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success factors in
Strategies and success factors for TPM
overcoming challenges in TPM
implementation in Indian
manufacturing industry
I.P.S. Ahuja and J.S. Khamba
University College of Engineering, Punjabi University, Patiala, India

Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate the challenges before Indian manufacturing
organizations for adapting to proactive total productive maintenance (TPM) initiatives. The aim of this
research is to critically examine the factors influencing the implementation of TPM practices in the
Indian manufacturing industry, and to devise an overall maintenance strategy for overcoming
obstacles to successful TPM implementation.
Design/methodology/approach The study focuses on systematic identification of obstacles in
TPM implementation and working out success factors towards improving manufacturing
performance in Indian industry through strategic TPM initiatives.
Findings The study highlights the strong potential of TPM implementation initiatives in affecting
organizational performance improvements. The paper reveals that implementing TPM is by no means
an easy task, which is heavily burdened by organizational, cultural, behavioral, technological,
operational, financial, and departmental barriers.
Research limitations/implications The study has been conducted in Indian manufacturing
organizations to formulate the critical success factors and enablers for overcoming obstacles to
successful TPM implementation with regard to its preparedness to face global challenges.
Practical implications The study stresses the need for improving the synergy between the
maintenance function and other organizational quality improvement initiatives in the organizations, to
establish maintenance as a competitive strategy for meeting the challenges of a highly competitive
Originality/value The study highlights the difficulties faced by Indian manufacturing
organizations in their attempt to implement TPM initiatives in order to improve organizational
Keywords Productive maintenance, Organizational performance, Critical success factors,
Manufacturing industries, India
Paper type Research paper

The manufacturing industry has experienced an unprecedented degree of change in the
last three decades, involving drastic changes in management approaches, product and
process technologies, customer expectations, supplier attitudes as well as competitive Journal of Quality in Maintenance
behavior (Ahuja et al., 2006). The contemporary dynamic environment has become Engineering
Vol. 14 No. 2, 2008
highly challenging and the manufacturing organizations are finding it extremely pp. 123-147
difficult to manage competition and consumer expectations. The global marketplace q Emerald Group Publishing Limited
has witnessed an increased pressure from customers and competitors for greater value DOI 10.1108/13552510810877647
JQME from their purchase whether based on quality, faster delivery, and lower cost in
14,2 manufacturing as well as service sector (Basu, 2001; George, 2002). The contemporary
business environment has become considerably complex and challenging, and as a
result variety of factors influence the manufacturing organizations ability to compete
effectively. Organizations today compete on several factors such as time, price,
technology, innovation, quality, reliability, and information management. Kumar et al.
124 (2006) impress upon the manufacturing organizations to adapt lean and six sigma
principals, and business process improvement strategies for achieving dramatic
results in cost, quality and time by focusing on process performance.
The rapidly changing needs of modern manufacturing and the ever increasing
global competition has emphasized upon the re-examination of the role of improved
maintenance management towards enhancing organizations competitiveness (Riis et.
al., 1997). It has been realized and well accepted by manufacturing organizations that
the equipment maintenance and reliability are important strategies that can
considerably influence the organizations ability to compete effectively (Madu, 2000).
The maintenance processes can be streamlined to eliminate waste and produce
breakthrough performance in areas valued by customers (Hammer and Champy, 1993).
This has encouraged the manufacturing organizations to adopt Total Productive
Maintenance (TPM) as a significant process improvement and problem solving
approach for enhancing the organizations responsiveness for catering to customer
needs and affecting cost optimization as part of management strategy to increase the
market share and maximize profit. TPM has been accepted as the most promising
strategy for improving maintenance performance in order to succeed in a highly
demanding market arena (Nakajima, 1988). The TPM implementation methodology
provides organizations with a guide to fundamentally transform their shop floor by
integrating culture, process, and technology (Moore, 1997).

