary


clarifier tank clarifier tank
Secondary
Treatment
Secondary Treatment Approaches

Fixed film
Trickling Filters
Rotating Biological Contactors (RBC)

Suspended film
Activated Sludge Process
Oxidation Ditch

Lagoon systems.
Wetlands
Trickling Filters
Trickling Filters
Trickling Filters
Rotating Biological Contactors
RBCs constructed of plastic media on a long
shaft
Media is submerged in a tank
Shaft rotates media through water
Bacteria grow on media, degrade BOD in
water
Bacteria get air by exposure to atmosphere
Rotating Biological Contactors
Bacteria eventually die, fall off media
surface
Dead bacteria and other solids are
removed in the secondary clarifier
Media up to 12 feet in diameter
Shafts are as long as 25 feet
Media areas are up to 180,000 square feet
per shaft
Rotating Biological Contactors
Suspended Cell Systems

Activated
Sludge Process
Oxidation Ditch
Oxidation Ditch

Sewage entering oxidation ditch


Lagoon System
Wetlands
Tertiary Treatment:
Advanced Water
Treatment
Tertiary Treatment
Objectives:
Remove heavy metals
Control taste and odor
Remove inorganic constituents using
non-conventional processes
Remove organics
Air Stripping
Air is circulated through wastewater
Used to remove
Ammonia (requires increasing pH above 10)
Volatile organics (practical for relatively
insoluble volatile compounds)

Air emissions may be regulated in some


localities
Carbon Adsorption
Removal of:
Organics
Phenol
Benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX)
Pesticides, etc.
Heavy metals (Pb, Hg)

Pollutants adsorb onto surface of carbon


particles
Membrane Processes
Reverse Osmosis
Electrodialysis
An electrically driven membrane
separation process.
Based on the property of ion
exchange membranes to selectively
reject anions or cations
Can remove salts from food, dairy,
and other products, waste streams
and other solutions, as well as
concentrate salts, acids or bases
Electrodialysis
Electrodialysis
Sludge
Management
Goals of Sludge Management
Stabilize primary and secondary sludge
Kill pathogens
Decrease water content
Untreated: 0.5 to 8 % solids
Treated: 6 to 12% solids
Sludge Processing
Thickening

Stabilization
Disinfection

Dewatering
Final Disposal
Thickening
Objective: Remove water before
stabilization, decrease volume
Processes:
Gravity thickening (same equipment as
sedimentation, but smaller)
Dissolved air flotation
Centrifuge
Sludge Dewatering
Drying Bed
Stabilization
Objective: Anaerobic Digestion
Kill pathogens,
eliminate odors,
stabilize organics,
and concentrate
solids

Sludge CH4 + CO2 + H2O + stable solids


Sludge Digetion

Conventional process High Rate Sludge Digestion


Sludge waiting to be picked up