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DIBUJO NORMALIZADO

Pedro P. Company
Jos Mara Gomis
Ignacio Ferrrer
Manuel Contero

DIBUJO NORMALIZADO


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Antecedentes ............................................................................................................... VII
Objetivos .................................................................................................................... VIII

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1.2.1 Tipos de lneas ....................................................................................................... 2
1.2.2. Formatos ............................................................................................................... 3
1.2.3. Escalas................................................................................................................... 3
1.2.4. Escritura ................................................................................................................ 4

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1.7.1 Interpretacin del croquis .................................................................................... 13
1.7.2 Trazado del croquis .............................................................................................. 14
1.7.3 Trucos de oficio ................................................................................................ 15

  
Ejercicio 1.1 Deslizadera .............................................................................................. 17
Ejercicio 1.2 Soporte auricular ..................................................................................... 20
Ejercicio 1.3 Zapata deslizante ..................................................................................... 22
Ejercicio 1.4 Horquilla ................................................................................................. 24
Ejercicio 1.5 Soporte .................................................................................................... 27
Ejercicio 1.6 Llave fija ................................................................................................. 31
Ejercicio 1.7 Pinza deslizante ....................................................................................... 34
Ejercicio 1.8 Lengeta de temporizador ....................................................................... 37
Ejercicio 1.9 Biela ........................................................................................................ 40
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Ejercicio 1.10 Soporte de brazo ................................................................................... 44


Ejercicio 1.11 Palanca .................................................................................................. 47
Ejercicio 1.12 Manguito de transmisin....................................................................... 50

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2.2.1 Vistas particulares o auxiliares ............................................................................ 57
2.2.2 Vistas parciales .................................................................................................... 59
2.2.3 Vistas locales ....................................................................................................... 60
2.2.4 Vistas interrumpidas o roturas ............................................................................. 61
2.2.5 Piezas simtricas .................................................................................................. 62
2.2.6 Detalles representados a mayor escala ................................................................. 63

 
2.3.1 Intersecciones simplificadas ................................................................................ 64
2.3.2 Intersecciones ficticias ......................................................................................... 65
2.3.3 Elementos repetitivos ........................................................................................... 66

 
2.4.1 Contorno primitivo............................................................................................... 71
2.4.2 Partes contiguas ................................................................................................... 71
2.4.3 Caras planas sobre piezas de revolucin y aberturas ........................................... 72

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2.6.1 Objetivo de los cortes........................................................................................... 74
2.6.2 Representacin de los cortes ................................................................................ 76
2.6.3 Tipos de cortes. .................................................................................................... 78
2.6.4 Secciones.............................................................................................................. 85
2.6.5 Excepciones en el corte ........................................................................................ 89

  
Ejercicio 2.1 Zapata ...................................................................................................... 91
Ejercicio 2.2 Base de centrado ..................................................................................... 93
Ejercicio 2.3 Placa de anclaje ....................................................................................... 95
Ejercicio 2.4 Anclaje de posicionamiento .................................................................... 98
Ejercicio 2.5 Cuerpo de anclaje bidireccional ............................................................ 101
Ejercicio 2.6 Carrete ................................................................................................... 103
Ejercicio 2.7 Brazo de regulacin variable ................................................................ 105
Ejercicio 2.8 Soporte de cojinete ................................................................................ 107

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Ejercicio 2.9 Soporte en ngulo ................................................................................ 110


Ejercicio 2.10 Soporte de toma trifsica .................................................................... 112
Ejercicio 2.11 Tapa con bisagra ................................................................................. 115
Ejercicio 2.12 Palanca prensa-papel .......................................................................... 118
Ejercicio 2.13 til de amarre para mecanizado ......................................................... 120
Ejercicio 2.14 Bancada ............................................................................................... 122
Ejercicio 2.15 Soporte reforzado ................................................................................ 124
Ejercicio 2.16 Plataforma de fijacin ......................................................................... 126
Ejercicio 2.17 Placa de distribucin ........................................................................... 128
Ejercicio 2.18 Placa base ............................................................................................ 131
Ejercicio 2.19 Pie de amarre....................................................................................... 133
Ejercicio 2.20 Palanca pivotante ................................................................................ 136
Ejercicio 2.21 Soporte de barra en voladizo ............................................................... 138
Ejercicio 2.22 Tapa gua ............................................................................................. 141
Ejercicio 2.23 Base de mecanismo de control ............................................................ 143
Ejercicio 2.24 Tapa de vasija ..................................................................................... 145
Ejercicio 2.25 Conector cilndrico .............................................................................. 147
Ejercicio 2.26 Arbol de transmisin ........................................................................... 149
Ejercicio 2.27 rbol de leva ....................................................................................... 151
Ejercicio 2.28 Obturador deslizante ........................................................................... 153
Ejercicio 2.29 Hoja de tijera ....................................................................................... 155
Ejercicio 2.30 Base de bisagra ................................................................................... 157
Ejercicio 2.31 Yunque de joyero ................................................................................ 159
Ejercicio 2.32 Carrete ................................................................................................. 161
Ejercicio 2.33 Elemento de fijacin ........................................................................... 163
Ejercicio 2.34 Codo de tubera con anclaje ................................................................ 165
Ejercicio 2.35 Base de cojinete .................................................................................. 168
Ejercicio 2.36 Horquilla deslizante ............................................................................ 171
Ejercicio 2.37 Tapa con ranura para palanca ............................................................. 175
Ejercicio 2.38 Soporte mltiple .................................................................................. 177
Ejercicio 2.39 Base de mecanismo de bloqueo .......................................................... 180
Ejercicio 2.40 Soporte para rodillo de impresin ....................................................... 183
Ejercicio 2.41 Agitador para barbotinas ..................................................................... 186



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3.4.1 Lneas auxiliares de cota .................................................................................... 193
3.4.2 Lnea de cota ...................................................................................................... 194
3.4.3 Terminaciones de cota ....................................................................................... 195
3.4.4 Cifra de cota ....................................................................................................... 196
3.4.5 Lnea de referencia ............................................................................................. 198
3.4.6 Excepciones en la representacin de las cotas ................................................... 198

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3.5.1 Dimetros ........................................................................................................... 200
3.5.2 Radios ................................................................................................................ 201
3.5.3 Esferas ................................................................................................................ 202
3.5.4 Cuadrados .......................................................................................................... 203
3.5.5 Arcos .................................................................................................................. 204


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3.6.1 Por necesidad ..................................................................................................... 204
3.6.2 Por categora ...................................................................................................... 205

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3.8.1 Acotacin en paralelo y acotacin superpuesta ................................................. 208
3.8.2 Acotacin en serie .............................................................................................. 209
3.8.3 Acotacin por coordenadas ................................................................................ 209
3.8.4 Acotacin combinada......................................................................................... 210

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3.9.1 Acotacin de elementos equidistantes y repetitivos .......................................... 211
3.9.2 Acotacin de chaflanes, avellanados y colas de milano .................................... 213
3.9.3 Acotacin de conicidad e inclinacin ................................................................ 214



Ejercicio 3.1 Biela ...................................................................................................... 215
Ejercicio 3.2 Portafusible ........................................................................................... 218
Ejercicio 3.3 Soporte .................................................................................................. 221
Ejercicio 3.4 Sacapiones........................................................................................... 223
Ejercicio 3.5 Basculante de poleas ............................................................................. 225

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Ejercicio 3.6 Brazo mvil para pinza de trazador ...................................................... 227


