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Kamil James 1652694

Part A: 5E Lesson Sequence

Stage and Topic:

Stage 4: Body Systems

Big Ideas Associated with the Topic

The human body performs multiple functions simultaneously. The body systems responsible for
carrying out these functions are innately linked together and all are required to keep the body
healthy and functioning.

Alignment with Outcomes

Knowledge and Understanding Domain

Stage 4, LW3: Multicellular organisms contain systems of organs that carry out specialized
functions that enable them to survive and reproduce.

e. describe the role of the digestive, circulatory, excretory, skeletal/muscular and respiratory
systems in maintaining a human as a functioning multicellular organism.

Working Scientifically Domain

WS4 a. identifying questions and problems that can be investigated scientifically

WS7.2 e. proposing inferences based on presented information and observations

Lesson Objectives

Introduce students to the skeletal/muscular, respiratory, circulatory and digestive system by


interacting with their own body. Students will begin to describe the role of these systems.

Materials and Preparation Before Class Safety Issues Addressed

Worksheets (Resource 1) to be printed and ready Allergies need to be taken into consideration
for class. for biscuits. Choking hazard for balloons
Apple for probing question. and biscuits.

For Stations: Stopwatches, balloons, biscuits,


plastic bag for rubbish, paper towels.

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Time Teachers Work Students Work Assessment


3 Min Attendance: recording and preparing Listen for their name
students for work. during attendance.

Todays lesson will challenge you to Pair up with a partner


think about how your body works. and prepare for lesson
While I mark the roll can I please get to commence.
each student to pair up with the person
sitting next to them. If there is anyone
who does not have a partner, you may
have a group of 3.

This is to get students ready for the


engage phase.
25 Engage: The body systems to be Students will be The engage phase
mins introduced today will include the discussing in pairs acts as a formative
Skeletal, digestive, respiratory and about their ideas on assessment. This
circulatory system if students bring up movement. informally assesses
further ideas keep them for future students prior
lessons. (Use the ideas board, this is a Students Ideas may knowledge and the
whiteboard with big sheets of paper that include things such as: nature of this
can fold over the board, this will allow The brain is telling discussion will
the class to easily compare prior your body to move. allow for
knowledge to current knowledge.) Muscles allow you to differentiation in
move. You are student knowledge
Teacher to address the class: breathing and you levels. Some
Every day we are able to get to places need oxygen to students may
using our body, I want every student to function. The skeletal understand the
watch me. (Walk from one side of the system assists in integral role that
room to the other while eating an apple) moving. Students may body systems play
also link the need for and the way in
How am I able to move, how does my energy required with which they are
body perform this function? movement and that linked.
the digestive system.
TPS Working with your partner, They may know the Students will also
come up with as many ideas as you can need break down the be participating in
and in as much detail as you can apple. The need for peer and class-wide
oxygen to be pumped discussions.
You have 5 mins to discuss and we will throughout the body
be sharing ideas to write down on our so that muscles may
idea board perform their
function. Muscles
If students are having difficulty, ask work with the
further questions to assist. These may skeleton and are
include: Think about what supports our connected at joints all
body? over the body.

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After students have arrived at the


skeletal/muscular system ask further Students to share
questions such as: How do they work ideas by writing
to help us move? unique ideas on the
When students talk about the digestive ideas board.
system ask questions such as: How
does my body break the apple, and what (Students ideas will
does it give me? assist in what content
When students talk about the need for needs to be focused
oxygen, probe with questions like: on. Gaps in
How does my chest moving help my knowledge will be
whole body? Is there a way that revealed by their
oxygen moves around? answers and ideas.)

