Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 33

AIDS

(Acquired
Immunodeficiency
Syndrome)
AIDS
(Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)
The first case of AIDS in the Philippines was reported in 1984. As of
May 2000 based on the Philippine National AIDS council
record, there were 1,385 HIV positive and AIDS cases, 206
deaths.

As of April 2015, the Department of Health (DOH) AIDS Registry in


the Philippines reported 24,936 cumulative cases.

Causative agent:
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)

Mode of Transmission:
Sexual contact, Transfer of body fluids (blood, semen,
discharges), contaminated syringe, transplacental
Signs and Symptoms:
Physical Mental
1. Rashes 1. Forget fullness
2. Loss of appetite 2. Loss of concentration
3. Weight loss 3. Loss of libido
4. Fever of unknown origin 4. Psychomotor- retardation
5. Pneumocystis carinii 5. Confusion
pneumonia (Pneumocystis 6. Disorientation
jiroveci)
7. Seizures
6. Persistent diarrhea
8. Mutism
7. Esophageal candidiasis
9. Loss of memory
8. Kaposis Darcoma (skin
cancer) 10. Coma
Treatment:
Azidothymidine (AZT) and Didanosine
inhibit HIV replication by inhibiting
reverse transcriptase. Clinical
improvement occurs but the virus
persists. Treatment of opportunistic
infection depends on the organism

Prevention:
Screening of blood prior to transfusion,
safe sex. There is no vaccine
GONORRHEA

Causative agent:
Neisseria gonorrheae
Mode of transmission:
Sexual contact in adult, transmission in neonates is
during birth
It tends to infect warm, moist areas of the body, including
the:
urethra (the tube that drains urine from the urinary bladder)
eyes
throat
Vagina
Anus
Signs and Symptoms:
Genital (penis or cervix), anus, throat and
eyes can be infected

Males- burning urination and pus discharges


from infection of urethra.
swelling or redness at the opening of the penis
swelling or pain in the testicles
a persistent sore throat
Females-discharge from the vagina
(watery, creamy, or slightly green)
pain or burning sensation while urinating
the need to urinate more frequently
heavier periods or spotting
sore throat
pain upon engaging in sexual
intercourse
sharp pain in the lower abdomen
fever
Treatment:
Antibiotic injection of Ceftriaxone one time to
the buttocks or a single dose of Azithromycin by
mouth.
Prevention:
No drugs or vaccine
Use condoms correctly every time you have sex.
Limit the number of sex partners, and do not go
back and forth between partners.
Practice sexual abstinence, or limit sexual
contact to one uninfected partner.
If you think you are infected, avoid sexual
contact and see a doctor.
SYPHILIS

Causative agent:
Treponema pallidum

1. Primary Syphilis (Chancre)


2. Secondary Syphilis (condylomata lata)
3. Tertiary Syphilis (Gummas)
Primary syphilis (Chancre)
-painless sore at the site of entry of germs,
swollen glands
Secondary syphilis (condylomata lata)
-maculopapular rash notably on the palms and soles,
or as moist papules on the skin and mucous membranes.
Moist lesion of the genitals
Tertiary syphilis (Gummas)

- varies from no symptoms to indication of damage


to body organs such as brains, heart and liver
Spread primarily by sexual activity, including
oral and anal sex. Occasionally, the disease
can be passed to another person through
prolonged kissing or close bodily contact.

Pregnant women with the disease can spread


it to their baby. This disease, called congenital
syphilis, can cause abnormalities or even
death to the child.
Treatment:
Penicillin is effective in all stages of syphilis

Prevention:
Same as other bacterial STI.
No vaccine available.
Benzathine penicillin s given to contacts.
Chlamydia
Causative agent:
Chlamydia trachomatis

Mode of Transmission:
Through sexual contact and birth
Signs and Symptoms:
In males- discharge from penis, burning and
itching of the urethral opening, burning sensation
during urination
In females- slight vaginal discharge, itching and
burning sensation of vagina, painful intercourse,
abdominal pain.

Treatment:
Tetracycline and Erythromycin

Prevention:
No vaccine available. Erythromycin is effective in
infected mother to prevent neonatal disease.
Trichomoniasis

Causative agent:
Trichomonas vaginalis

Mode of transmission:
Usually passed by direct sexual
contact. Can be transmitted through
contact with wet objects such as
towels, wash clothes, etc.
Treatment:
Azidothymidine (AZT) and Didanosine
inhibit HIV replication by inhibiting
reverse transcriptase. Clinical
improvement occurs but the virus
persists. Treatment of opportunistic
infection depends on the organism

Prevention:
Screening of blood prior to transfusion,
safe sex. There is no vaccine
Genital herpes

Causative agent:
Herpes simplex Virus type 2 (HSV2)

Mode of transmission:
Sexual contact in adult and during
passage through the birth canal in
neonates
Signs and Symptoms:
Painful vesicular lesion of the male and
female genitals and anal area.
Treatment:
Acyclovir is useful in the treatment of both
primary and recurrent diseases.
Prevention:
Primary disease can be prevented by
protection from exposure to vesicular
lesion. There is no vaccine.
Hepatitis B

Causative agent:
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)

Mode of Transmission:
Sexual intercourse, also transmitted
through blood and during birth
Signs and Symptoms:
a. Loss of appetite
b. Easy fatigability
c. Joint and muscle pain
d. Low grade fever
e. Right sided abdominal pain
f. Jaundice
g. Dark colored urine

Treatment:
No specific treatment
Prevention:
a. Vaccine that contain HBsAg as the
immunogen
b. Hyper immune serum globin
obtained from donors with high titers
of HBsAb