Ejercicio 3.7 Centrador de balancn ........................................................................... 230
Ejercicio 3.8 Bancada doble ....................................................................................... 233
Ejercicio 3.9 Marco de anclaje ................................................................................... 235
Ejercicio 3.10 Nivelador de anclaje ........................................................................... 237
Ejercicio 3.11 Base de tensor de rodillos ................................................................... 239
Ejercicio 3.12 Balancn de cierre ............................................................................... 241
Ejercicio 3.13 Codo de tubera ................................................................................... 243
Ejercicio 3.14 Cabezal vertical ................................................................................... 247
Ejercicio 3.15 Cuerpo de vlvula de gas .................................................................... 250
Ejercicio 3.16 Bloque de anclaje ................................................................................ 253
Ejercicio 3.17 til de montaje .................................................................................... 255
Ejercicio 3.18 Cartela centradora ............................................................................... 258
Ejercicio 3.19 Cantonera ............................................................................................ 261
Ejercicio 3.20 Cuerpo de inyector .............................................................................. 263
Ejercicio 3.21 Mnsula para eje y pivotante .............................................................. 266
Ejercicio 3.22 Base de bisagra doble.......................................................................... 269
Ejercicio 3.23 Bloque de elevacin ............................................................................ 272
Ejercicio 3.24 Cabezal deslizante ............................................................................... 275
Ejercicio 3.25 Base con rotula .................................................................................... 278
Ejercicio 3.26 Soporte colgante.................................................................................. 281
Ejercicio 3.27 Base con asiento .................................................................................. 284
Ejercicio 3.28 Horquilla con contrapeso .................................................................... 287
Ejercicio 3.29 Mnsula deslizante con rtula ............................................................. 290
Ejercicio 3.30 Corredera............................................................................................. 293
Ejercicio 3.31 Tapa de bomba de vaivn ................................................................... 296
Ejercicio 3.32 Soporte de luminaria fluorescente ...................................................... 300
Ejercicio 3.33 Balancn .............................................................................................. 304
Ejercicio 3.34 Eje con leva ......................................................................................... 307

 
 


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Figura 1.9.3
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Figura 1.9.4
3ULQFLSLRVJHQHUDOHVGHUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ 

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Figura 1.9.5
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Ejercicio 1.10 Soporte de brazo


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Figura 1.10.1 Soporte
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Figura 1.10.2

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Ejercicio 1.11 Palanca


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Figura 1.11.1
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Ejercicio 1.12 Manguito de transmisin


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Figura 1.12.5
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3RU RWUD SDUWH HQ PXFKRV REMHWRV HV IUHFXHQWH HO HPSOHR GH FKDIODQHV \
UHGRQGHRV /RV PRWLYRV PiV KDELWXDOHV VRQ HYLWDU DFFLGHQWHV GH PDQLSXODFLyQ
SRU HMHPSOR HQ HO FDVR GH REMHWRV PHWiOLFRV FRQ FDQWRV YLYRV  IDYRUHFHU HO
SURFHVRGHIDEULFDFLyQ\PHMRUDUHOFRPSRUWDPLHQWRUHVLVWHQWH
(Q GHILQLWLYD HV IUHFXHQWH UHSUHVHQWDU FXHUSRV IRUPDGRV SRU GLIHUHQWHV IRUPDV
JHRPpWULFDVHOHPHQWDOHVFRQ]RQDVGHWUDQVLFLyQUHGRQGHDGDVGHIRUPDTXHODV
DULVWDV GH LQWHUVHFFLyQ HQWUH ODV GLVWLQWDV IRUPDV JHRPpWULFDV VH SLHUGHQ (O
UHVXOWDGR HV TXH ODV UHSUHVHQWDFLRQHV GH WDOHV FXHUSRV XWLOL]DQGR VyOR DULVWDV \
FRQWRUQRVUHVXOWDQSRFRFODUDV
/DDOWHUQDWLYDGDGDSRUODVQRUPDVHVHOHPSOHRGHDULVWDVILFWLFLDV6HWUDWDGH
GLEXMDU ODV DULVWDV TXH existiran HQ HO FDVR GH TXH QR VH KXELHVH UHDOL]DGR HO
FRUUHVSRQGLHQWHFKDIOiQRUHGRQGHR
3DUD QR FDHU HQ HO H[WUHPR FRQWUDULR GH TXH HO FKDIOiQ R UHGRQGHR QR TXHGH
LQGLFDGR  OD DULVWD ILFWLFLD VH UHDOL]D D WUD]R ILQR \ VH LQWHUUXPSH DQWHV GH TXH
OOHJXH D WRFDU HO FRQWRUQR 3RU VXSXHVWR HO FRQWRUQR VH GLEXMD LQFOX\HQGR HO
FRUUHVSRQGLHQWHFKDIOiQRUHGRQGHR ILJXUD 
(QODILJXUDVHPXHVWUDXQHMHPSORGHFRPRHOHPSOHRGHOFRQYHQFLRQDOLVPR
GHLQWHUVHFFLRQHVILFWLFLDVSXHGHVHUYLUSUHFLVDPHQWHSDUDUHVDOWDUODH[LVWHQFLDGH
XQ UHGRQGHR GH UDGLR H[FHVLYDPHQWH SHTXHxR SDUD VHU GLEXMDGR D OD HVFDOD GHO
GLEXMR

  'LEXMRQRUPDOL]DGR

  
Figura 2.11 Figura 2.12

(OHPHQWRVUHSHWLWLYRV
/RVHOHPHQWRVGHXQFXHUSRTXHVHUHSLWHQPXFKDVYHFHV\VHVLW~DQFRQDOJ~Q
WLSR GH UHJXODULGDG JHRPpWULFD VH SXHGHQ GLEXMDU GH IRUPD VLPSOLILFDGD (Q
JHQHUDO VHUi OD FRPSOHMLGDG GH OD UHSUHVHQWDFLyQ HO IDFWRU TXH GHEH SUHGRPLQDU
SDUD GHFLGLU XWLOL]DU OD VLPSOLILFDFLyQ $GHPiV OD PD\RUtD GH ODV QRUPDV
HVSHFtILFDVVREUHUHSUHVHQWDFLyQGHHOHPHQWRVUHSHWLWLYRVGHVWDFDQODSRVLELOLGDG
GHHOHJLUHQWUHXQDUHSUHVHQWDFLyQYHUGDGHUD\XQDUHSUHVHQWDFLyQVLPSOLILFDGD
/DVVLPSOLILFDFLRQHVHPSOHDGDVVRQGHGRVWLSRV
 &XDQGRORVHOHPHQWRVQRHVWiQSUHGHILQLGRVVHGLEXMDHOSULPHURHOVHJXQGR\
HO~OWLPRUHDOL]DQGRVXUHSUHVHQWDFLyQJHRPpWULFDULJXURVDGHOUHVWRVHLQGLFD
OD SRVLFLyQ PHGLDQWH DOJXQD GH VXV FDUDFWHUtVWLFDV JHRPpWULFDV LPSRUWDQWHV
FHQWURVHMHVHWF 
 &XDQGR ORV HOHPHQWRV Vt HVWiQ SUHGHILQLGRV VH LQGLFD VX VLWXDFLyQ \ VH
HVSHFLILFDQORVSDUiPHWURVQHFHVDULRVSDUDFRPSOHWDUVXGHILQLFLyQSRUPHGLR
GHODOH\HQGDRORVVtPERORVSURSLRVGHFDGDHOHPHQWRSUHGHILQLGR
&RPR HOHPHQWRV SUHGHILQLGRV FDEH GHVWDFDU ODV URVFDV \ ORV GLHQWHV \
DFDQDODGXUDV
x (OHPHQWRVUHSHWLGRVQRSUHGHILQLGRV
(Q pVWH FDVR VH GLEXMDQ FRPSOHWRV HO SULPHUR HO VHJXQGR \ HO ~OWLPR GH ORV
HOHPHQWRVUHSHWLGRV ILJXUD /DILQDOLGDGHVFHUUDUYLVXDOPHQWHHOFRQMXQWR
GH HOHPHQWRV UHSHWLGRV SDUD IDYRUHFHU OD SHUFHSFLyQ GHO FRQYHQFLRQDOLVPR  \
SHUPLWLU FXDOTXLHU WRPD GH PHGLGDV WDO FRPR OD VHSDUDFLyQ HQWUH HOHPHQWRV
FRQWLJXRV 


&RQYHQFLRQDOLVPRVGHODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ 

'H HQWUH ODV OyJLFDV H[FHSFLRQHV FDEH GHVWDFDU HO FDVR HQ TXH ORV HOHPHQWRV
HVWpQ VLWXDGRV HQ XQD GLVSRVLFLyQ SRODU HTXLGLVWDQWHV GH XQ HMH \ JLUDGRV XQ
YDORUFRQVWDQWHUHVSHFWRDGLFKRHMH (QWDOFDVRVHGLEXMDQQDGDPiVHOSULPHUR\
HOVHJXQGRGHORVHOHPHQWRV ILJXUD 