The teachers goal is to provide students


the opportunity to engage with their
own ideas before providing further
knowledge. (Write all ideas and
misconceptions on our ideas board)

30 Explore: This next activity is called Students to break into Formative +


mins Around the Lab in 20 minutes: Body 4 groups. Students to Summative
Systems Edition (Resource 1). As the carry out activities as assessment in
name suggests I have set up 4 per worksheet. which students
workstations around the room you will Students to go from complete their
have 5 minutes as a group per station. station to station as worksheet so the
The following worksheet will give you the teacher directs. teacher is able to
information for each activity and give Worksheets to be adapt content and
you space to fill out your answers. completed and ready assist with bridging
for discussions during any missing
Teacher to direct activity times, and the next lesson. knowledge during
ensure students are completing work. the explain phase.
There will be 5 minutes after the activity Students are also
to allow for students to complete any able to discuss and
unanswered questions. Take this time to talk with the
allow students to update the ideas board. teacher about
questions as they
go.
2 mins Lesson wrap up, inform students on next
lesson.
Stage and Topic:

Stage 4: Body Systems

Big Ideas Associated with the Topic

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The human body performs multiple functions simultaneously. The body systems responsible for
carrying out these functions are innately linked together and all are required to keep the body
healthy and functioning.

Alignment with Outcomes

Knowledge and Understanding Domain

Stage 4, LW3: Multicellular organisms contain systems of organs that carry out specialized
functions that enable them to survive and reproduce.

e. describe the role of the digestive, circulatory, excretory, skeletal/muscular and respiratory
systems in maintaining a human as a functioning multicellular organism.

Working Scientifically Domain

WS6 f. performing specific roles safely and responsibly when working collaboratively to
complete a task within the timeline

WS7.1 c. extracting information from diagrams, flowcharts, tables, databases, other texts,
multimedia resources and graphs including histograms and column, sector and line graphs

Lesson Objectives

Students learn about the skeletal/muscular, respiratory, circulatory and digestive system in more
detail and begin to understand how the systems are connected. Students to work in groups to
design a PowerPoint presentation on a specific body system and how it can be related with
another body system.

Materials and Preparation Before Class Safety Issues Addressed

Computers/laptops Ensure cables from laptop chargers are


Worksheets to be printed safely away from walking areas to avoid
Textbooks for students to assist with information. students tripping over.
(Heinemann Interactive Science 2, Science Quest
8, Science Search Book 2)

3 mins Attendance: recording and preparing


students for work.

Todays lesson will be closely linked to


your previous experiences with the
human body systems. We will look at

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the ideas board and compare the


knowledge from last lesson. We will
also break up into groups again to work
on a class presentation that will act as a
formal assessment.
25 Explain: Take the students through Students to take notes Students to take
mins Body Systems PowerPoint (Resource in their books, the notes and discuss
2). PowerPoint is content with the
designed for them to teacher.
As we work through the PowerPoint as be able to discuss their Formative
a class we are building upon the experiences from assessment,
experiences that students had from the Around the Lab in 20 discussions will
first activity and linking new terms and mins while occur as we discuss
content to their experiences. incorporating new students work and
information they may provide new
not have covered yet. knowledge.
30 Elaborate: Following on from our Listen to instruction, Students design a
mins initial question as a class we have now move to teams and PowerPoint to
got a better understanding of the body understand their role present to the class
systems. Our next activity will be as during this activity. as part of a formal
follows. summative
Students may ask assessment on the
You have been chosen as a panel of further questions if body systems.
experts in your field to carry out they are unsure of
research on one human body system. their task: What if we
Each team will have a different system want to swap roles
to research, these include the digestive, (Students need to
circulatory, respiratory and carry out the task
skeletal/muscular systems. assigned to challenge
them).
Each team of experts will consist of 5
professional roles: Students will have an
1. Doctor: Find a disease that understanding of the
impacts this system. body systems at this
2. Trainer: Provide an exercise or stage and should be
activity that can positively affect able to integrate more
your system. scientific terminology
3. Dietitian: Research foods that into their
benefit your system presentations.
4. Designer: Find images, diagrams
and descriptions to accompany Students divide tasks
the images. to complete
5. Consultant: Research how your PowerPoint as per
system links to one other body worksheet.
system.
Students design a 5