Total productive maintenance

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is a production-driven improvement
methodology that is designed to optimize equipment reliability and ensure efficient
management of plant assets through the use of employee involvement and
empowerment, by linking manufacturing, maintenance and engineering functions.
Ahuja and Khamba (2006) report that TPM implementation can significantly
contribute towards improvement in organizational behavior in the manufacturing
enterprises leading to world class competitiveness. TPM initiatives are focused upon
addressing major losses, and wastes associated with the production systems by
affecting continuous and systematic evaluations of production system, thereby
affecting significant improvements in production facilities (Ravishankar et al., 1992;
Gupta et al., 2001, Juric et al., 2006). The main goal of an effective TPM effort is to bring
critical maintenance skilled trades and production workers together (Labib, 1999).
There are three ultimate goals of TPM: zero defects, zero accident, and zero
breakdowns (Willmott, 1994; Noon et al., 2000).
The manufacturing organizations in their pursuit of beating the competition in the
demand-driven environments are increasingly adapting proactive strategies like TPM
and total quality management (TQM) to achieve fast, focused, and sustainable results.
The TQM strategy focuses upon employee empowerment for improving product
quality and appropriately complements the TPM focus on employee empowerment for
enhancing production system availability, reliability, and capacity. TPM is an Strategies and
innovative approach to plant maintenance that is complementary to total quality success factors in
management (TQM), just-in-time manufacturing (JIT), total employee involvement (TEI),
continuous performance improvement (CPI), and other world-class manufacturing TPM
strategies (Schonberger, 1996; Ollila and Malmipuro, 1999, Cua et al., 2001). Willmott
(1994) portraits TPM as a relatively new and practical application of TQM and suggests
that TPM aims to promote a culture in which operators develop ownership of their 125
machines, learn much more about them, and in the process realize skilled trades to
concentrate on problem diagnostic and equipment improvement projects.
TPM improves the competitiveness of an organization by providing enhanced
equipment availability and utilization while optimizing the maintenance expenditures
in the organizations. The evaluation of TPM efficiency can facilitate significantly
enhanced organizational capabilities across variety of dimensions (Wang, 2006). TPM
enhances the competitive advantages of improved quality, improved delivery, and
increased flexibility without excessive maintenance investments. TPM initiatives can
also be effectively integrated with other manufacturing management programs like
TQM, JIT, or Cellular Manufacturing to optimize improved performance, and
ultimately competitiveness (Currie and Seddon, 1992; David, 1995).
The emergence of TPM is intended to bring both production and maintenance
functions together by a combination of good working practices, team-working and
continuous improvement (Cooke, 2000). TPM can be defined as a partnership between
the maintenance and production organizations to improve product quality, reduce waste,
reduce manufacturing cost, increase equipment availability, and improve organizations
overall state of maintenance (Maggard and Rhyne, 1992). TPM permanently improves
the overall effectiveness of equipment with the active involvement of operators
(Hartmann, 1992). TPM has been widely recognized as a strategic weapon for improving
manufacturing performance by enhancing the effectiveness of production facilities
(Dwyer, 1999; Dossenbach, 2006). Wireman (1991) suggests that TPM is maintenance
improvement strategy that involves all employees in the organization and includes
everyone from top management to the line employee, and it encompasses all
departments including, maintenance, operations, design engineering, project
engineering, inventory and stores, purchasing, accounting finances, plant management.
TPM embraces series of methods that ensures every piece of equipment in a
production process is always able to perform its required task. TPM also links together
all other maintenance and reliability programs together for a new business strategy
that focuses on results and changes the work culture along the way. TPM schedules
maintenance as an integral part of the manufacturing process to increase equipment
effectiveness, to minimize and eventually eliminate emergency and unscheduled
maintenance. TPM comprises of a company wide equipment maintenance program
that covers the entire equipment life cycle and requires participation by every
employee (Nakajima, 1988). TPM harnesses the participation of all the employees to
improve production equipments availability, performance, quality, reliability, and
safety. TPM endeavors to tap the hidden capacity of unreliable and ineffective
equipment. TPM capitalizes on proactive and progressive maintenance methodologies
and calls upon the knowledge and cooperation of operators, equipment vendors,
engineering, and support personnel to optimize machine performance, thereby
resulting in elimination of breakdowns, reduction of unscheduled and scheduled
JQME downtime, improved utilization, higher throughput, and better product quality. The
14,2 bottom-line achievements of successful TPM implementation initiatives in an
organization include lower operating costs, longer equipment life and lower overall
maintenance costs.

Obstacles to TPM implementation

126 It has been reported in the literature that TPM implementation is not an easy task by
any means. The failure of TPM implementation is due to lack of a support system to
facilitate learning and transform learning into effective diffusion of the practices of
TPM. It has been observed that many of the organizations that attempt to implement
TPM initiatives experience difficulties and are not able to achieve the anticipated
benefits. The failure of an organization to successfully implement a TPM program has
been attributed to the various obstacles including lack of management support and
understanding, lack of sufficient training, failure to allow sufficient time for the
evolution (Bakerjan, 1994). Some of the prominent problems in TPM implementation
include partial implementation of TPM, overly optimistic expectations, lack of a
well-defined routine for attaining the objectives of implementation (equipment
effectiveness), cultural resistance to change, lack of training and education, lack of
organizational communication, and implementation of TPM to conform to societal
norms rather than for its instrumentality to achieve world class manufacturing
(Crawford et al., 1988; Becker, 1993).
Another significant contributor for failure of TPM implementation program is the
organizations inability to obviate resistance to change. The resistance to change takes a
number of forms, that is, reluctance of individuals to change roles (Riis et al., 1997; Cooke,
2000), inability to create dissatisfaction with the present situation (reason to change)
(Maggard and Rhyne, 1992; Ireland and Dale, 2001) and inability to change
organizational roles and culture (Patterson et al., 1995; Lawrence, 1999). Bamber et al.
(1999) has conducted a study aimed at discovering the factors affecting the successful
implementation of TPM at UK manufacturing small to medium-size enterprise (SME).
Davis (1997) has outlined various reasons for TPM failure within UK manufacturing
organizations including lack of commitment of top management, deployment of
inexperienced consultants, lack of structure, failure to implement change on the shop
floor, lack of education and training for employees, lack of employee involvement, and
poor structure to support the TPM initiatives. McAdam and Duffner (1996) describe that
many issues arise when trying to implement TPM in a union environment. Workers fear
that the only drive is to improve production efficiency, reduce labor, and increase
employee work load. Many operators dont want additional responsibility and are happy
with the situation the way it is. In addition the skilled trades enjoy feeling indispensable
and think that the autonomous maintenance activity threatens their jobs.
Moreover Cooke (2000) has attributed the failure of TPM implementation program
to the inability of management to holistically implement the TPM practices at the
workplace and highlights that serious deviations have been observed between
officially laid out TPM policies and actual practices employed at workplace.