  
Figura 2.13 Figura 2.14
(V LPSRUWDQWH UHFRUGDU TXH VH GHEH LQGLFDU OD SRVLFLyQ GH WRGRV ORV HOHPHQWRV
3DUDHOORVHXWLOL]DDOJXQDGHVXVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVJHRPpWULFDVLPSRUWDQWHV FHQWURV
HMHV HWF  TXH VH PDUFD GH OD IRUPD PiV DSURSLDGD KDELWXDOPHQWH PHGLDQWH
OtQHDVGHSXQWR\WUD]RWLSR* 
x 5HSUHVHQWDFLyQFRQYHQFLRQDOGHURVFDV
8QD URVFD VH SXHGH LPDJLQDU REWHQLGD D SDUWLU GH XQ FLOLQGUR FLUFXODU UHFWR
DOJXQDV YHFHV XQ FRQR  VREUH FX\D VXSHUILFLH VH WDOODQ XQD R PiV UDQXUDV R
ILOHWHVKHOLFRLGDOHV ILJXUD 
/D VXSHUILFLH UHVXOWDQWH ILJXUD D  HV FRPSOHMD \ GH QDWXUDOH]D UHSHWLWLYD OD
IRUPD GH OD KpOLFH VH UHSLWH HQ FDGD YXHOWD  3RU RWUD SDUWH H[LVWHQ GLIHUHQWHV
YDULDQWHVGHURVFDVHQIXQFLyQGHORVGLVWLQWRVSHUILOHVGHODVUDQXUDVKHOLFRLGDOHV
1RREVWDQWHHQWRGRVORVFDVRVKD\XQDUHSUHVHQWDFLyQFRP~QODTXHLQGLFDTXH
SRUFLyQGHOREMHWRHVWiURVFDGD
7DOFRPRLQGLFDQODVQRUPDV81(H,62SDUDUHSUHVHQWDUODV
URVFDVGHXQDPDQHUDFRQYHQFLRQDOVHGLEXMDXQDOtQHDJUXHVDFRQWLQXD WLSR$ 
XQLHQGR ODV FUHVWDV GH ORV ILOHWHV \ XQD OtQHD ILQD FRQWLQXD WLSR %  XQLHQGR ORV
IRQGRV/DVHSDUDFLyQHQWUHDPEDVOtQHDVGHEHVHUaproximadamenteODDOWXUDGHO
ILOHWH DXQTXH KD\ TXH UHFRUGDU TXH VHJ~Q OD QRUPD GH 3ULQFLSLRV JHQHUDOHV GH
UHSUHVHQWDFLyQ OD VHSDUDFLyQ PtQLPD HQWUH GRV OtQHDV SDUDOHODV QR SXHGH VHU
LQIHULRUDPPQLDOGREOHGHOHVSHVRUGHODOtQHDJUXHVD ILJXUDE 






  'LEXMRQRUPDOL]DGR

 
Figura 2.15 Figura 2.16
7DO FRPR VH PXHVWUD HQ HO HMHPSOR GH OD ILJXUD  ODV QRUPDV FRQVLGHUDQ OD
UHSUHVHQWDFLyQGHODURVFDH[WHULRU URVFDPDFKR HLQWHULRU URVFDKHPEUD \VH
WLHQHQHQFXHQWDWDQWRODVUHSUHVHQWDFLRQHVORQJLWXGLQDOHVFRPRODVWUDQVYHUVDOHV


Figura 2.17
/RVDVSHFWRVPiVGHVWDFDGRVGHODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQVLPSOLILFDGDRFRQYHQFLRQDO
VRQ
 (QODVUHSUHVHQWDFLRQHVWUDQVYHUVDOHVODURVFDVHUHSUHVHQWDFRQODOtQHDILQD
LQFRPSOHWDDEDUFDQGRODVWUHVFXDUWDVSDUWHVGHODFLUFXQIHUHQFLD
 (QODVUHSUHVHQWDFLRQHVORQJLWXGLQDOHVVHLQFOX\HXQDOtQHDWLSR$SDUDLQGLFDU
HOILQDOGHOD]RQDURVFDGD
&RQYHQFLRQDOLVPRVGHODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ 

 &XDQGRVHFRQVLGHUDLPSRUWDQWHVHDxDGHQVHQGRVWUD]RVILQRVSDUDLQGLFDUOD
]RQDGHVDOLGDGHURVFD VHWUDWDGHXQD]RQDTXHHVWiWDOODGDSHURFRQXQ
SHUILOLPSHUIHFWRTXHKDFHQTXHQRVHDYiOLGDSDUDURVFDU 
 3DUDIDFLOLWDUHOURVFDGROD]RQDGHDUUDQTXHGHODURVFDVHVXHOHDFKDIODQDU
3RU HOOR DXQTXH HO FKDIOiQ QR IRUPD SDUWH GHO HOHPHQWR URVFDGR VXHOH LU
DVRFLDGRFRQpO
 (O SHUILO GH OD URVFD VH SXHGH LQGLFDU GH IRUPD FRQYHQFLRQDO SRU PHGLR GHO
FRUUHVSRQGLHQWHVtPERORGHDFRWDFLyQ RGLEXMDQGRXQRJUXSRGHHOORV(QHO
VHJXQGRFDVRODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQVHSXHGHKDFHUVREUHXQDYLVWDORQJLWXGLQDOGH
ODURVFD HQpVWHFDVRVHVXHOHXWLOL]DUXQFRUWHORFDO RHQXQGHWDOOHDPD\RU
HVFDOD
x 5HSUHVHQWDFLyQFRQYHQFLRQDOGHGLHQWHV\DFDQDODGXUDV
/RV GLHQWHV \ DFDQDODGXUDV ILJXUD  D \ F  VRQ HOHPHQWRV TXH VLHPSUH
DSDUHFHQ UHSHWLGRV GDGR TXH DLVODGRV QR WLHQHQ XWLOLGDG SUiFWLFD (Q HO FDVR GH
ODV DFDQDODGXUDV HO Q~PHUR VXHOH VHU OR VXILFLHQWHPHQWH UHGXFLGR FRPR SDUD
FRQVLGHUDU UD]RQDEOH OD DOWHUQDWLYD GH OD UHSUHVHQWDFLyQ FRPSOHWD ILJXUD G 
SHURQRRFXUUHORPLVPRHQHOFDVRGHORVGHQWDGRV ILJXUDE 3RUHOORWLHQH
VHQWLGRHPSOHDUXQDUHSUHVHQWDFLyQVLPSOLILFDGDGHHOHPHQWRVUHSHWLWLYRV


Figura 2.18
  'LEXMRQRUPDOL]DGR

/RV HOHPHQWRV UHSHWLWLYRV WLHQHQ XQD UHSUHVHQWDFLyQ VLPSOLILFDGD SURSLD (Q OD
QRUPD ,62  VH LQGLFD OD IRUPD VLPSOLILFDGD GH UHSUHVHQWDU GLHQWHV \
DFDQDODGXUDV/DQRUPDVHFHQWUDHQHOFDVRGHXQLRQHVHMHFXERSHURSXHGHVHU
IiFLOPHQWH H[WUDSRODGD D VLWXDFLRQHV PiV JHQpULFDV 3RU VX SDUWH SDUD OD
UHSUHVHQWDFLyQGHGLHQWHVGHHQJUDQDMHVH[LVWHQQRUPDVHVSHFtILFDV 81(
R,62 
%iVLFDPHQWH SDUD UHSUHVHQWDU ORV GLHQWHV \ ODV DFDQDODGXUDV GH XQD PDQHUD
VLPSOLILFDGDRFRQYHQFLRQDOVHGLEXMDHOHOHPHQWRTXHORVFRQWLHQHWDOFRPRVH
YHUtD VLQ HOORV VXSHUILFLH SULPLWLYD  \ VH DxDGH XQD OtQHD ILQD FRQWLQXD WLSR % 
LQGLFDQGR ORV IRQGRV GH ORV GLHQWHV R DFDQDODGXUDV ODV VXSHUILFLHV GH SLH 
7DPELpQVHSXHGHHPSOHDUXQDOtQHDWLSR*SDUDLQGLFDUODVXSHUILFLHGHFRQWDFWR
R VXSHUILFLH SULPLWLYD GH IXQFLRQDPLHQWR VH WUDWD GH XQD VXSHUILFLH WHyULFD
FRQWHQLGDHQWUHODVXSHUILFLHGHSLH\ODVXSHUILFLHSULPLWLYDTXHVHGHILQHHQEDVH
D FLHUWRV FULWHULRV PHFiQLFRV  (Q OD ILJXUD  VH LOXVWUD HO FULWHULR GH PDUFDU OD
VXSHUILFLHGHFRQWDFWRSULQFLSDOPHQWHHQODVUHSUHVHQWDFLRQHVGHGLHQWHV


