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Mechanical Engineering GATE Exam

Thermodynamics
Symbol/Formula Parameter
M Molar mass (M/)
m Mass (M)
m Number of moles ()
n
M
E Energy or general extensive property
E Specific molar energy (energy per unit mass) or general extensive
e property per unit mass
m
E Specific energy (energy per unit mole) or general extensive
e eM property per unit mole
n
P Pressure (ML-1T-2)
V Volume (L3);
Specific volume or volume per unit mass, v (L3M-1) and the volume
per unit mole v (L3-1)
T Temperature ()
Density (ML-3); = 1/v.
x Quality
U Thermodynamic internal energy (ML2T-2);
Internal energy per unit mass, u (L2T-2), and the internal energy per
unit mole, u (ML2T-2-1)
H = U + PV Thermodynamic enthalpy (ML2T-2);
Enthalpy per unit mass, h = u + Pv (dimensions: L2T-2) and the
internal energy per unit mole h (ML2T-2-1)
S Entropy (ML2T-2-1);
Entropy per unit mass, s(L2T-2-1) and the internal energy per unit
mole s (ML2T-2-1-1)
W Work (ML2T-2)
Q Heat transfer (ML2T-2)

W u : The useful work rate or mechanical power (ML2T-3)

m : The mass flow rate (MT-1)


Mechanical Engineering GATE Exam

V2 The kinetic energy per unit mass (L2T-2)


:
2
gz: The potential energy per unit mass (L2T-2)

Etot: V2
The total energy = m(u + + gz) (ML2T-2)
2
Q : The heat transfer rate (ML2T-3)

dEcv The rate of change of energy for the control volume.(ml2t-3)


dt :
M Molar mass (M/)
m Mass (M)
m Number of moles ()
n
M
E Energy or general extensive property
E Specific molar energy (energy per unit mass) or general extensive
e property per unit mass
m
E Specific energy (energy per unit mole) or general extensive
e eM property per unit mole
n
P Pressure (ML-1T-2)
V Volume (L3);
Specific volume or volume per unit mass, v (L3M-1) and the volume
per unit mole v (L3-1)
T Temperature ()
Density (ML-3); = 1/v.
x Quality
U Thermodynamic internal energy (ML2T-2);
Internal energy per unit mass, u (L2T-2), and the internal energy per
unit mole, u (ML2T-2-1)
H = U + PV Thermodynamic enthalpy (ML2T-2); we also have the enthalpy per
unit mass, h = u + Pv (dimensions: L2T-2) and the internal energy
per unit mole h (ML2T-2-1)
S Entropy (ML2T-2-1);
Entropy per unit mass, s(L2T-2-1) and the internal energy per unit
mole s (ML2T-2-1-1)
Mechanical Engineering GATE Exam

W Work (ML2T-2)
Q Heat transfer (ML2T-2)

W u : The useful work rate or mechanical power (ML2T-3)

m : The mass flow rate (MT-1)



V2 The kinetic energy per unit mass (L2T-2)
:
2
gz: The potential energy per unit mass (L2T-2)

Etot: V2
The total energy = m(u + + gz) (ML2T-2)
2
Q : The heat transfer rate (ML2T-3)

dEcv The rate of change of energy for the control volume.(ml2t-3)


dt :
M Molar mass (M/)
m Mass (M)
m Number of moles ()
n
M
E Energy or general extensive property
E Specific molar energy (energy per unit mass) or general extensive
e property per unit mass
m
E Specific energy (energy per unit mole) or general extensive
e eM property per unit mole
n
P Pressure (ML-1T-2)
V Volume (L3); we also have the specific volume or volume per unit
mass, v (L3M-1) and the volume per unit mole v (L3-1)
T Temperature ()
Density (ML-3); = 1/v.
x Quality
U Thermodynamic internal energy (ML2T-2); we also have the internal
energy per unit mass, u (L2T-2), and the internal energy per unit
mole, u (ML2T-2-1)
H = U + PV Thermodynamic enthalpy (ML2T-2); we also have the enthalpy per
unit mass, h = u + Pv (dimensions: L2T-2) and the internal energy
per unit mole h (ML2T-2-1)
Mechanical Engineering GATE Exam