Success factors for successful TPM implementation

TPM is a result of this corporate focus on making better use of available resources.
TPM literature presents many success criteria for TPM implementation. In order to
realize the true potential of TPM and ensure successful TPM implementation, TPM Strategies and
goals and objectives need to be fully integrated into the strategic and business plans of success factors in
the organization because TPM affects the entire organization and is not limited to
production. For TPM to be successful, the improvement process must be recognized as TPM
benefiting both the organization and the worker (Robinson and Ginder, 1995). Lycke
and Akersten (2000) have suggested that careful, thorough planning and preparation
are keys to successful company-wide implementation of TPM and so is senior 127
managements understanding and belief in the concept. Bohoris et al. (1995) have
emphasized upon affecting changes in the management structure, focusing on
continuous production system improvements, managing synergic cooperation of
production and maintenance, deployment of effective developed computerized
maintenance management system (CMMS) and gradual implementation of TPM on
a handful of machines at a given time as key contributors towards successful TPM
implementation. Hansson et al. (2003) have emphasized upon effectively managing
organizational change for enhancing organizations performance for strategic survival
in the competitive environment.
Groote (1995) proposes a maintenance performance evaluation approach based on a
quality audit and quantifiable maintenance performance indicators. He suggests that
the maintenance function effectiveness must be defined through relative economic and
technical ratios, to permit the maintenance manager to follow the evolution of
maintenance performance and to make decisions necessary for improved maintenance
management. Leblanc (1995) recommends the postulates for realizing the true potential
of TPM including evaluating cost savings from TPM can be predicted and measured,
cross- functional teams integrated to enhance the value of TPM, and identification and
mitigation of the root cause of equipment problems effectively. Fredendall et al. (1997)
emphasize that a TPM development program should typically emphasize among other
things the leadership role of top management in launching and implementing TPM,
establishment of TPM policies, goals, and master plan and communicating these to
everyone in the organization, and building a system for training and employee
involvement. The commitment of top management in preparing a suitable
environment for TPMs introduction and in planning and coordinating for its
implementation is considered crucial to TPMs success. Hutchins (1998) has advocated
for making considerable efforts for recognizing teams and enabling them to display
their work for successful TPM implementation.
However, there has not been any reference to strategic initiatives for overcoming the
obstacles to successful TPM implementation in the Indian context. Thus the present
study assumes significance since it emphasizes upon evolution of key success factors
for overcoming the obstacles to TPM implementation in the Indian manufacturing

Challenges for TPM implementation in Indian manufacturing industry

As the organizations across the globe have faced stiff cut-throat competition in the last
three decades, the Indian industry too could not escape the brunt of globalization.
Indian manufacturing industry has also witnessed irrepressible competition in the
recent times, predominantly due to the entry of multinational companies in the wake of
liberalization, since early 1990s. Owing to opening up of the Indian economy from
merely a regulated economy, the manufacturing industry has been faced with uphill
JQME task of competing with the best in the world. The intense competition has been
14,2 witnessed in terms of low costs, improved quality and products with high performance,
competition (Chandra and Sastry, 1998). Moreover shorter lead times, shorter
innovation times and reduced inventories have lead to increasing demands on the
organizations preparedness, adaptability and versatility.
Traditionally, Indian manufacturing organizations have suffered from inherent
128 deficiencies like poor responsiveness to changing market scenarios, low productivity,
poor quality, poor cost effectiveness of production systems, stubborn organizational
character and structures, uncertain policy regimes, low skill and knowledge base of
employees, low production automation, non-motivating work environments, high
customer complaints, high utility rates, high wastages associated with production
systems, high labor rigidity, high internal taxes, and infrastructural glitches. The
Indian industry is faced with the challenge of adopting cost effective manufacturing
strategies for staying competitive. While implementing effective TPM programs, the
Indian Manufacturing organizations have often been plagued with teething problems
and challenges like difficulties to understand business economics, reluctance to
changing practices, vague workers apprehensions, inability to realize the same level of
benefits as reaped by developed countries by imitating the TPM implementation
procedures and practices adopted abroad. Thus Indian manufacturing organizations
need to shed the sluggish character and move forward aggressively to develop adapt
proactive processes and practices for overcoming the inherent deficiencies in
manufacturing systems for harnessing distinct competencies in comparison to their
global competitors. The present study critically examines the factors influencing the
implementation of TPM practices in Indian manufacturing industry. Currently many
models are undergoing failures. In this scenario this study is relevant.

The study has been carried out in the medium and large scale manufacturing
organizations in the country that have successfully implemented TPM or are in the
process of implementing TPM, to study the TPM implementation issues and
achievements realized as a result of strategic TPM implementation. The methodology
for the study has been depicted in Figure 1. In this study, a reasonably large number of
manufacturing organizations (80 organizations) have been extensively surveyed, to
ascertain contributions made by TPM initiatives in the Indian manufacturing
industries towards realization of manufacturing performance enhancements. It has
been observed that though about 300 odd organizations are registered with TPM Club
India for TPM implementation, but only about 55 per cent (about 165 organizations) of
the organizations have made reasonably significant interventions regarding adapting
TPM initiatives in a serious manner, while rest of the organizations have yet to made a
head-start regarding effective TPM implementation. It is pertinent to mention that the
organizations involved the study have at-least two years of experience regarding TPM
implementation. Thus a total of 80 responses regarding the TPM Questionnaire in
the present study, represents about 49 per cent of the total number of organizations
practicing the TPM principals rigorously. This can be treated as a representative
sample of the Indian Industry.
In order to evaluate the critical obstacles hampering successful TPM
implementation in Indian manufacturing industry, and evolving success factors
Strategies and
success factors in