Figura 2.19
(O SHUILO GH ORV GLHQWHV R DFDQDODGXUDV VH SXHGH LQGLFDU ELHQ GH IRUPD
FRQYHQFLRQDO SRU PHGLR GH OD FRUUHVSRQGLHQWH UHIHUHQFLD D 1RUPDV  R ELHQ
GLEXMDQGRXQRGHHOORV(QHOSULPHUFDVRODLQGLFDFLyQVHKDFHFRQXQDOtQHDGH
UHIHUHQFLD TXH FRQWLHQH OD LQGLFDFLyQ DSURSLDGD R HPSOHDQGR DOJ~Q VtPEROR
SUHGHILQLGR ILJXUD (QHOVHJXQGRFDVRODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQVHSXHGHKDFHUD
ODHVFDODGHOGLEXMRRHQXQGHWDOOHDPD\RUHVFDOD(VLPSRUWDQWHUHFRUGDUTXHVL
QR VH LQGLFD GH QLQJ~Q PRGR HO SHUILO \ HO Q~PHUR GH GLHQWHV R DFDQDODGXUDV OD
JHRPHWUtDGHOHOHPHQWRTXHGDLQGHILQLGD
(Q DOJXQRV FDVRV WDPELpQ HV QHFHVDULR LQGLFDU OD SRVLFLyQ H[DFWD HQ XQ SODQR
D[LDO GH ORV GLHQWHV R DFDQDODGXUDV UHVSHFWR DO UHVWR GHO REMHWR (QWRQFHV
WDPELpQVHUHFXUUHDGLEXMDUHOSHUILOGHXQRRGRVGLHQWHVRDFDQDODGXUDV


Figura 2.20
&RQYHQFLRQDOLVPRVGHODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ 

3RU~OWLPRDXQTXHD~QQRVHKDLQWURGXFLGRHOFRQFHSWRGHFRUWHHVLPSRUWDQWH
QRWDU OD GLVWLQFLyQ HQWUH OD UHSUHVHQWDFLyQ HQ FRUWH GH FXHUSRV FRQ GLHQWHV \
DFDQDODGXUDV HQODTXHQRVHUD\DOD]RQDFRPSUHQGLGDHQWUHODOtQHDGHIRQGR\
HO FRQWRUQR  GH OD UHSUHVHQWDFLyQ GH ODV URVFDV HQ OD TXH VL TXH VH UD\D GLFKD
]RQD 

2.4 INFORMACION COMPLEMENTARIA


/D UHSUHVHQWDFLyQ GH LQIRUPDFLyQ FRPSOHPHQWDULD KDFH UHIHUHQFLD D WRGRV ORV
FRQYHQFLRQDOLVPRV TXH SHUPLWHQ HVSHFLILFDU WDQWR OD HYROXFLyQ GHO REMHWR
UHSUHVHQWDGR SRUHMHPSORGLIHUHQWHVIDVHVGHVXSURFHVRGHFRQIRUPDFLyQ FRPR
VXUHODFLyQFRQRWURVREMHWRV FRQGLFLRQHVGHPRQWDMHHWF 
'LFKDLQIRUPDFLyQVHLQFOX\HXWLOL]DQGRODVUHSUHVHQWDFLRQHVRSRUWXQDVDVRFLDGDV
D DTXHOODV YLVWDV TXH VH FRQVLGHUHQ PiV VLJQLILFDWLYDV 6LQ TXH H[LVWD QLQJXQD
REOLJDFLyQ GH H[WHQGHU OD UHSUHVHQWDFLyQ GH LQIRUPDFLyQ FRPSOHPHQWDULD D WRGDV
ODVYLVWDVGHODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQSULQFLSDO

&RQWRUQRSULPLWLYR
3DUD LQGLFDU ODV GLIHUHQWHV IRUPDV TXH DGRSWD XQ REMHWR GXUDQWH XQ SURFHVR GH
IDEULFDFLyQ SRU HWDSDV VH UHDOL]D XQ SODQR SRU FDGD XQD GH ODV HWDSDV
FRQVLGHUDGDV 1R REVWDQWH HQ ORV FDVRV PiV VHQFLOORV VH SXHGHQ GLEXMDU
VXSHUSXHVWDV ODV IRUPDV LQWHUPHGLDV VREUH OD IRUPD ILQDO HQ XQD ~QLFD
UHSUHVHQWDFLyQ (Q pVWRV FDVRV OD IRUPD ILQDO VH UHSUHVHQWD GHO PRGR KDELWXDO
PLHQWUDV TXH ODODV IRUPDV SUHYLDV VH UHSUHVHQWDQ GLEXMDQGR WRGRV DTXHOORV
FRQWRUQRV\DULVWDVTXHQRFRLQFLGDQFRQORVGHODIRUPDILQDOSRUPHGLRGHOtQHD
ILQDWLSR. OtQHDGHWUD]R\GREOHSXQWR (QODILJXUDVHPXHVWUDXQHMHPSOR
TXHVHREWLHQHSRUSOHJDGRGHXQDFKDSDPHWiOLFD


Figura 2.21

3DUWHVFRQWLJXDV
&XDQGRVHTXLHUHLQGLFDUFRQPD\RUFODULGDGTXHODIRUPDGHXQREMHWRHVGHELGD
D OD QHFHVLGDG GH DFRSODUOR FRQ RWUR X RWURV REMHWRV DG\DFHQWHV VH UHFXUUH D
GLEXMDU ODV SDUWHV FRQWLJXDV GH GLFKRV REMHWRV DG\DFHQWHV VXSHUSXHVWDV D OD
UHSUHVHQWDFLyQGHOREMHWRSULQFLSDO
  'LEXMRQRUPDOL]DGR

(Q WDOHV UHSUHVHQWDFLRQHV ILJXUD   ODV SDUWHV FRQWLJXDV GH ORV REMHWRV
DG\DFHQWHV VH GLEXMDQ XWLOL]DQGR OtQHDV ILQDV WLSR . WUD]R \ GREOH SXQWR  WDQWR
SDUDORVFRQWRUQRVFRPRSDUDODVDULVWDV


Figura 2.22

&DUDVSODQDVVREUHSLH]DVGHUHYROXFLyQ\DEHUWXUDV
&XDQGRVHTXLHUHUHVDOWDUTXHXQDVXSHUILFLHGHXQREMHWRHVplanaVHGLEXMDQVXV
GLDJRQDOHV FRQ OtQHD OOHQD ILQD WLSR %  (VWH FRQYHQFLRQDOLVPR VyOR VH DSOLFD
FXDQGRODVVXSHUILFLHVFLUFXQGDQWHVVRQFLOtQGULFDV SLH]DVGHWLSRHMH FRPRHQ
OD ILJXUD  R FXDQGR VH WUDWD GH DOJ~Q FDVR PiV JHQHUDO GH VXSHUILFLHV GH
UHYROXFLyQ


Figura 2.23
6LHOSROtJRQRTXHOLPLWDODFDUDSODQDQRHVXQFXDGULOiWHURHOFRQYHQFLRQDOLVPR
SXHGHUHVXOWDUFRQIXVRSRUORTXHVHGHVDFRQVHMDVXXWLOL]DFLyQ
(O PLVPR FRQYHQFLRQDOLVPR VH HPSOHD SULQFLSDOPHQWH HQ UHSUHVHQWDFLRQHV GH
REUD FLYLO SDUD LQGLFDU TXH XQ SROtJRQR SDUDOHOHSLSpGLFR FRUUHVSRQGH D XQD
abertura WDOHVFRPRKXHFRVLQWHULRUHVSDWLRVGHOXFHVHWF HQXQDSDUWHSODQD
YLVWDGHIUHQWH
&RQYHQFLRQDOLVPRVGHODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ 

2.5 REPRESENTACION CONVENCIONAL DE PIEZAS ESTANDARIZADAS


6HGLVWLQJXHQGRVFDVRVSRUXQDSDUWHODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQFRQYHQFLRQDOGHREMHWRV
FRPSOHWRV FRPR ORV UHVRUWHV  \ SRU RWUD OD UHSUHVHQWDFLyQ HVWDQGDUL]DGD
HQWHQGLGDFRPRHODFXHUGRGHIDFWRVREUHODVYLVWDVFRUWHV\FRQYHQFLRQDOLVPRV
FRQORVTXHVHGHEHQUHSUHVHQWDUFLHUWRVREMHWRV
/DQRUPD81( ,62 LQGLFDODIRUPDDSURSLDGDSDUDUHSUHVHQWDU
UHVRUWHV\PXHOOHV+D\TXHGHVWDFDUTXHFRQWHPSODWUHVYDULDQWHVTXHGHQRPLQD
YLVWDFRUWH\VLPSOLILFDGD/DVUHSUHVHQWDFLRQHVHQYLVWD\HQFRUWHVRQGH
KHFKRVHQGDVVLPSOLILFDFLRQHVSXHVHO~QLFRFRQYHQFLRQDOLVPRTXHVHHPSOHDHV
TXHODFXUYDVHQRLGDOTXHUHVXOWDGHSUR\HFWDUODKpOLFHFLOtQGULFDVREUHXQSODQR
SDUDOHORDOGHVXHMHVHVLPSOLILFDFRPRXQDOtQHDUHFWDHQ]LJ]DJ3RUVXSDUWHOD
UHSUHVHQWDFLyQVLPSOLILFDGDFRQVWLWX\HXQDYHUGDGHUDUHSUHVHQWDFLyQVLPEyOLFDGHO
REMHWR ILJXUD 


Figura 2.24
/D UHSUHVHQWDFLyQ HVWDQGDUL]DGD GH SLH]DV R HOHPHQWRV QR HVWi H[SOtFLWDPHQWH
UHFRJLGD HQ ODV QRUPDV 3HUR HV GH XVR IUHFXHQWH \ VX GHVFRQRFLPLHQWR SXHGH
OOHYDU D FRPHWHU HUURUHV GH LQWHUSUHWDFLyQ (O HMHPSOR SDUDGLJPiWLFR HV OD
UHSUHVHQWDFLyQFRQYHQFLRQDOGHORVWRUQLOORVTXHVHUHSUHVHQWDQSRUPHGLRGHXQD
YLVWD ORQJLWXGLQDO \ XQD YLVWD GH OD FDEH]D \ FDVL VLHPSUH VH VLW~DQ FRQ HO HMH
YHUWLFDO\ODFDEH]DDUULED $GHPiVDODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQGHODVFDEH]DVVHDxDGHQ
GLIHUHQWHV SDUWLFXODULGDGHV WDOHV FRPR VLWXDU XQD FDUD SDUDOHOD DO DO]DGR FXDQGR
VRQKH[DJRQDOHV SDUDTXHVHYHDQWUHVFDUDV JLUDUqODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQGHOD
SODQWDFXDQGRODFDEH]DHVUDQXUDGDHWF ILJXUD 


Figura 2.25
&RPR FDVR H[WUHPR KD\ TXH UHFRUGDU TXH ODV SLH]DV totalmente HVWDQGDUL]DGDV
QR QHFHVLWDQ GHILQLFLyQ SRU OR TXH QR VH KDFHQ GLEXMRV GH GHILQLFLyQ GH ODV
PLVPDV$PRGRGHGHILQLFLyQEDVWDODFRUUHVSRQGLHQWHUHIHUHQFLD
  'LEXMRQRUPDOL]DGR

2.6 CORTES, SECCIONES Y EXCEPCIONES EN EL CORTE


/RV FRUWHV ODV VHFFLRQHV \ ODV H[FHSFLRQHV HQ HO FRUWH VLUYHQ SDUD UHVROYHU HO
SUREOHPDGHSpUGLGDGHFODULGDGGHODVUHSUHVHQWDFLRQHVHQREMHWRVFRQPXFKDV
DULVWDVRFRQWRUQRVRFXOWRV

2EMHWLYRGHORVFRUWHV
3DUDODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQGHFXHUSRVPDFL]RVVHQFLOORVHVVXILFLHQWHFRQHOVLVWHPD
PXOWLYLVWD&XDQGRODSLH]DSUHVHQWD]RQDVKXHFDVRGHWDOOHVLQWHULRUHVHOVLVWHPD
PXOWLYLVWDSHUPLWHUHSUHVHQWDUORVSRUOtQHDVGHWUD]RV WLSRV(y)VHJ~Q81(
  3HUR VL HO Q~PHUR GH OtQHDV RFXOWDV HV HOHYDGR VX HPSOHR GLILFXOWD
HQRUPHPHQWHWDQWRODHMHFXFLyQFRPRODLQWHUSUHWDFLyQGHOGLEXMR
3DUDUHVROYHUHVDGLILFXOWDGVHXWLOL]DXQFRQYHQFLRQDOLVPRFRQVLVWHQWHHQFRUWDUOD
SLH]DSRUXQSODQRMXVWRSRUOD]RQDR]RQDVTXHQRVLQWHUHVDQYHULQWHULRUPHQWH
(O corte TXH HV FRPR VH GHQRPLQD OD YLVWD REWHQLGD DO DSOLFDU HVWH
FRQYHQFLRQDOLVPRHV~WLOHQHOGLEXMREiVLFDPHQWHSRUGRVPRWLYRV
 (OLPLQDFLyQGHOtQHDVGLVFRQWLQXDV/RFXDODSRUWDFODULGDGSRUTXHVLPSOLILFDHO
WUD]DGRIDFLOLWDQGRODLQWHUSUHWDFLyQGHORVGLEXMRV
 5HGXFFLyQGHOQ~PHURGHYLVWDVQHFHVDULDVFRQODFRQVLJXLHQWHVLPSOLILFDFLyQ
GHODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQGDGRTXHFRPRYHUHPRVHQXQDYLVWDFRUWDGDVHVXHOH
DSRUWDUPiVLQIRUPDFLyQTXHHQODYLVWDQRFRUWDGDHTXLYDOHQWH
(OSURFHVRGHVFULWRFRQPiVGHWDOOHHVHOVLJXLHQWH
 &RUWDUODSLH]DLPDJLQDULDPHQWHSRUXQSODQR )LJD 
 (OLPLQDU PHQWDOPHQWH OD SDUWH GH OD SLH]D TXH KD\ HQWUH HO REVHUYDGRU \ HO
SODQRGHFRUWH )LJE (VGHFLUODSDUWHGHOREMHWRTXHTXHGDGHODQWHGHO
SODQRGHFRUWH
 3UR\HFWDUODSDUWHGHODSLH]DTXHTXHGDGHWUiVGHOSODQRGHFRUWH )LJF 


Figura 2.26
'HEH GHVWDFDUVH TXH OD QRUPD 81( DVt FRPR OD ,62 HQ VX YHUVLyQ HQ OHQJXD
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Figura 2.1.1
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Figura 2.1.2

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Ejercicio 2.2 Base de centrado


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EDVHGHFHQWUDGRDQWHVGHVXIULUODV~OWLPDVRSHUDFLRQHVGHIDEULFDFLyQ
/DVGRVRSHUDFLRQHVTXHUHVWDQVRQ
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GHUDGLR\SURIXQGLGDGPP
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EDVHVLWXDGRHQHOSXQWR%\SHUSHQGLFXODUDODFDUDGRQGHHVWi%
$SDUWDGR$
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Figura 2.2.1
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FLOLQGUR HQ YHUGDGHUD PDJQLWXG \ HO WDODGUR VHPLFLOtQGULFR FRQ FHQWUR HQ $ VH
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Figura 2.2.2.
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Ejercicio 2.3 Placa de anclaje


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Figura 2.3.1
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Figura 2.3.2.
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(OODILJXUDVHLQGLFDQWDPELpQRWURVGRVPRGRVGHPHGLUODVLQFOLQDFLRQHV
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Figura 2.3.3
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Ejercicio 2.4 Anclaje de posicionamiento


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Figura 2.4.1

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Figura 2.4.2
  'LEXMRQRUPDOL]DGR

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Figura 2.4.3

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&RQYHQFLRQDOLVPRVGHODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ 