S Entropy (ML2T-2-1); we also have the entropy per unit mass, s(L2T-
) and the internal energy per unit mole s (ML2T-2-1-1)
2 -1

W Work (ML2T-2)
Q Heat transfer (ML2T-2)

W u : The useful work rate or mechanical power (ML2T-3)

m : The mass flow rate (MT-1)



V2 The kinetic energy per unit mass (L2T-2)
:
2
gz: The potential energy per unit mass (L2T-2)

Etot: V2
The total energy = m(u + + gz) (ML2T-2)
2
Q : The heat transfer rate (ML2T-3)

dEcv The rate of change of energy for the control volume. (ml2t-3)
:
dt

Unit conversion factors


For metric units
Basic:
o 1 N = 1 kgm/s2;
o 1 J = 1 Nm;
o 1 W = 1 J/s;
o 1 Pa = 1 N/m2.
Others:
o 1 kPam3 = 1 kJ;
o T(K) = T(oC) + 273.15;
o 1 L (liter) = 0.001 m3;
o 1 m2/s2 = 1 J/kg.
Prefixes (and abbreviations):
o nano(n) 10-9;
o micro() 10-6;
o milli(m) 10-3;
o kilo(k) 103;
o mega(M) 106;
o giga(G) 109.
o A metric ton (European word: tonne) is 1000 kg.
For engineering units
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Energy:
o 1 Btu = 5.40395 psiaft3 = 778.169 ftlbf = (1 kWh)/3412.14 = (1 hph )/2544.5 =
25,037 lbmft2/s2.
Pressure:
o 1 psia = 1 lbf/in2 = 144 psfa = 144 lbf/ft2.
Others:
o T(R) = T(oF) + 459.67;
o 1 lbf = 32.174 lbmft/s2;
o 1 ton of refrigeration = 200 Btu/min.

Concepts & Definitions

Formula Units
Pressure F Pa
P
A
Units 1 Pa 1 N / m2
1 bar 105 Pa 0.1 Mpa
1 atm 101325 Pa
Specific Volume V m3 / kg
v
m
Density m 1 kg / m3

V v
Static Pressure Variation P gh , Pa
Absolute Temperature T ( K ) T (C ) 273.15

Properties of a Pure Substance

Formula Units
Quality mvapor
x (vapour mass fraction)
mtot
mliquid
1 x (Liquid mass fraction)
mtot
Specific Volume v v f xv fg m3 / kg
Average Specific Volume v (1 x)v f xvg (only two phase mixture) m3 / kg
Ideal gas law P Pc T Tc Z 1
Equations Pv RT PV mRT nRT
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Universal Gas Constant R 8.3145 kJ / kmol K


Gas Constant R kJ / kg K
R M = molecular mass
M
Compressibility Factor Z Pv ZRT
Reduced Properties P T
Pr , Tr
Pc Tc

Work & Heat

Formula Units
Displacement Work 2 2 J
W Fdx PdV
1 1
Integration 2 J
W PdV P (V2 V1 )
1
Specific Work W J / kg
w (work per unit mass)
m
Power (rate of work) W FV PV T W
Velocity V r rad / s
Torque T Fr Nm
Polytropic Process ( n 1) PV n Const PV 1 1 PV Pv n C
n n
2 2


ln 2
Polytropic Exponent P
n
P1
ln 1
V
V2
n=1 PV Const PV1 1 PV
2 2

Polytropic Process Work 1 J


W2 2 2 PV
( PV 1 1) n 1
1 n
1

n=1 V2 J
1W2 PV
2 2 ln
V1
Adiabatic Process Q0
Conduction Heat Transfer dT W
Q kA , k =conductivity
dx
Convection Heat Transfer Q hAT , h =convection coefficient W
Radiation Heat Transfer Q A(Ts4 Tamb
4
) W