Figure 1.
Methodology employed
for the study

contributing to successful TPM implementation, a detailed TPM Questionnaire has

been designed. The approach has been directed towards justification of TPM
implementation for its support to competitive manufacturing in Indian industries. The
questionnaire survey technique has been deployed in the present study for seeking
information on the issues related to scrutinizing barriers to effective TPM
implementation and developing an understanding of success factors and enablers
for successful TPM implementation in the Indian manufacturing industry. For
effectively conducting the survey, the TPM Questionnaire has been designed through
extensive literature review (Maggard et al., 1989; Ravishankar et al., 1992; Kodali and
Chandra, 2001; McKone et al., 2001; Seth and Tripathi, 2005; Shamsuddin et al., 2005),
and validated through peer review from academicians, consultants, TPM councilors,
and practitioners (TPM Co-coordinators) from the industry. To ensure the relevance
and the effectiveness of the questions to the manufacturing industry, the questionnaire
has been pre-tested on a representative sample of industry. The suggestions from the
peers, consultants, TPM councilors, senior executives from the industries and
academicians have been incorporated to make the questionnaire relevant to the
purpose and bring out key outcomes as a result of strategic TPM implementation.
The manufacturing organizations across the country were first screened, and an
industrial database was created for the purpose of mailing the TPM Questionnaire.
JQME The TPM questionnaires were mailed to the selected organizations, and were
14,2 subsequently contacted through postal mail, E-mail and telephonically to explain the
context of the present research work, its significance and to clarify any queries/doubts
to facilitate comprehensive and clear-cut responses to the TPM Questionnaires. The
target respondents for the TPM Questionnaire have been the organizations that have
made serious interventions in the field of TPM and realized significant achievements
130 through adoption of strategic TPM initiatives. The respondents of the TPM
Questionnaire have been the top brass of management executives that included
several Vice presidents, heads of operations, heads of quality assurance, general
managers (GM), heads of maintenance, head process engineering, TPM coordinators,
heads of improvement management, management system manager-TPM, chief
managers, manufacturing managers, GM TPM, head TPM, GM technical, quality
managers, TPM secretaries and President operations etc. The responses to the TPM
questionnaire have been subsequently compiled and analyzed critically to ascertain the
barriers to TPM implementation and evolving success factors, enablers for successful
TPM implementation. The TPM questionnaire serves the purpose of revealing the
exploits of Indian entrepreneurs with TPM practices.

Barriers to TPM implementation in Indian manufacturing industry

The literature review has revealed that maintenance and human factors have often
been treated as neglected areas in traditional Indian manufacturing organizations.
Traditionally, Indian manufacturing organizations have suffered from inherent
deficiencies, having often been plagued with teething problems and inherent
deficiencies like poor responsiveness to changing market scenarios, low productivity,
poor quality, poor cost effectiveness of production systems, stubborn organizational
character and structures, uncertain policy regimes, low skill and knowledge base of
employees, low production automation, non-motivating work environments, and high
customer complaints (Bhadury and Mandal, 1998). With regards to Indian industry,
maintenance has often been a disregarded issue. Maintenance has been treated as an
unnecessary evil and seen as an uncontrollable black box in the operation and
development of manufacturing systems. Maintenance has been considered as a low
profile job with its scope limited to breakdown and preventive maintenance (Tripathy,
2005). Due to protected and controlled economy, Indian executives did not pay much
attention towards equipment related failures and losses. Maintenance has been viewed
as a reactive problem fixing and an operating expense to be minimized (Seth and
Tripathi, 2005). The potential of maintenance performance improvement towards
gaining competitive advantage has been overlooked for long.
Owing to general apathy of Indian manufacturing organizations towards affecting
manufacturing performance improvement through strategic maintenance initiatives,
there has been sluggish growth in the Industry and Indian entrepreneurs have found it
extremely hard to compete effectively in highly dynamic global marketplace. However,
of late, Indian entrepreneurs have realized and understood the true potential for
maintenance function towards enhancing manufacturing performance, and major
proactive maintenance initiatives have been adapted in the manufacturing
organizations, since early 1990s, due to the burgeoning pressure due to
multi-national corporations, rapid product development, increased quality
consciousness, cost optimizations, waste reductions and lead time optimization.
Over a decade, Indias has affirmed its stern determination to acquire the Strategies and
capabilities that will add to its competitiveness and enable it to be counted among success factors in
other recognized global players (Sahay et al., 2006). The Indian executives have
understood the significance of making investments in TPM initiatives for improving TPM
the competitiveness of the manufacturing organizations. In the last one and a half
decades, leading Indian manufacturing entrepreneurs have taken proactive initiatives
to imbibe state-of-art maintenance improvement initiatives and philosophies in the 131
organizations to realize enhanced manufacturing performance (Ahuja et al., 2004).
TPM has gained wide acceptance in Indian industry as prime mover for increasing
competitiveness (Bhadury and Mandal, 1998; Sahay et al., 2000). TPM is being looked
upon as a potential profit source, capable of leading the organizations to meet the
challenges posed by globalization.
In the quest for achieving manufacturing excellence through maintenance
improvement initiatives, the leading Indian manufacturing organizations have made
sincere efforts to adopt proactive TPM implementation initiatives in the last one
decade. However due to passive organizational approaches and the colonial roots of the
manufacturing environment, these organizations have faced a lot of difficulties and
barriers in effectively adapting to aggressive TPM principles. The systematic
identification and recognition of barriers to effective TPM implementation program
can lead to fostering of a favorable environment in the organization and helping the
organizations to develop focused TPM implementation program for successfully
overcoming the obstacles for TPM implementation in Indian manufacturing industry.
The present study highlights the difficulties faced by Indian manufacturing
organizations in their quest to effectively implement TPM initiatives in the pursuit of
improving organizational efficiency. In this regard, a detailed survey of the Indian
manufacturing industry has been conducted and about 80 manufacturing units have
been analyzed for ascertaining the obstacles affecting the success of TPM
implementation program. The various obstacles hindering the organizations quest
for achieving excellence through TPM initiatives have been classified as
organizational, cultural, behavioral, technological, operational, financial, and
departmental difficulties or barriers.
The organizational obstacles affecting the successful TPM implementation in
Indian manufacturing organizations include:
Organizations inability to bring about cultural transformations.
Ineffectiveness of top management to holistically implement change
management initiatives.
Inability of managements to convince stubborn unions about true potential of
Organizations inability to change the mindset of people to obtain total
Lack of commitment from top management and communication regarding TPM.
Wrong pace of TPM implementation and focus on too many improvement
Lack of understanding of TPM concepts and principles.
Inadequacies of master plan in the absence of focused approach.
Lack of awareness of TPM concepts and principles among the employees.
14,2 .
Middle managements resistance towards offering empowerment and
recognition of bottom level operators due to fears of loss of authority and respect.
Inability to strictly force laid out TPM practices and standards.
Organizations inability to enhance employee competencies towards job.
132 .
Alienation of employees from growth and sustainability endeavors of the
Inadequate services for the employees in most organizations.
Absence of mechanisms to critically evaluate and monitor maintenance
performance metrics like overall equipment effectiveness (OEE), return on net
assets (RONA), and return on capital employed (ROCE).
Inadequacies of reward and recognition mechanisms in the organizations.