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I will be handing out a worksheet with slide PowerPoint.


a description of your task, as I hand
these out I will be assigning a number
from 1-5 for each student. These will be
your groups. (The Professionals Talk
Body Resource 3)

Move to your teams and take your


devices out, the worksheet provides a
few resources to source information,
you may also use class textbooks.

http://teenshealth.org/en/teens/your-
body/

http://www.healwithfood.org/

Proactively assist students as questions


arise and continue to patrol the room to
ensure students remain on task. Check
on group progress half way through the
lesson to make sure students are
progressing at a steady rate. If students
are having any difficulty assist where
necessary.

2 mins Lesson Wrap Up: Well done so far on


your group work, we will have another
15 mins to work on presentations next
lesson and we will present at the end of
the lesson.
Stage and Topic:

Stage 4: Body Systems

Big Ideas Associated with the Topic

The human body performs multiple functions simultaneously. The body systems responsible for
carrying out these functions are innately linked together and all are required to keep the body
healthy.

Alignment with Outcomes

Knowledge and Understanding Domain

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Stage 4, LW3: Multicellular organisms contain systems of organs that carry out specialized
functions that enable them to survive and reproduce.

e. describe the role of the digestive, circulatory, excretory, skeletal/muscular and respiratory
systems in maintaining a human as a functioning multicellular organism.

Working Scientifically Domain

WS6 f. performing specific roles safely and responsibly when working collaboratively to
complete a task within the timeline

WS9 a. presenting ideas, findings and solutions to a problem using scientific language and
representations using digital technologies as appropriate.
Lesson Objectives

Students to complete their presentations and are ready to present this lesson.
Students present their knowledge as PowerPoints. Each group to be given reflection questions
based on their presentations. Students to compare their scientific knowledge before this unit of
work and after to encourage reflection.

Materials and Preparation Before Class Safety Issues Addressed

Computers/laptops Ensure cables from laptop chargers are


Textbooks for students to assist with information. safely away from walking areas to avoid
(Heinemann Interactive Science 2, Science Quest students tripping over.
8, Science Search Book 2)
Projector and relevant cables for group
presentations.

2 min Attendance: Today we will be


continuing our group presentations,
commence working in your groups
while I mark attendance.
15 Elaborate: Allow students time to Complete the
mins finish their presentations. finishing touches on
Continue to assist students were needed. their presentations,
these include any
At this stage student should be polishing content updates, last
their presentations up. minute edits, cutting
out or writing palm
Go to each group and check in to make cards, and sorting out
sure they are all ready and are finishing the order of delivery.
their work on time.
Students who have
finished their editing

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will have time to


practice their
presentation together.
30 Evaluate: Teacher to facilitate group Students begin to PowerPoint
mins presentations draw groups at random to present in groups: presented during
present. An example of student this lesson.
response for the
Teacher needs to pay close attention to digestive system as This is a
the language students use and the follows. summative
definitions they give so questions can be assessment and
asked to continue growth. Digestive System students will be
Group: able to showcase
The teacher will then ask the students Good afternoon class, their knowledge on
more specific questions after our group will present a specific body
presentations to allow students to grow the digestive system. system.
their content knowledge and reflect on This system allows for
the work they have completed. the human body to get These presentations
energy from the food will be used to
These lessons act as the introduction to that we eat. It begins assess student
the body systems and is attempting to with the mouth and growth after the
get students to understand the the process continues evaluate step.
interconnected nature of each system in in the stomach where
maintaining proper body function. acid helps to break
down food so that
For example, the students that presented nutrients can be
the digestive system would be absorbed.
introduced to some questions/ideas to
introduce new knowledge. As the doctor of the
group we have looked
Q1 That was a great presentation, I into an issue known as
have a few questions for your group! Irritable Bowel
You said the stomach is responsible for Syndrome (IBS). This
breaking down foods for nutrients to be disease affects the
readily absorbed, where does this colon. Muscles in the
actually occur? