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58- The Effect of Grading on Strength and Dilatancy Parameters of Sands

58- The Effect of Grading on Strength and Dilatancy Parameters of Sands

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PARAMETERS OF SANDS

Mohamed Shoaib Khan, Formerely Post Graduate Student, U.V.C.E, India

Abstract: In the present work the effect of grading on shear strength and dilatancy behaviour of sand are

investigated. The sand is graded into coarse sand (4.75mm 2mm), Medium Sand ( 2mm 0.425mm) and fine

sand ( 0.425mm 0.075mm). A number of direct shear tests were conducted on each type of graded sand at three

different relative density states namely dense, medium dense and loose. The effect of stress level is also bought out

by varying the effective normal stress. The tests were conducted on dry sand having different relative densities (i.e.,

20%, 50%, & 80%) subjecting them to different constant values of vertical normal stress ranging from 50kPa to

400kPa.At each stress level and density state for each type of sand peak frictional angle and dilatancy angle were

found out by conducting direct shear tests. It was found from the present results with increase in effective normal

stress the peak frictional angle and dilation angle is found to decrease. Also it is found that with increase in density

leads to increase in peak friction angle and dilation angle. Also it is found that the as the grain size of sand

decreases from coarse to fine there is a substantial reduction in peak frictional angle, critical state friction angle and

dilation angle. In the present study critical state friction angle is found out for the three different types of graded

sand. It was found that cv for coarse sand is 35.34o, cv for medium sand is 27.07o and cv for fine sand is 24.08o .

In the present study a number of correlations were established between peak frictional angle, dilation angle, critical

state friction angle and dilatancy index. The correlations are compared with published correlations and found that

the present results compare favorably well.

KEYWORDS: Strength, Dilatancy, Grading, Relative density, Friction angle, Critical state, Correlations, Sands.

volume during shearing processes was recorded

All aspects of soil stability - bearing capacity of by Reynolds (1885). Reynolds showed that

shallow and deep foundations, slope stability, the dense sands exhibit expansion in volume and

penetration resistance to name a few depends on loose sands contract during shear deformation.

soil strength. The basic contributions to soil The role of volume changes during shear

strength are frictional resistance between soil especially dilatancy was recognized by Taylor

particles in contact and internal kinematic (1948). He carried out direct shear tests on dense

constraints of soil particles associated with sand specimens and deduced the work at peak

changes in soil fabric. The magnitude of these shear stress state and showed that the energy

contributions depends on the effective stress and input is dissipated by the friction using the

volume change tendencies of soils. One of the expression.

dx

1

dy

1

dx (1) peak stress and is the friction coefficient. The

peak n

n right hand side of the expression is the energy

dissipated by friction which is equal to the sum

Where peak is the applied shear stress at peak, of the work done by shearing (first component in

n1 is the effective normal stress on the shear the left hand side) and that needed to increase the

plane, dx is the incremental horizontal volume ( the second component in the left hand

displacement at peak, dy is the incremental side). The latter component is referred to as

vertical displacement (positive for expansion) at dilatancy.

Rearranging equation (1),

The effect of grading on strength and dilatancy parameters of sand

1

tan p shots, Bishop (1972) has shown that an increase

dx

in confining pressure leads to a reduction in the

Thus, the peak shear stress ratio, or the angle of shearing. Vesic and Clough (1968) and

mobilized peak friction angle p consists of Billiam (1972) have also reported the similar

behavior regarding the effect of stress level on

both interlocking (dy/dx) and sliding friction

p . Bolton (1986) reviewed a large number of

between grains ( ). This equation which relates

stress to dilation is called the stress dilatancy triaxial and plane strain test results and proposed

rule, and it is an important relationship in a much simpler relationship among p , cv .and

characterizing the plastic deformation of soils. p , which he found operationally equivalent to

Taylor (1948) followed by Skempton and Bishop Rowe (1962)s stress dilatancy relationship;

(1950) attempted to separate the strength

where p is the angle of dilatancy which

component ( cv ) purely on an account of friction

indirectly quantifies the rate of dilation. Bolton

from that p cv due to an expansion of the (1986) provided the following simplified

material; where p is the angle of internal expressions:

friction corresponding to peak stress ratio.

p cv 0 . 8 p (3)