Ejercicio 2.5 Cuerpo de anclaje bidireccional


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Figura 2.5.1
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Figura 2.5.2
/DH[LVWHQFLDGHXQDDOHWDGHODSLH]DRULHQWDGDVHJ~QXQSODQRLQFOLQDGRUHVSHFWR
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Ejercicio 2.6 Carrete


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RUWRJRQDOLVRPpWULFD ;2< ;2= =2< ([ (\ (]  3DUDFRQRFHU
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UDGLRGHUHGRQGHR PP 
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Figura 2.6.1
  'LEXMRQRUPDOL]DGR

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Figura 2.6.2
$GHPiVVHKDQDSOLFDGRWUHVFRQYHQFLRQHVHQODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ
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Ejercicio 2.7 Brazo de regulacin variable


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Figura 2.7.1

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Figura 2.7.2.
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Ejercicio 2.8 Soporte de cojinete


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Figura 2.8.1

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Figura 2.8.2

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Figura 2.8.3
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Ejercicio 2.9 Soporte en ngulo


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GHOVRSRUWHTXHTXHGDHQHVFRU]R
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Figura 2.9.1

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Figura 2.9.2 Representacin del soporte en ngulo

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  'LEXMRQRUPDOL]DGR

Ejercicio 2.10 Soporte de toma trifsica


(O VRSRUWH GH WRPD WULIiVLFD HVWDQFD GH OD ILJXUD  HVWi UHSUHVHQWDGR HQ
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Figura 2.10.1. Soporte de toma trifsica.


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/D FRQVWUXFFLyQ LQIHULRU VLUYH SDUD HQPDUFDU OD EDVH URPERLGDO HQ XQ FRQWRUQR
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Figura 2.10.2
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FRPR SODQWD OD YLVWD VREUH ;2< 3DUD FRPSOHWDU OD GHILQLFLyQ VH XWLOL]D HO SHUILO
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Figura 2.10.3
(ODO]DGRGHILQHODLQFOLQDFLyQGHODSDUWHVXSHULRUGHODSLH]DUHVSHFWRDODSDUWH
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Ejercicio 2.11 Tapa con bisagra


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Figura 2.11.1
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Figura 2.11.2

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Figura 2.11.3
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Ejercicio 2.12 Palanca prensa-papel


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Figura 2.12.1 Palanca prensa-papel.


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Figura 2.12.2. Representacin de palanca prensa-papel.



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  'LEXMRQRUPDOL]DGR

Ejercicio 2.13 til de amarre para mecanizado


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Figura 2.13.1

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 TXHLQFOX\HHOSHUILOL]TXLHUGR\XQVHJXQGRDO]DGRFRUWDGR
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Figura 2.13.2.
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Ejercicio 2.14 Bancada


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Figura 2.14.1

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Ejercicio 2.15 Soporte reforzado


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Figura 2.15.2

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Ejercicio 2.16 Plataforma de fijacin


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Figura 2.16.2
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PHGLRGHXQDOtQHDGHUHIHUHQFLD
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GHWDOODQVXVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDV\H[FHSFLRQHV


Figura 3.2

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DX[LOLDUSDUDUHSUHVHQWDUODFRWD ILJXUDV\ 
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iQJXORPX\FHUUDGRODVOtQHDVDX[LOLDUHVVHSXHGHQLQFOLQDUXQiQJXORDUELWUDULR
ILJXUD 
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Figura 3.3 Figura 3.4
 (QHOFDVRGHUDGLRV\GLiPHWURVGHDUFRVGHFLUFXQIHUHQFLDQRH[LVWHQOtQHDV
DX[LOLDUHVVLVHKDFHFRLQFLGLUODOtQHDGHFRWDFRQXQRGHORVUDGLRVRGLiPHWURV
GHODUFR ILJXUD 
 (QHOFDVRGHPDJQLWXGHVDQJXODUHVODVOtQHDVDX[LOLDUHVVRQSURORQJDFLRQHVGH
ORVODGRVGHOiQJXORPHGLGR ILJXUD 

 
Figura 3.5 Figura 3.6

/tQHDGHFRWD
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FRUUHFWDVSHURXQDGHHOODVLQGLFDODDOWXUDGHOWUDSHFLRPLHQWUDVTXHODRWUDGDOD
ORQJLWXGGHXQRGHVXVODGRV



 

Figura 3.7 Figura 3.8
)XQGDPHQWRVGHDFRWDFLyQ 

$GHPiVHOSDUDOHOLVPRVHGHEHDPSOLDUHQHOVHQWLGRGHHTXLGLVWDQFLD$VtHQHO
FDVRGHPDJQLWXGHVOLQHDOHVUHFWDVODOtQHDGHFRWDHVXQDUHFWDSDUDOHODPLHQWUDV
TXHVLVHWUDWDGHLQGLFDUODORQJLWXGGHXQDUFRGHFLUFXQIHUHQFLDODOtQHDGHFRWDVH
FRQYLHUWH HQ XQ VHJXQGR DUFR FRQFpQWULFR FRQ HO TXH VH PLGH /D OtQHD GH FRWD
WDPELpQDGRSWDIRUPDGHDUFRGHFLUFXQIHUHQFLDFRQFpQWULFRFRQHOYpUWLFHFXDQGR
VHDFRWDXQiQJXOR ILJXUD (VXQDOtQHDOOHQDILQD WLSR%VHJ~Q81( 
2EVpUYHVHTXHODGLIHUHQFLDHQWUHDFRWDUODORQJLWXGGHXQVHJPHQWRUHFWRRFXUYR
HVTXHODOtQHDGHFRWDHVUHFWDHQHOSULPHUFDVR\FXUYDHQHOVHJXQGR0LHQWUDV
TXHODGLIHUHQFLDHQWUHDFRWDUXQDORQJLWXGFXUYDRXQiQJXORODLQGLFDQODVOtQHDVGH
UHIHUHQFLD TXH VRQ SDUDOHODV HQ HO SULPHU FDVR \ FRQYHUJHQWHV HQ HO VHJXQGR
ILJXUDV\ 
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VXEVWLWXLUVHSRUQLQJXQDRWUDOtQHDGHOGLEXMR

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GHOGLEXMR\GHOLPLWDQGRFODUDPHQWHORVH[WUHPRVGHODOtQHDGHFRWD \SRUWDQWRGH
ODPDJQLWXGPHGLGD 
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WLSR% 
/DVGRVIOHFKDVTXHDFRPSDxDQDXQDFRWDVHVLW~DQODVGRVGHQWURGHODOtQHDGH
FRWD\DSXQWDQGRKDFLDHOH[WHULRUGHOVHJPHQWRGHOtQHDGHFRWDRODVGRVIXHUD
GHODOtQHDGHFRWD\DSXQWDQGRKDFLDVXLQWHULRU(VGHFLUTXHODVGRVIOHFKDV
GHXQDPLVPDFRWDVLHPSUHVHRULHQWDQHQVHQWLGRVFRQWUDULRV6LWXDUODVGRV
IOHFKDVHQHOLQWHULRUHVODRSFLyQSRUGHIHFWR
 7UD]RREOLFXR(VXQWUD]RFRUWRLQFOLQDGRqDSUR[LPDGDPHQWHUHVSHFWRDOD
OtQHDGHFRWD\GLEXMDGRFRQOtQHDOOHQDILQD WLSR% 
 3XQWR (O SXQWR HV XQD SHTXHxD FLUFXQIHUHQFLD FRQ XQ GLiPHWUR
DSUR[LPDGDPHQWH LJXDO D OD PLWDG GH OD DOWXUD GH OD FLIUD GH FRWD 3XHGH VHU
UHOOHQRRYDFtR(QHOVHJXQGRFDVRVHGLEXMDFRQOtQHDOOHQDILQD WLSR% 


Figura 3.9
 'LEXMRQRUPDOL]DGR

/DV IOHFKDV VRQ ODV WHUPLQDFLRQHV PiV KDELWXDOHV HQ ORV GLEXMRV GH PiTXLQDV
GLVHxRHWF0LHQWUDVTXHORVWUD]RVREOLFXRVSUHGRPLQDQHQORVGLEXMRVGHREUDFLYLO
DUTXLWHFWXUDHWF/RVSXQWRVVRQWHUPLQDFLRQHVHVSHFLDOHV7DQVyORVHXWLOL]DQHQ
GRVVLWXDFLRQHV
 &RPR VHSDUDGRUHV HQWUH GRV FRWDV FRQVHFXWLYDV FXDQGR HO SRFR HVSDFLR
GLVSRQLEOHDFRQVHMDQRHPSOHDUIOHFKDV HQHVWHFDVRWDPELpQVHSXHGHXWLOL]DU
HOWUD]RREOLFXR 
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VXSHUSXHVWDV
(QFXDOTXLHUFDVRVLHPSUHVHSXHGHHOHJLUODWHUPLQDFLyQTXHVHFRQVLGHUHPiV
FRQYHQLHQWH(O~QLFRUHTXLVLWRHVPDQWHQHUODKRPRJHQHLGDG\OHJLELOLGDGGHOGLEXMR
QRFDPELDQGRFDSULFKRVDPHQWHGHWHUPLQDFLyQ

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7RGRVORVHOHPHQWRVDQWHULRUHVVLUYHQSDUDLQGLFDUODPDJQLWXGFX\DGLPHQVLyQVH
LQGLFD QXPpULFDPHQWH SRU PHGLR GH OD FLIUD GH FRWD /D RULHQWDFLyQ \ XELFDFLyQ
H[DFWDGHODFLIUDGHFRWDFDPELDVHJ~QODQRUPDWLYDTXHVHHPSOHHRLQFOXVRVHJ~Q
HOFDVRSDUWLFXODUGHFRWDGHTXHVHWUDWH
(QFXDQWRDODRULHQWDFLyQODQRUPD81(GLVWLQJXHGRVPpWRGRVGHLQVFULSFLyQGH
ODVFLIUDVGHFRWD
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OtQHDV GH FRWD \ OLJHUDPHQWH SRU HQFLPD 3DUD GHFLGLU TXH VH HQWLHQGH SRU
HQFLPDFXDQGRODOtQHDGHFRWDHVREOLFXDVHVLJXHHOFULWHULRGHTXHODVFLIUDV
GHEHVHUOHtGDVGHVGHDEDMRRGHVGHODGHUHFKDGHOGLEXMR ILJXUD 


Figura 3.10 Figura 3.11
 (QHOVHJXQGRPpWRGR ILJXUD ODVFLIUDVVLHPSUHGHEHQLQVFULELUVHSDUDOHODV
DOERUGHLQIHULRU KRUL]RQWDO GHOGLEXMR&XDQGRODOtQHDGHFRWDHVKRUL]RQWDOOD
FLIUDVHVLW~DHQFLPD&XDQGRODOtQHDGHFRWDQRHVSDUDOHODDOERUGHLQIHULRUVH
LQWHUUXPSHSDUDLQVHUWDUODFLIUDGHFRWD
)XQGDPHQWRVGHDFRWDFLyQ 

 
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+D\ RWUDV QRUPDV TXH DFRQVHMDQ LQWHUUXPSLU VLHPSUH OD FLIUD GH FRWD FRQ
LQGHSHQGHQFLDGHODRULHQWDFLyQGHODPLVPD
5HVSHFWRDODSRVLFLyQHQODPD\RUtDGHORVFDVRVODFLIUDGHFRWDVHVLW~DHQODV
LQPHGLDFLRQHVGHOSXQWRPHGLRGHODOtQHDGHFRWD&RPRH[FHSFLyQODFLIUDGHFRWD
VH GHVSOD]D GH ODV FHUFDQtDV GHO SXQWR PHGLR GH OD OtQHD GH FRWD FXDQGR H[LVWD
DOJXQDRWUDOtQHDGHOGLEXMR SRUHMHPSORXQDOtQHDGHHMH TXHSXHGDGLILFXOWDUOD
OHFWXUDGHODFLIUDRFXDQGRQRKD\DVXILFLHQWHVLWLRSDUDLQVFULELUODFLIUD(QHVWRV
FDVRVODFLIUDVHSXHGHVLWXDUHQODVLQPHGLDFLRQHVGHXQDGHODVWHUPLQDFLRQHVVH
SXHGHVLWXDUHQODSURORQJDFLyQGHODOtQHDGHFRWDRLQFOXVRVHSXHGHVLWXDUVREUH
XQDOtQHDGHUHIHUHQFLDTXHVHDSR\HHQODOtQHDGHFRWD ILJXUD 
6LHPSUHVHFRQVLJQDHOYDORUUHDOGHODPDJQLWXGDFRWDGD(VGHFLUTXHODFLIUDGH
FRWDQXQFDTXHGDDIHFWDGDSRUQLQJ~QWLSRGHHVFDODDVRFLDGRDODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ
/R TXH SXHGH RFXUULU HVSRUiGLFDPHQWH HV TXH XQD FRWD KDJD UHIHUHQFLD D XQD
PDJQLWXGTXHHVWpUHSUHVHQWDGDIXHUDGHHVFDOD HVGHFLUTXHVHWUDWHGHXQGLEXMR
UHDOL]DGRDHVFDOD\TXHWHQJDDOJXQDPHGLGDTXHQRUHVSHWHGLFKDHVFDOD RIXHUD
GH SURSRUFLyQ FXDQGR HQ XQ ERFHWR DOJXQD GH ODV GLPHQVLRQHV HVWp FODUDPHQWH
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HVFDOD GH OD UHSUHVHQWDFLyQ \ OD DFRWDFLyQ LQGLFDQGR TXH GHEH SUHYDOHFHU HVWD
~OWLPD (VWHFDVRHVIUHFXHQWHFXDQGRVHPRGLILFDXQGLVHxRFDPELDQGRDOJXQDV
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VHREWLHQHQFDPELDQGRVLPSOHPHQWHODVFRUUHVSRQGLHQWHVFLIUDVGHFRWD 
(QJHQHUDOODFLIUDGHEHLUDFRPSDxDGDGHODLQGLFDFLyQGHOD XQLGDGHPSOHDGD
DXQTXHSRURPLVLyQVHVXHOHWRPDUHOPLOtPHWURHQHOFDVRGHPHGLGDVOLQHDOHV\HO
JUDGRVH[DJHVLPDOSDUDODVPHGLGDVDQJXODUHV&XDQGRODXQLGDGHVODPLVPDSDUD
WRGDVRSDUDODLQPHQVDPD\RUtDGHODVFRWDVFRQWHQLGDVHQXQGLEXMRpVWDVHLQGLFD
HQ HO FRUUHVSRQGLHQWH FXDGUR JHQHUDO GHO GLEXMR 'H IRUPD TXH VyOR KDUi IDOWD
LQGLFDU MXQWR D OD FLIUD GH FRWD ODV XQLGDGHV HQ DTXHOODV FRWDV SDUWLFXODUHV TXH
GLILHUDQ GHO FDVR JHQHUDO LQGLFDGR HQ HO FXDGUR ILJXUD   7DPELpQ GH IRUPD
MXVWLILFDGDVHSXHGHXWLOL]DUXQDQRWDFLyQTXHEUDGDSDUDFRQVLJQDUODFLIUD
 'LEXMRQRUPDOL]DGR

 
Figura 3.14 Figura 3.15

/tQHDGHUHIHUHQFLD
3DUD DFRWDU FLHUWDV GLPHQVLRQHV DVRFLDGDV D IRUPDV PX\ FRQFUHWDV VH SXHGH
XWLOL]DU XQD IRUPD VLPSOLILFDGD GH LQGLFDFLyQ GH OD FRWD 6H WUDWD GH ODV OtQHDV GH
UHIHUHQFLDVRQOtQHDVTXHEUDGDVFRQXQWUDPRDSUR[LPDGDPHQWHSHUSHQGLFXODUD
OD PDJQLWXG D DFRWDU \ XQ VHJXQGR WUDPR SDUDOHOR D XQD GH ODV GLUHFFLRQHV
SULQFLSDOHVGHOGLEXMR KRUL]RQWDORYHUWLFDO (OH[WUHPRGHOWUDPRTXHEUDGRVHDSR\D
HQODPDJQLWXGDDFRWDU\OOHYDXQDWHUPLQDFLyQGHFRWD JHQHUDOPHQWHXQDIOHFKD 
/DPDJQLWXGVHH[SUHVDSRUPHGLRGHXQDFLIUDTXHVHVLW~DVREUHHOWUDPRGHOD
OtQHDTXHEUDGDRULHQWDGRKRUL]RQWDORYHUWLFDOPHQWH
(VWHWLSRGHDFRWDFLyQVyORVHHPSOHDFXDQGRODGLPHQVLyQDFRWDGDFRUUHVSRQGHD
XQDIRUPDIiFLOPHQWHLGHQWLILFDEOHTXHTXHGDLQGLFDGDSRUPHGLRGHDOJ~QVtPEROR
GHDFRWDFLyQ3RUHMHPSORHOGLiPHWURGHXQDFLUFXQIHUHQFLDODVGLPHQVLRQHVGH
XQFKDIOiQHWF ILJXUD 