Terminology:
Q1 = heat
Q2 = heat transferred during the process between state 1 and state 2
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Q = rate of heat transfer
W = work
1W2 = work done during the change from state 1 to state 2
W = rate of work = Power. 1 W=1 J/s

The First Law of Thermodynamics

Formula Units
Total Energy E U KE PE dE dU d ( KE ) d ( PE ) J
Energy dE Q W E2 E1 1Q2 1W2 J
Kinetic Energy KE 0.5mV 2 J
Potential Energy PE mgZ PE2 PE1 mg (Z 2 Z1 ) J
Internal Energy U Uliq Uvap mu mliqu f mvapug
Specific Internal Energy of u (1 x)u f xu g kJ / kg
Saturated Steam
u u f xu fg
(two-phase mass average)
Total Energy m(V22 V12 ) J
U 2 U1 mg ( Z 2 Z1 ) 1Q2 1W2
2
Specific Energy e u 0.5V 2 gZ
Enthalpy H U PV
Specific Enthalpy h u Pv kJ / kg
For Ideal Gasses Pv RT and u f (T )
Enthalpy h u Pv u RT
R Constant u f (t ) h f (T )
Specific Enthalpy for h (1 x)h f xhg kJ / kg
Saturation State
h h f xh fg
(two-phase mass average)
Specific Heat at 1 Q 1 U u
Constant Volume Cv
m T v m T v T v
(ue ui ) Cv (Te Ti )
Specific Heat at 1 Q 1 H h
Constant Pressure Cp
m T p m T p T p
(he hi ) C p (Te Ti )
Solids & Liquids Incompressible, so v=constant
C Cc C p (Tables A.3 & A.4)
u2 u1 C (T2 T1 )
h2 h1 u2 u1 v( P2 P1 )
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Ideal Gas h u Pv u RT
u2 u1 Cv (T2 T1 )
h2 h1 C p (T2 T1 )
Energy Rate E Q W (rate in out )
E2 E1 1 Q2 1W2 (change in out )

First-Law Analysis for Control Volume

Formula Units
Volume Flow Rate V VdA AV (using average velocity)
Mass Flow Rate V kg / s
m VdA AV A (using average values)
v
Power W
W mC p T W mCv T m V
v
Flow Work Rate W flow PV mPv
Flow Direction From higher P to lower P unless significant KE or PE
Total Enthalpy htot h 1 V 2 gZ
2
Instantaneous Process
Continuity mC .V . mi me
Equation
Energy EC.V . QC.V . WC.V . mi htot i me htot e First Law
Equation
Q mi (hi 1 V 2 gZ i )
2
dE
dt

me he 1 V 2 gZ e W
2
Steady State Process A steady-state has no storage effects, with all properties constant with time
No Storage mC .V . 0, EC .V . 0
Continuity
Equation
m m
i e (in = out)

Energy QC .V . mi htot i WC .V . me htot e (in = out) First Law


Equation

Q mi (hi 1 V 2 gZ i ) W me he 1 V 2 gZ e
2 2
Specific Heat QC .V . kJ / kg
Transfer q
m
Specific Work W kJ / kg
w C .V .
m
SS Single Flow q htot i w htot e (in = out)
Eq.
Transient Process Change in mass (storage) such as filling or emptying of a container.
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Continuity m2 m1 mi me
Equation
Energy E2 E1 QC.V WC.V . mi htot i me htot e
Equation

E2 E1 m2 u2 1 V22 gZ 2 m1 u1 1 V12 gZ1
2 2
QC .V m h i tot i
2 2
me htot e m2 u2 1 V22 gZ 2 m1 u1 1 V22 gZ1 WC .V .
C .V .

The Second Law of Thermodynamics

Formula Units
All W , Q can also be rates W , Q
Heat Engine WHE QH QL
Thermal WHE Q
efficiency
HE 1 L
QH QH
Carnot Cycle QL T
Thermal 1 1 L
QH TH
Real Heat WHE T
Engine
HE Carnot HE 1 L
QH TH
Heat Pump WHP QH QL
Coefficient of QH QH

HP
Performance WHP QH QL
Carnot Cycle QH TH

HP
QH QL TH TL
Real Heat QH TH
Pump HP Carnot HP
WHP TH TL
Refrigerator WREF QH QL
Coefficient of QL QL
Performance
REF
WREF QH QL
Carnot Cycle QL TL

QH QL TH TL
Real QL TL
Refrigerator
REF Carnot REF
WREF TH TL
Absolute Temperature TL QL

TH QH
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Entropy
Formula Units
Inequality of Clausis Q
T
0
Entropy Q kJ / kgK
dS
T rev
Change of Entropy Q
2 kJ / kgK
S 2 S1
1
T rev
Specific Entropy s (1 x)s f xsg kJ / kgK
s s f xs fg
Entropy Change
Carnot Cycle 1
2
Q
Isothermal Heat Transfer: S 2 S1
TH 1
Q 1 2
TH
Q
Reversible Adiabatic (Isentropic Process): dS
T rev
Q
4
3 Q4
Reversible Isothermal Process: S4 S3
3

T rev TL
Reversible Adiabatic (Isentropic Process): Entropy decrease in
process 3-4 = the entropy increase in process 1-2.
Reversible Heat- 1 Q
2
1
2
q h
Transfer Process s2 s1 s fg Q 1 2 fg
m 1 T rev mT 1 T T
Gibbs Equations Tds du Pdv
Tds dh vdP
Entropy Generation Q
dS S gen
T
Wirr PdV T Sgen
2 2
Q
S 2 S1 dS 1 S 2 gen
1
T1
Entropy Balance Equation Entropy in out gen
Principle of the Increase of dSnet dSc.m. dSsurr S gen 0
Entropy
Entropy Change
Solids & Liquids T2
s2 s1 c ln
T1
Reversible Process: ds gen 0
Adiabatic Process: dq 0
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Ideal Gas 2
dT v
Constant Volume: s2 s1 Cv0
1
T
R ln 2
v1
2
dT P
Constant Pressure: s2 s1 Cp0
1
T
R ln 2
P1
T
Constant Specific Heat: s2 s1 Cv0 ln 2 R ln 2
v
T1 v1
T P
s2 s1 Cp0 ln 2 R ln 2
T1 P1
Standard Entropy T
C p0 kJ / kgK
sT0 dT
T0
T

s2 s1 sT0 2 sT01 R ln
Change in Standard P2 kJ / kgK
Entropy P1
Ideal Gas Undergoing an T2 P2
Isentropic Process
s2 s1 0 Cp0 ln R ln
T1 P1
R
T P Cp 0
2 2
T1 P1
R C p 0 Cv 0 k 1
but ,
C p0 C p0 k
C p0
k = ratio of specific heats
Cv 0
k 1 k
T v P2 v1
2 1 ,
T1 v2 P1 v2
Special case of polytropic process where k = n: Pv const
k

Reversible Polytropic PV n const PV


1 1 PV
n
2 2
n

Process for Ideal Gas n n 1 n 1


P V T2 P2 n
V
2 1 , 1
P1 V2 T1 P1 V2

Work 2
dV PV
2
PV mR (T2 T1 )
1W2 PdV const 2 2 1 1
1 1
V n
1 n 1 n
Values for n Isobaric process: n 0, P const
Isothermal Process: n 1, T const
Isentropic Process: n k , s const
Isochronic Process: n , v const
Mechanical Engineering GATE Exam

Second-Law Analysis for Control Volume


Formula Units
nd
2 Law Expressed as a dSc.m. Q
Change of Entropy S gen
dt T
Entropy Balance Equation rate of change in out generation
dSC .V . Q
mi si me se C .V . S gen
dt T

where SC.V . sdV mc.v. s mA sA mB sB ...


and S gen sgen dV S gen. A S gen.B ...
Steady State Process dSC .V .
0
dt
QC .V .
m s m s
e e i i
C .V . T
S gen

Continuity equation QC .V .
mi me m m( se si ) S gen
C .V . T

Adiabatic process se si s gen si


Transient Process d Q
ms C.V . mi si me se C.V . S gen
dt T
t
Q
m2 s2 m1s1 C .V . mi si me se C .V . dt 1 S2 gen
0
T
Reversible Steady State Process
If Process Reversible & se si
Adiabatic e
he hi vdP
i

Vi 2 Ve 2
w hi he g (Zi Z e )
2
V 2 Ve 2
e
vdP i g (Zi Z e )
i
2
If Process is Reversible 1 Q
and Isothermal m se si
T C .V .
QC .V . C .V .
T
QC .V .
or T se si q
m
e
T se si he hi vdP
i
Mechanical Engineering GATE Exam

Incompressible Fluid Ve2 Vi 2


v Pe Pi g Z e Z i 0 Bernoulli Eq.
2
Reversible Polytrophic e

Process w vdP and Pv n const C n


for Ideal Gas i
e e
dP
w vdP C 1
n
i i P
n nR
Peve Pv
i i Te Ti
n 1 n 1
Isothermal Process (n=1) e e
dP Pe
w vdP C Pv
i i ln
i i
P Pi
Principle of the Increase of dS net dSC .V . dS surr
Entropy S gen 0
dt dt dt
Efficiency
Turbine wa hi he
Turbine work is out
ws hi hes
Compressor ws hi hes
(Pump) Compressor work is in
wa hi he
Cooled Compressor wT

w
Nozzle 1 V2
2 2
e
Kinetic energy is out
1 V
2 es
Note:

F = (C x 9/5) + 32

C = (F - 32) x (5/9)

K = C + 273

Q = mCT thermal energy = mass x specific heat x change in T

Q = mHf thermal energy = mass x heat of fusion

Q = mHv thermal energy = mass x heat of vaporization

L = LiT change in length = coefficient of expansion x initial length x change in T

V = ViT change in volume = coefficient of expansion x initial volume x change in T

U = Q W internal energy = heat energy - work


Mechanical Engineering GATE Exam
Plausible Physical Name State Variables P V T Eth Q Ws W
Situations
Insulated Add weight Adiabatic PV = Const; nCvT > 0 -nCvT < 0 nCvT > 0
sleeve to or push compression TV-1 = Const Up Down Up
0
or rapid down on
process piston
Insulated Remove Adiabatic PV = Const; nCvT < 0 -nCvT > 0 nCvT < 0
sleeve or weight from expansion TV-1 = Const Down Up Down
0
rapid or pull up
process on piston
Heat gas Locked Isochoric V fixed; nCvT > nCvT 0 0
piston or PT 0 >0
Up Fixed Up
rigid
container
Cool gas Locked Isochoric V fixed; nCvT < nCvT 0 0
piston or PT 0 <0
Down Fixed Down
rigid
container
Heat gas Piston free Isobaric P fixed; nCvT > nCpT PV > 0 -PV < 0
to move, expansion VT 0 >0
Fixed Up Up
load
unchanged
Cool gas Piston free Isobaric P fixed; nCvT < nCpT PV < 0 -PV > 0
to move, compression VT 0 <0
Fixed Down Down
load
unchanged
Immerse Add weight Isothermal T fixed at nCvT = nRT*ln( nRT*ln(Vf/ -nRT
gas in to piston compression temperature of Up Down Fixed
0 Vf/Vi) Vi) < 0 *ln(Vf/Vi)
large bath bath, <0 >0
PV = Const
Immerse Remove Isothermal T fixed at nCvT = nRT*ln( nRT*ln(Vf/ -nRT*
gas in weight from expansion temperature of Down Up Fixed
0 Vf/Vi) Vi) > 0 ln(Vf/Vi) <
large bath piston bath, >0 0
PV = Const
Unknown Unknown No Name PV/T = nCvT Eth + PdV = -PdV =
Const ? ? ?
Ws area under area under
curve in PV curve in PV
diagram diagram