Roscoe et al. (1958) using a novel shear

apparatus (Roscoe 1953) later proved that the

value of cv depends only on particles shape and p cv 5 I R for plane strain

material grading. The ideal method of

condition (4) p cv 3 I R for

determining cv is by drawing a plot between

p and corresponding rate of dilation, (at p ) so triaxial condition (5)

that the value of p associated with the zero rate The quantity IR, is referred to as dilatancy

of dilation, which is termed cv , can be index and its magnitude is related to the relative

density (Dr) and the effective stress (v1) by the

extrapolated (Bolton 1986). Rowe (1962) also relationship

recognized that the mobilized peak friction angle

p must take into account particle I R D r ( Q ln(

1

)) R (6)

v

rearrangements as well as the sliding resistance

at contacts and dilation. Friction angle In the above equation v1 is expressed in kPa

component due to work of dilation is influenced and Dr in decimal; Q and R are constants.

by particle packing arrangements and number of

sliding contacts. The denser the packing, the It should be mentioned that in equation

more important is dilation. As the void ratio (6), the effect of stress level is incorporated.

increases, the mobilized friction angle decreases. Bolton (1986) recommended the values of R=1

The critical state is defined as the condition and Q=10. Later Salgado et al.

corresponding to no volume change by shearing (2000)recommended the values of Q=9 and

i.e. (dy/dx) =0 in equation (2). The R=0.49 based on his test results on clean Ottawa

corresponding mobilized peak friction angle sand (without any percentage of silt)

p will be equal to cv . The original stress-

Simony and Houlsby (2006) conducted a

dilatancy model (Rowe 1962) does not capture number of direct shear tests on large direct shear

important behavioral features such as density box apparatus to investigate the strength and

and stress level dependencies. Bishop (1966) dilatancy of sand gravel mixtures. They

shown that the stress strain dilatancy behavior concluded that addition of different proportion of

of sand varies remarkable with confining gravel to sand causes an increase in peak friction

169

K.V.S.B.Raju,Assistant Professor, University Visveswaraya college of Engineering,(U.V.C.E) Bangalore University & Mohamed Shoaib Khan

angle, peak dilatancy angle and critical state Kumar et al.(2007) and suggests a suitable

friction angle. They did not focus on the effect of correlations which fits the present experimental

stress level but conducted the tests for a wide data. Also the effect of stress level and density

range of relative densities for each gravel sand on residual friction angle for the chosen graded

mixtures. sand is presented.

Kumar et al. (2007) examined further the 2.1 Properties of Bangalore Sand

correlations between p , cv , p and IR by

The Bangalore sand was found to be generally

conducting a number of direct shear tests on comprise of sub angular grains as can be seen

Bangalore (quartz sand). The effect of stress from the scanning electron micrograph provided

level and density on p , p were incorporated. A by kumar et al. (2007). The grain size

correlation between p and p and distribution of the chosen (Bangalore) sand is

shown in Figure1. It can be noticed that the

between p and v similar to that of Bolton

material comprises of hardly of any fraction of

(1986) and Salgado et al.(2000) has been silt. The average specific gravity(G) of the sand

suggested. particles was found to be 2.67. The sand was

graded into three zones namely coarse, medium

Kumar et al. (2007) provided the following

and fine and their corresponding maximum and

expressions

minimum unit weights are shown in Table1. The

values of the different grain size parameters of

p cv 0 . 932 p (7) the chosen sand associated with the grain size

distribution curve are as follows: D10 = 0.27, D30

p cv 3 . 5 I R (8) = 0.38, D50 = 0.52, D60 = 0.70, Cu = 2.59 Cc =

0.76; D10, D30, D50 and D60 are the sizes

Where I R D r (10 ln( 1

)) 1 corresponding to respective percentages of finer,

v and Cu and Cc are the uniformity coefficient and

coefficient of curvature of the material,

In the above equation v1 is expressed in kPa

respectively. As per the Indian standard for

and Dr in decimal

classification of soils (IS 1498 1970,

It is found from the literature not much reaffirmed 2002), Bangalore sand was found to

work was done on the effect of grading of sand be poorly graded.

particles on strength and dilatancy parameters.

3.1 Test Results and Discussions

Hence in the present work sand is graded into

three different zones namely coarse sand A number of direct shear tests were

(4.75mm 2mm), medium sand (2mm conducted on chosen dry sand graded into three

0.425mm) and fine sand (0.425mm 0.075mm). zones namely coarse, medium and fine sand

Again each graded sand is subjected to direct based on grain size. Table 2 shows the chosen

shear tests at different chosen unit weights unit weights and relative densities of the graded

corresponding to loose, medium dense and dense sand. As can be seen from Table 2 each type of

states of the material. All the tests were sand is subjected to direct shear tests at three

continued upto a substantial value of horizontal different unit weights corresponding to loose,

displacement so that critical state was achieved medium dense and dense states. Each type of

in all the tests. The values p , p were graded sand were tested at a relative densities of

determined in all the tests for different 20%, 50% and 80%. The size of the shear box

combination of v and Dr. All the test results are was 60mm x 60mm and the sample height was

compared with widely known recommendations kept equal to 30.08mm for all the tests. All the

of Bolton (1986), Salgado et al. (2000) and samples were sheared at a uniform relative

170

The effect of grading on strength and dilatancy parameters of sand

between the upper and lower box. The vertical displacement.

effective normal stress on all samples was varied 2. The magnitude of the (u/H) corresponding to

in between 50 kPa and 400 kPa. The samples of p increases with increase in v. Also the

a given density were prepared by either raining magnitude of shear strain corresponding to p

the material from a constant height of fall ( for increases with increase in v.

loose to medium dense states) or with tamping 3. An increase in the relative density of the

technique using a fixed number of blows (for material causes a marginal decrease in the

dense state of the material). All the tests were value of shear strain associated with p and

continued upto u/H = 40%; where H is the initial p.

height of the sample and u is the horizontal 4. For a given relative density of the material,

displacement at any point of time. the behavior of the material at low stress

level always remains typically that of a dense

For all the tests, the variation of the sand which indicates a well defined peak

horizontal (shear) force (Ph) and the

corresponding to p and then followed by a

corresponding change (v) in the vertical height

decrease in the shear stress which ultimately

of the sample with increase in the shear strain or

leads to the critical state of the material at

the horizontal displacement (u) was continuously

very high values of shear strain; in such

monitored at regular time interval; all the

cases the material initially shows a decrease

samples were sheared upto a large strain to

in volume followed by an increase in

achieve critical state of the material. Volumetric

volume.

strain becomes equal to v/H. The test results are

shown in Figure 2 only for coarse sand for

5. At low values of v, the rate of dilation

dense state respectively, typical results are

becomes maximum corresponding to p and

provided only for coarse sand where as all other

subsequently the value of dilatancy angle

figures are not provided herein just for restricting

again decreases and finally becomes equal to

the size of the article. The test results are

zero in the critical state. On the contrary at

provided in terms of (i) the variation of Ph/Pv

very high values of v, the behavior of the

with u/H, and (ii) the variation of v/H with u/H;

material remains similar to that of loose sand

where Pv is the magnitude of the vertical force.

where the shear stress increases continuously

From these plots the values of friction angles

to yield the critical state at very high values

( ) and dilatancy angles ( ) were determined

of horizontal displacement. In such cases the

using the following expressions: material experiences a continuous decrease

P

in volume until reaching the critical state.

a tan 1

h

(9) 6. The values of p and p decreases with

P v

increase in the value of v. The effect of v

v on the changes in the values of p and p was

a tan 1 (10)

u seen to be more significant in the case of

coarse sand and medium sand than fine sand.

The peak value of and are designated by Also it is observed that upon shearing fine

sand at loose and medium dense states

p and p respectively. The variation of p and dilatancy (increase in volume during shear

p for coarse sand at three density states are was not observed) in which case contraction

shown in Figure 3. Following observations were was observed.

drawn from Figure 2-3: 3.2 Correlation between p and p

1. It is found that the peak values of friction A linear relationship is established between peak

angle and dilation angle invariably occur almost friction angle and peak dilation angle as shown

171

K.V.S.B.Raju,Assistant Professor, University Visveswaraya college of Engineering,(U.V.C.E) Bangalore University & Mohamed Shoaib Khan

in Figure 4. The critical state friction angle (cv) operationally indistinguishable from Rowes

is determined by the intercept made stress dilatancy relationship (1962).

corresponding to zero dilation state. It is a

unique parameter, which remains independent of 3.3 Correlation between p and v

density, stress level and type of test conducted. It

As seen from Figure 3, that the value of p

depends only on the grain size and mineral

reduces with increase in the value of v. Bolton

comprising the sand grains.

provided Equation (4) (for the plane strain

For different chosen values of v and relative case),the following equation for plain strain case,

density (Rd) of the material, the obtained values where IR (dilatancy index) is defined by

of p were plotted against the corresponding Equation (6) with Q=10 and R=1.

values of p for different types of graded sand

From the regression analysis, it was found that

namely coarse, medium and fine sand. All the

the following relationship holds quite good for

data points are indicated in Figure 4 for coarse

the present data:

sand. It can be noted that the relationship

between p and p can be best described by the 2 .5 I (14)

p cv R

following expression for coarse sand:

where I D r ( 10 ln( )) 1

p cv 0 . 933 p (11) R v

It can be noticed from Figure 4 that the

value of cv for the graded coarse sand (4.75mm Experimentally measured values of (p - cv )

2mm) is found to be equal to 35.34 o (that is / were plotted against those estimated using (i)

v = 0.71). It can also be noticed from Figure 2 Boltons recommendation (Equation 4), (ii)

that the value of / v at very large value of present correlation (Equation 14), and (iii)

Shear strain (35 40%) remains close to 0.71 Salgado et al (2000) recommendation and

indicating the achievement of the same critical Kumar et al., (2007) Equation 8, the

state in all the tests. corresponding comparison from four different

correlations are shown in Figure 5 for all the data

It can be noted that the relationship points comprising coarse, medium and fine

between p and p can be best described by the sands. It can be noted that estimated value of

following expression for medium sand: p by Bolton (1986) and Salgado.et al. (2000)

p cv 0 . 919 p (12) are found to be slightly higher than those

actually measured. On the other hand, the

It can be noted that the relationship estimation from Equation (14) seems to be

between p and p can be best described by the better.

following expression for fine sand:

By knowing the mineral composition /

particle shape and the grain size of the graded

p cv 1 . 574 p (13)

sand, it is possible to estimate an approximate

value of cv. For a given relative density of the

A comparison of Equations (11)

material, from the knowledge of cv and the

to (13) with Equation (3) indicates that the

recommendation of Bolton (1986) remains only stress level (v), the secant value of p for a dry

marginally different from the present cohesionless material can then be determined

experimental finding in case of coarse and using any of the four relationships namely, (i)

medium sand. It should be mentioned that Boltons recommendation(1986) Equation (4),

(ii) present recommendation (Equation 14) and

Boltons expression relating p , cv and p is

(iii) Salgado et al. (2000) recommendation

172

The effect of grading on strength and dilatancy parameters of sand

Equation (4) but with the usage of Q=9.0 and ( min ) kN ( max ) kN /

R=0.49 in Equation (6) and (iv) Kumar et / m3 m3

al.,(2007)Equation(8).The four recommendations Coarse sand

marginally differ in the estimation of p and the (4.75 mm - 2 15.2 18.4

average of three can be adopted for carrying out mm)

the analysis where the effect of stress level on p Medium sand

has to be taken into consideration. After (2 mm - 15.0 18.0

determining the value of p, Equation (3) or 0.425 mm)

Equations (11) to (13) can then be used to find Fine sand

the value of dilatancy angle (p). The knowledge (0.425 mm - 14.6 17.6

of dilatancy angle is useful when adopting a non 0.075 mm)

associated flow rule in theory of plasticity and

also it is useful in constitutive modeling of soils.

Table 2 : Chosen Unit weights and Relative

4.1 Conclusions densities of graded sand.

Based on a number of direct shear tests Type of Relative

State of Unit weight

on different types of graded sand namely coarse, graded density

material ( kN / m3 )

medium and fine sand at different density states sand (%)

and stress level, an empirical relationship Coarse Loose 15.7 20

correlating p , cv and IR similar to that sand Medium

16.6 50

recommended by Bolton (1986), Salgado et al. (4.75 dense

(2000) and Kumar et al. (2007), has been mm - 2 Dense

17.6 80

suggested. Using this relationship from the mm )

knowledge of relative density (Dr) and critical Medium Loose 15.5 20

state friction angle ( cv ), the value of peak sand Medium 16.3 50

(2 mm -

friction angle can be determined for any required Dense

0.425 17.3 80

effective stress level (v). Further, an expression

mm)

correlating p with cv and p has also been

Fine Loose 15.1 20

provided for the three types of graded sand sand Medium

namely coarse, medium and fine sand on the 15.9 50

(0.425 dense

basis of which the value of p can also be mm -

Dense

predicted. The suggested expressions are found 0.075 16.9 80

to match well with the test results. Based on the mm )

test results, it can be concluded that decrease in

v leads to an increase in the values of p and

p . It is also concluded from the test results the

values of p and p not only depends on stress

level and density but also on the type of graded

sand or grain size of sand particles comprising

coarse, medium and fine sand.