The cultural obstacles affecting the successful TPM implementation in Indian

manufacturing organizations include:
Lack of professionalism including lack of consistency, resistant to changes, poor
quality consciousness coming in the way of organizational transformations.
Inability to align employees to organizational goals and objectives.
Strong unions, rigid mindsets, non flexible approaches, non adaptable attitudes.
Stubborn attitudes regarding existing organization, knowledge and beliefs.
Inability of top management to motivate employees to Unlearn to learn.
Concern of employees with Whats in it for me attitude.
Low skill-base also a deterrent to accept change at the workplace.
Marginal employee participation in the organization towards decision making.
Compromising attitude on quality of production and lack of quality, rework
accepted as part of production activities.

The behavioral obstacles affecting the successful TPM implementation in Indian

manufacturing organizations include:
Resistance from employees to adapt to the new concept and changes.
Occasional difficulties to succeed as Cross Functional Teams (CFT).
Lack of motivation on part of employees to contribute effectively towards
organization development and sustainability efforts.
Functional orientation and loyalty.
. Inadequate efforts towards multi-skilling and periodic skill updation of
Lack of willingness on part of operators to learn more regarding the functioning
of production systems.
Resistance to change due to job insecurity and apprehension of loss of
specialization due to technological improvements.
The technological obstacles affecting the successful TPM implementation in Indian Strategies and
manufacturing organizations include: success factors in
Little emphasis to improve the production capabilities beyond the design TPM
Little effort made to assess and improve the reliability of production system and
ensure the faster and dependable delivery.
Highly inadequate predictive maintenance (Pd. M.) infrastructural facilities in
the organization.
Highly inadequate computerized maintenance management systems (CMMS)
infrastructural facilities in the organization.
Non realization of inefficiencies of production system, losses, wastes leading to
lack of impetus for affecting manufacturing improvements.
Poor flexibilities offered by production systems due to long set up and
changeover times.
. Less educated workforce due to lack of training on new technologies.
Lack of training opportunities and skills regarding quality improvement
techniques and problem diagnostics.
Little emphasis on maintenance prevention initiatives regarding possibilities of
improvements in the existing products and manufacturing systems.
Poor energy efficiency of the production systems.

The operational obstacles affecting the successful TPM implementation in Indian

manufacturing organizations include:
General acceptance of reasonably high levels of defects associated with
production system with little emphasis on realization of world-class 6 s
production philosophies.
Absence and lack of implementation of standard operating procedures.
Little empowerment to operators to take equipment related or improvement
Absence of planned maintenance (PM) check-sheets to conduct routine
maintenance jobs efficiently.
Apathy and inability of the top management to implement safe work practices at
the workplace.
Resistance from production operators to perform basic autonomous maintenance
Poor and non encouraging workplace environments in the absence of 5 S
Emphasis on restoration of equipment conditions rather than prevention of
Little motivation or time available for affecting process related improvements
while the major focus of the organization is on meeting routine production
targets by any means.
JQME The financial obstacles affecting the successful TPM implementation in Indian
14,2 manufacturing organizations include:
Requirement of significant additional resources in the beginning of TPM
implementation program with moderate performance improvements in initial
stages of TPM.
Inability of top management to support improvement initiatives due to resource
134 crunch.
Absence of appropriate motivating reward and recognition mechanisms.

The departmental obstacles affecting the successful TPM implementation in Indian

manufacturing organizations include:
. Low synergy and coordination between maintenance and production
Reluctance of production operators to accept autonomous maintenance
initiatives as part of their routine jobs.
Existence of firm divisions between the maintenance and production department
A general lack of trust by maintenance department in the productive operators
capabilities for performing basic autonomous maintenance tasks.

Success factors and enablers for successful TPM implementation

The strategic implications of quality and maintenance to improve competitiveness
have been well understood by Indian business captains in the beginning of last decade
(Tripathi, 2005). In the present context, Indian manufacturing organizations have risen
to the occasion and progressed to envisage efficient maintenance policies helping the
enterprise to enhance production system reliability, cost effectiveness of production
operations, thereby enabling the organizations to realize competencies for mitigating
the challenges posed by global competition. The role that effective maintenance plays
in cost effective manufacturing has received a greater attention in the recent times.
Bamber et al. (1999) has outlined a generic model indicating factors affecting the
successful implementation of TPM in the UK manufacturing small-to-medium size
enterprises (SME) which include alignment to mission, the existing organization, the
involvement of people, an implementation plan, knowledge and beliefs, time allocation
for implementation, management commitment, the motivation of management and
workforce, and measures of performance. The experience of TPM implementation in
the UK has shown that the key factors for successful implementations are to approach
TPM realistically; developing a practical plan and employing program and project
management principles; accept that TPM will take a long time to spread across the
company and change existing maintenance culture; be determined to keep going, put in
place, train and develop a network of TPM co-coordinators that will promote and
support TPM activities every day; support TPM co-coordinators with time and
resources, plus senior level back up; put in place relevant measures of performance and
continually monitor and publicize benefits achieved in financial terms (Davis, 1997).
Davis and Willmott (1999) have recommended two significant enablers for successful
implementation of TPM initiatives in the manufacturing organizations:
(1) A structured approach which uses a number of tools and techniques to achieve Strategies and
highly effective plants and production equipment and to measure its success factors in
effectiveness; and
(2) A philosophy which is based upon the empowerment and encouragement of
factory floor-based personnel from all areas.

It has been observed that Indian manufacturing organizations have faced strong 135
resistance from within, and have suffered due to lacking organizational cultures,
inappropriate maintenance improvement initiatives, low skill and knowledge of
operators, inadequate resources, and poor work environments. Indian manufacturing
organizations need to take appropriate initiatives to overcome the obstacles mentioned
earlier to ensure the realization of true potential of TPM. Thus it becomes imperative
for the Indian organizations to evolve proactive strategies for indigenous TPM
implementation program for the Indian industry. There is an urgent need for
establishing and holistically adopting key enablers and success factors in the
organizations to ensure the success of TPM implementation program by harnessing
the participation of all the employees in the organization. The key enablers and success
factors for successful implementation of TPM in Indian manufacturing industry can be
classified into six categories:
(1) Top management contributions.
(2) Cultural transformations.
(3) Employee involvement.
(4) Traditional and proactive maintenance policies.
(5) Training and education.
(6) Maintenance prevention and focused production system improvements.

The enablers and success factors for TPM Implementation in the Indian
manufacturing organization have been depicted in Figure 2. The strategic issues
related to various TPM enablers and success factors have been explained using an
Ishikawa diagram. It is strongly believed that the holistic adaptation of the laid out
enablers and success factors can obviate the ill effects of obstacles to TPM
implementation and can strategically lead the organization to harness competencies for
sustained competitiveness.
The successful implementation of TPM requires top management support,
commitment and involvement. Top management needs to have a strong commitment
to the TPM implementation program and should go all-out for evolving mechanisms
for multi-level communication to all employees explaining the importance and benefits
of the whole program, and whole heartedly propagating the TPM benefits to the
organization, employees by linking TPM to the overall organizational strategy and
objectives. The first course of action is to establish a strategic direction for TPM. This
can be achieved by evolving appropriate TPM policy and Master-plan towards TPM
implementation in the organization. This must be followed by evolving structured
TPM secretariat in line with organizations policies involving employees from various
organization functions and hierarchical levels. The management contributions towards
successful TPM implementations can include revising business plans to include TPM
goals, affecting appropriate cultural transformations in organizational culture,


Figure 2.
Enablers and success
factors for TPM
implementation in the
building strong success stories for promoting motivation for TPM implementations, Strategies and
communicating the TPM goals to the entire organization, providing adequate financial success factors in
resources for affecting business improvements, promoting cross-functional working in
the organization, providing training and skill enhancements for production and TPM
maintenance workers, evolving reward and incentive mechanisms for promoting
proactive maintenance, supporting changes and improvements in the workplace,
removing barriers related to middle level management and enhancing 137
inter-department synergy in the organization.
The biggest challenge before the organization is to be able to make radical
transformation in the organizations culture for ensuring overall employee
participation towards the maintenance and manufacturing performance
improvement through TPM initiatives. For long, Indian organizations have been
strongly resisting any changes at the workplace. Thus focused and concerted efforts
have to be made by the top management to bring about motivating organization
culture by creating awareness to the employees about the true potential of TPM and by
communicating to the employees about the contributions of TPM towards the
employees in particular. In this regard, organizations should go in for union buy-in,
since by roping in employees union representatives in the TPM implementation
planning and execution, many of the employee behavioral barriers and obstacles to
TPM implementation can be appropriately addressed. The unions can directly be
convinced that the affected employees will be helped by developing additional skills
that make them more valuable to the organization and TPM can effectively be used to
create a more multi-skilled workplace, which usually improves employee job security.
This practice can effectively help the top management to foster successful TPM
implementation program in the organization while avoiding the misconceptions about
myths regarding TPM in the organization. Moreover, many other strategic initiatives
can also be successfully deployed in the organizations for motivating and aligning the
employees to the organizational goals and objectives of growth and sustainable
development for meeting the global corporate challenges. These include evolving
mechanisms for employee empowerment, recognition of efforts made by the employees
towards the organizational performance improvement, evolving reward and incentive
mechanisms acceptable to all employees, making efforts for improving the skill and
knowledge base of all the employees and promoting cross-functionality between
various organization functions and departments. The strategic issues for achieving
cultural transformations in manufacturing organizations have been depicted in
Figure 3. The holistic deployment of these initiatives can go a long way in improving
the much needed employee involvement for successful TPM implementation in the
In order to ensure the alignment of employees towards the organizations goals and
objectives towards a sustainable TPM implementation program, an appropriate
understanding of underlying TPM principles and strategies must be provided to
employees at all levels in the organization. Total employee involvement is indeed a
pre-requite to successful TPM implementation and can be ensured by enhancing the
competencies of employees towards the jobs, evolving the environment of equipment
and system ownership by the employees, adequate employee counseling, union buy-in,
effective appropriate suggestions schemes and deploying encouraging and safe work
environment in the organizations.


Figure 3.
Strategic issues for
achieving cultural
transformations in
Moreover it has been observed that for successful TPM implementation, the Strategies and
organizations must harness competencies for improving the traditional maintenance success factors in
performance in the organization. In this regards, the organizations need to develop
standard work practices and safe operating procedure covering entire range of TPM
production systems, and also need to ensure holistic implementation of laid out
procedures by motivated and competent workforce, since it has been observed that
most of the failures of TPM programs can be attributed to the failure of the 139
organization to observe and maintain the standard operating procedures for
production systems and other business functions. The organizations need to evolve
procedures for collecting and analyzing data related to the manufacturing system
performance and focus upon affecting continuous improvements in manufacturing
performance by continuously affecting production system improvements. The
organizations must impress upon addressing the problems related to the production
system by focusing upon the root causes of the problems, rather than emphasizing
upon mere restorations. Moreover, the organizations must make concerted efforts to
adopt state-of-art maintenance initiatives like predictive maintenance and
computerized maintenance management systems in order to enhance the
manufacturing performance through contemporary proactive maintenance
improvement initiatives. Finally the organization needs to evolve and implement
strategic TPM implementation initiatives for improving the manufacturing
performance. To begin with, the organization needs to demonstrate the true
potential of TPM by laying down and communicating exhaustive TPM policy and
master-plan, establishing organization structure for TPM deployment, and focusing
TPM initiatives at critical model machines, thereby creating an environment of
acceptability towards TPM practices in the organization. This should be followed by
horizontal TPM deployment throughout the organization. The various issues related to
holistic TPM implementation should be holistically followed in the organization for
realizing the true potential of TPM including autonomous maintenance activities,
focused improvement to make equipment more efficient, planned maintenance for the
maintenance department, quality maintenance activities, technical training in
equipment maintenance and operation, a system for increasing the efficiency of
administrative and support functions, an early equipment management program, and
a system for management of safety and environmental issues.
The success of the organization in fully realizing the benefits through effective
implementation of traditional and proactive maintenance initiatives including TPM is
critically dependent upon the competencies of the employees towards the job.
Therefore adequate training and education for employees at all levels should be treated
as key strategic initiative for successful TPM implementation. The employees must be
provided with not only technical job related skills and competencies, but also need to
be well equipped with quality improvement and behavioral training for changing the
mind set of employees from I operate, you inspect, you maintain to I produce, I
inspect, I maintain. The training objectives must include the systematic development
of the knowledge, skill and attitude required by an individual to adequately perform a
given job. The top management responsibility in this regard becomes identification of
training needs, setting training targets, training plan, preparation of training calendar,
designing of training programs and material, execution of training and evaluation of
training effectiveness. An overview of strategic skill enhancement training
JQME methodologies to be deployed by manufacturing organizations has been outlined in
14,2 Figure 4. The top management must endeavor to train and develop the employee
competencies by updating their skill, knowledge and attitude to enable higher
productivity and achieve highest standards of quality, to eliminate product defect,
equipment failure (breakdowns) and accidents, to develop multi skilled work force, and
to create a sense of pride and belonging among all employees. The results of an

Figure 4.
Skill enhancement
training methodologies
effective education and training program will include improvement in employee Strategies and
competencies, reduction in absenteeism, idle hours, wastage/scrap and breakdowns, success factors in
zero accidents, and increase in number of multi-skilled workmen and number of
kaizens. TPM
Further, the reliability of success factors and enablers in achieving success through
strategic TPM implementation programs can be evaluated by deploying Key
Performance Indices KPIs for assessing the manufacturing performance. KPIs are 141
widely used within industry to measure specific parameters across all the classes of
metrics. The strategic KPIs should be adopted and appropriately deployed for
assessing the success of TPM implementation programs. Table I describes the
strategic KPIs associated with the total productive maintenance performance for
assessing and improving organizational profitability. KPIs are necessary to establish
objectives, measure performance and reinforce positive behaviors. The comparison of
the current maintenance performance level must be made against future maintenance
performance level to evaluating the strategic impact of TPM implementation program.
The results of the TPM program should be realistically explored and shared with the
employees so as to improve the employee satisfaction, motivation, and ensuring
enhanced employee participation and organizational contributions in the future too.
Finally the concerted efforts should be made for affecting manufacturing system
performance improvements through emphasizing upon maintenance prevention
initiatives and enhancing focused production system improvements by fostering
competencies related to production facilities by deploying feedback from customer and
various departments, focusing upon learning from existing equipments to new
systems, incorporating design related improvements, improving safety at workplace,
improving workplace organization through focused 5S initiatives, and integrating
TPM with other performance improvement initiatives.

It has been revealed from the research that traditional Indian manufacturing
organizations have somewhat struggled in the past, while attempting to implement
strategic proactive TPM initiatives and practices, since it needs to bring about
significant cultural transformations in the organization for changing the mind sets of
the employees. The study critically examines various obstacles affecting the successful
implementation of TPM in Indian manufacturing organizations. The difficulties faced
by the organizations have been categorized into organizational, cultural, behavioral,
technological, operational, financial, and departmental obstacles. The issues related to
various obstacles have been critically analyzed to evolve strategic enablers and success
factors for successful TPM implementation program for Indian industry. Nevertheless,
it has also been revealed by the study that successful implementation of strategic TPM
initiatives can be realistically achieved in an Indian manufacturing enterprise by
bringing out successful cultural transformations and ensuring the whole hearted
commitments by the top management.
In order to ensure the successful implementation of TPM initiatives and practices in
the challenging Indian manufacturing environments, the organizations must be willing
to foster an environment that is willing to support change in the workplace, and create
support for TPM concepts. The top managements contributions for successful TPM
implementation have been found to be highly critical and successful managers must


Table I.