Figura 3.16

([FHSFLRQHVHQODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQGHODVFRWDV
&XDQGRVHXWLOL]DODFRQYHQFLyQGHYLVWDVVLPpWULFDVUHVXOWDLPSRVLEOHUHSUHVHQWDU
ODVFRWDVTXHFRUUHVSRQGHQDPDJQLWXGHVVLPpWULFDV(QWDOHVFDVRVVHDSOLFDXQD
IRUPDH[FHSFLRQDOGHDFRWDFLyQTXHVHGHQRPLQDFRWDSHUGLGD
/DH[FHSFLyQDIHFWDDODVOtQHDVDX[LOLDUHVSXHVWRTXHVHVXSULPHXQDGHHOODV OD
TXHFRUUHVSRQGHDOH[WUHPRGHODPDJQLWXGTXHQRHVWiUHSUHVHQWDGR 7DPELpQVH
)XQGDPHQWRVGHDFRWDFLyQ 

VXSULPHODWHUPLQDFLyQTXHFRUUHVSRQGHDGLFKRH[WUHPR<SRU~OWLPRODOtQHDGH
FRWDVHSURORQJDXQSRFRPiVDOOiGHOHMHGHVLPHWUtDSHURVLQDODUJDUODKDVWDVX
ILQDOWHyULFR
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FHQWUR TXH HVWi RFXSDGR SRU HO HMH GH VLPHWUtD  SRU OR TXH DUELWUDULDPHQWH VH
GHVSOD]DVLHPSUHKDFLDODSDUWHVXSULPLGDGHODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ ILJXUD 

 
Figura 3.17 Figura 3.18
/DRWUDH[FHSFLyQLPSRUWDQWHHVTXHODVOtQHDVDX[LOLDUHVVLHPSUHGHEHQDSR\DUVH
HQORVH[WUHPRVGHODPDJQLWXGDPHGLUSDUDLGHQWLILFDUODFRQWRGDFODULGDG3RUHOOR
HQORVFDVRVHQTXHODPDJQLWXGTXHVHGHVHHPHGLUQRHVWpUHSUHVHQWDGDSRUPHGLR
GH QLQJXQD DULVWD R FRQWRUQR GHO GLEXMR VH GHEHQ GLEXMDU ODV OtQHDV DX[LOLDUHV
SRGHPRV GHQRPLQDUODV OtQHDV GH FRQVWUXFFLyQ  QHFHVDULDV SDUD LQGLFDU GLFKD
PDJQLWXG /DV OtQHD GH FRQVWUXFFLyQ GHEHQ VHU OOHQDV ILQDV WLSR %  \ VH GLEXMDQ
WDQWDVFRPRVHDQQHFHVDULDVSDUDGHILQLUODPDJQLWXGTXHVHTXLHUHDFRWDU (QOD
ILJXUDVHREVHUYDTXHDOJXQDVYHFHVODVOtQHDVGHFRQVWUXFFLyQVRQOtQHDVGH
SXQWR\WUD]RWLSR* $FRQWLQXDFLyQVHDSR\DQODVOtQHDVDX[LOLDUHVGHDFRWDFLyQ
VREUHODVOtQHDVGHFRQVWUXFFLyQ ILJXUD 
8QDH[FHSFLyQPiVGHODDFRWDFLyQHVTXHHQHOFDVRGHDFRWDFLyQHQSHUVSHFWLYDV
ODSHUSHQGLFXODULGDGHQWUHODVOtQHDVDX[LOLDUHV\ODPDJQLWXGDPHGLUH[LVWHHQHO
HVSDFLR SHUR QR HQ OD SUR\HFFLyQ (V GHFLU TXH ODV OtQHDV DX[LOLDUHV UHVXOWDQ
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GHPiVODOtQHDGHFRWDVHVLJXHSRQLHQGRSDUDOHODDODPDJQLWXGDPHGLU ILJXUD
 


Figura 3.19
 'LEXMRQRUPDOL]DGR

3.5 LETRAS Y SMBOLOS COMPLEMENTARIOS


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$ FRQWLQXDFLyQ VH GHVFULEHQ ORV VtPERORV TXH LGHQWLILFDQ ODV IRUPDV JHRPpWULFDV
PiVIUHFXHQWHV'LiPHWURVUDGLRVHVIHUDVFXDGUDGRV\DUFRV

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 /DOtQHDGHFRWDFRLQFLGHFRQXQGLiPHWUR ILJXUDD (QHVWHFDVRQRKD\
OtQHDVDX[LOLDUHV\ODVIOHFKDVVHDSR\DQGLUHFWDPHQWHVREUHHOFRQWRUQRGHOD
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VREUHODPDJQLWXGDFRWDGDSRUHOORQRHVKDELWXDOHPSOHDUHOVtPEROR
 /DOtQHDGHFRWDHVSDUDOHODDXQGLiPHWUR(VWHFDVRVHSXHGHGDUWDQWRVLOD
FLUFXQIHUHQFLD HVWi FRQWHQLGD HQ XQ SODQR SDUDOHOR DO GH SUR\HFFLyQ ILJXUD
E FRPRVLHVWiFRQWHQLGDHQXQSODQRSHUSHQGLFXODU HQFX\RFDVRDSDUHFH
GLEXMDGD FRPR XQ VHJPHQWR GH ORQJLWXG LJXDO DO GLiPHWUR ILJXUD F  (Q
FXDOTXLHUDGHODVGRVVLWXDFLRQHVHVKDELWXDOLQFOXLUHOVtPERORDXQTXHVyOR
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Figura 3.20

5DGLRV
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SHFXOLDU FRPR SDUD QR QHFHVLWDU QLQJXQD LQGLFDFLyQ DGLFLRQDO OD OtQHD GH FRWD
FRLQFLGH FRQ XQ UDGLR GHO DUFR DFRWDGR QR KD\ OtQHDV DX[LOLDUHV \ VyOR KD\ XQD
WHUPLQDFLyQGHFRWD IOHFKD TXHVHDSR\DHQHODUFRDFRWDGR1RREVWDQWHKD\TXH
PHQFLRQDU OD H[FHSFLyQ GH TXH FXDQGR HO UDGLR HV JUDQGH HO FHQWUR VH SXHGH
GHVSOD]DUDUELWUDULDPHQWH(QFX\RFDVROD~QLFDLQGLFDFLyQQHFHVDULDHVXQ]LJ]DJ
HQODOtQHDGHFRWDGHOUDGLR ILJXUD 


 
Figura 3.21 Figura 3.22
(QFXDQWRDOFULWHULRSUHGRPLQDQWHSDUDGHFLGLU FXDQGR VH GHEH DFRWDU XQ DUFR

SRUPHGLRGHVXUDGLR\FXDQGRSRUPHGLRGH VXGLiPHWURHVHOGHTXHHODUFR
PLGD PHQRV GH q VH SXHGH KDFHU OD LQWHUSUHWDFLyQ GH TXH VHD HO DUFR
DEDUFDGRWDOFRPRVHPXHVWUDHQODILJXUD 
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Ejercicio 3.1 Biela


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Ejercicio 3.5 Basculante de poleas


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Figura 3.5.1
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Figura 3.5.2
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Ejercicio 3.6 Brazo mvil para pinza de trazador


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Figura 3.6.1
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Figura 3.6.2
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Ejercicio 3.7 Centrador de balancn


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Ejercicio 3.8 Bancada doble


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Figura 3.8.2
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Figura 3.9.1
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Figura 3.9.2

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Ejercicio 3.10 Nivelador de anclaje


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Figura 3.10.2
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Figura 3.11.1
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Ejercicio 3.12 Balancn de cierre


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Figura 3.12.1
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Figura 3.30.2

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Figura 3.31.3


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Figura 3.32.23
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Figura 3.34.1
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