Table 1 : Minimum and Maximum unit weights

of graded sand.

unit weight unit weight

173

K.V.S.B.Raju,Assistant Professor, University Visveswaraya college of Engineering,(U.V.C.E) Bangalore University & Mohamed Shoaib Khan

100 (a) Ph/Pv with u/H, and (b) v/H with u/H

90

80

50

70

p

P erc e n ta g e F in e r

60

40

50

f p , y p ( d eg rees)

40

30

30 g 15.7 16.6 17.6 kN/m3

20 20

yp

10

0 10

0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10

Particle size (mm)

0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450

sv (kPa)

Fig. 1 Grain Size Distribution Curve of the

Sample Fig. 3 The Variation of p and p with v for all

1.200

the tests corresponding to coarse sand

50kPa

100kPa

200kPa

1.000

300kPa

400kPa

0.800

(Ph / Pv)

0.600

3

g = 17.6 kN/m

0.400

Coarse sand - dense state

0.200

0.000

0.000 5.000 10.000 15.000 20.000 25.000 30.000 35.000 40.000 45.000

u/H (%)

1.60

400kPa 300kPa 200kPa 100kPa 50kPa

Fig.4 The correlation between p and p from all

1.40 the test results corresponding to coarse sand

1.20

1.00

0.80

v/H (% )

0.60

3

0.40 g = 17.6 kN/m

0.20 Coarse sand - dense state

0.00

-0.20

-0.40

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

u/H (%)

of

174

The effect of grading on strength and dilatancy parameters of sand

Testing of Soil and Rock, ASTM STP 977,

ASTM, Philadelphia, Pa., pp. 290-310.

Casagrande, A. (1936): Characteristics of

Cohesionless Soils affecting the Stability of

Slopes and Earth Fills, Journal of Boston

Society of Civil Engineers, 23(1), pp. 13-32.

IS-1498-1970, Reaffirmed (2002):

Classification and Identification of Soils for

Engineering Purposes, Bureau of Indian

Standards, New Delhi.

Kumar,A(2007):Relationship between rate of

dilation, peak and critical state friction angles,

Indian Geotechnical Journal, Vol 37(1),No.1, 53

Fig.5.The prediction of ( p - cv ) using different 63

formulae against measured values of ( p - cv ) Lee, K. L. and Seed, H. B. (1967): Drained

for all the tests. Characteristics of Sands, Journal of the Soil

Mechanics and Foundation Division, ASCE,

93(6), pp. 117-141.

Density Dependency of Mechanical Properties of

Alessandro simoni and Guy T. Houlsby. (2006): Sands, Soils and Foundations, 39(1), pp. 69-79.

The direct shear strength and dilatancy of sand

gravel mixtures, Geotechnical and Geological Reynolds, O. (1885): The Dilating of Media

Engineering, 24, pp 523-549. Composed of Rigid Particles in Contact,

Philosophical Magazine, December issue.

Billam, J. (1972): Some Aspects of the

Behaviour of Granular Materials at High Roscoe, K. H. (1953): An Apparatus for the

Pressures, In Stress-Strain Behaviour of Soils, Application of Simple Shear to Soil Samples,

R.H.G. Parry, (Ed.), London: Foulis, pp. 69-80. Proc. of the 3rd Int. Conf. Soil Mech. and Found.

Engg., Zurich,1, pp. 186 - 191.

Bishop, A. W. (1966): The Strength of Soils as

Engineering Materials, Geotechnique, 16(2), Roscoe, K. H., Schofield, A. N. and Wroth, D. P.

pp. 91-128. (1958): On the Yielding of Soils,

Geotechnique, 9, pp. 22-53.

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Parameters for Undisturbed and Remoulded Soil Rowe, P. W. (1962): The Stress-Dilatancy

Specimens, In Stress-Strain Behaviour of Soils, Relation for Static Equilibrium of an Assembly

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Dilatancy of Sands, Geotechnique, 36(1), pp. Salgado, R., Bandini, P. and Karim, A. (2000):

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(1988): Triaxial Testing of Granular Soils under

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176

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