Total productive
maintenance KPIs for
improved profitability
Autonomous maintenance Failures (B/ds) due to poor JH (Nos) Quality defects due to poor JH (Nos)
Spill-over of products (nothing on floor) Accidents due to poor JH (Nos)
No. of dry-machines (zero leakage No) Unsafe places rectified (Nos)
Total No. of JH activity (CLIR) (Nos) JH OPL implemented (Nos)
Defects rectified (white tags removed) JH training sessions conducted (Nos)
Defects rectified (red tags removed) JH Kaizens registered (Nos)
Circle meetings conducted (Nos) JH Kaizens implemented (Nos)
Focused improvement Overall equipment efficiency (OEE - %) WIP inventory (days)
Production per shift WIP inventory (Rs. Lacs)
Labour productivity * (qty/man shift) (Nos) Total Kaizen registered ((Nos)
Production cost (direct) (Rs.lacs) Total Kaizen completed (Nos)
Production cost (OH) (Rs. Lacs) Kaizen registered (horizontal deployment)
Total loss time (hrs) Kaizen completed (horizontal deployment)
Planned maintenance The number of eqpt. failures occurred (Nos) Total countermeasure implemented (Nos)
Repeated breakdowns (recurrence) (Nos) Total PM Kaizen implemented (Nos)
Failures in equipment due to poor JH (Nos) Loss of production due to failures (Hrs)
Failures in equipment due to poor PM (Nos) Oil consumption quantity
Failures in equipment due to poor design (Nos) Spares consumption quantity
Failures in eqpt. due to poor spare quality (Nos) Spares consumption value
Failures in eqpt. due to poor skill/education (Nos) Total maintenance cost (including cost of outside
MTBF (mean time between failures) (Hrs) labour/repairs, materials, spares)
MTTR (mean time to restore) (Hrs) Training sessions held for developing multi-skilled technician
PM, TBM, CBM: activities attended/planned Number of multi-skilled technicians
Machines under predictive maintenance (Nos) One point lessons implemented
Total red tags removed (cumulative) (Nos) Defects due to poor input quality (Nos)
Due to RM (Nos)
Quality improvement Process quality defects (Pcs) Due to tools and fixtures (Nos)
Value of process quality defects (Rs. Lacs) Due to cutting tools (Nos)
Reworked defects quantity (Pcs) Kaizens implemented (Nos)
Reworked defects value (Rs. Lacs) Kaizens under implementation (Nos)
Customer complaints (Nos) Countermeasures implemented (Nos)
Zero defect prodn. machines (Nos) One point lessons for quality education implemented (Nos)
Zero defect products (Nos) Work in process (Days)
Defects due to poor JH (Nos.) Finished goods storage (Days)
Defects due to poor PM (Nos.) Raw material lead time (days)
Office TPM No. of files handled (Nos) Spares inventory (Rs. Lacs)
Document retrieval time (Sec.) Consumables inventory (Rs. Lacs)
Man hour reduction (Man Hrs) Waiting for material (No. of incidents) (Nos)
Indirect personnel in company (Nos) Customer complaints (Nos)
Kaizens implemented in non-production Depts (Nos) Reduction in purchase cost (Rs. Lacs)
One point lessons implemented (Nos)
Cost reduction in admn. Overheads (Rs.Lacs)
No. of job analysis done (Nos)
Safety, hygiene & Accidents: Unsafe locations identified (Nos)
environment Total accidents (Nos) Locations with noise level . 80 dB (Nos)
Major/minor accidents (Nos) Locations improved to , 80 dB level (Nos)
Accidents due to poor JH/PM (Nos) Pollution:
Accidents due to poor education, training (Nos) Solid waste let out after treatment (Tons)
Accidents plant shutdown (Nos) Liquid waste let out after treatment (KL)
Accidents no plant shutdown (Nos) Gaseous waste let out after treatment (NCM)
Accidents in gangways/walkways (Nos) Employee participation:
Preventive actions: Safety suggestions received (Nos)
Unsafe acts identified (Nos) Safety suggestions implemented (Nos)
Unsafe act improved to safe level (Nos) Safety OPLs received (Nos)
Development management Total MP sheets registered (Nos) Time taken for a new machines to achieve 85% OEE since
Jishu-Hozen iniatives (CLIAR) (Nos) induction (Days)
Defect prevention (Nos) Improvement of manual mechanisms to auto mechanisms
Power/fuel consumption (Nos) in old/new machines
Horizontal replication implemented (Nos) No. of unmanned operated machines (Nos)
MP sheets used for new machines (Nos) New product development period (Days)
Implementation of LCC for new machines (Nos) Design standards released (No)
Overall organizational Return on net assets (RONA) Return on equity (ROE)
achievements Return on capital employed (ROCE) Return on assets (ROA)
Market share (%) Cost per unit of product (Rs.)
Replacement asset value (RAV) Percent plant utilization (%)
Net operating profit (Rs. Crores) Employee turnover
Plant wide OEE (%) Compliance with delivery schedules (%)
Strategies and


Table I.
success factors in
JQME know how to use TPM initiatives in the different situations to develop employee
14,2 involvement in every step of the manufacturing process and facilities maintenance to
optimize production flow, increase product quality, and reduce operating costs.
Moreover, it can be concluded from the research that the successful organizations need
to strategically integrate proactive maintenance initiatives into their manufacturing
strategies and successfully boost organizations productivity, improve maintenance
144 performance, reduce costs, improve plant profitability, minimize unnecessary
downtime, ensure better utilization of resources, thereby enhancing the
competitiveness of the organization.

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About the authors

I.P.S Ahuja holds a Bachelors Degree in Mechanical Engineering and Masters Degree in
Industrial Engineering from Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala, Punjab,
India. Currently, he is working as Reader in Mechanical Engineering at University College of
Engineering, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab (India). He has a number of publications in
referred International and National journals/conferences. His main research area is total
productive maintenance (TPM). I.P.S. Ahuja can be contacted at ahujaips@yahoo.co.in
J.S. Khamba holds a Bachelors Degree in Mechanical Engineering, Masters Degree in
Industrial Engineering and PhD in Technology Management from Thapar Institute of
Engineering and Technology, Patiala, Punjab, India. Currently, he is working as Professor in
Mechanical Engineering at University College of Engineering, Punjabi University, Patiala,
Punjab (India). He has number of publications in referred International and National
journals/conferences. His main research areas are technology management, non-traditional
machining and total productive maintenance.

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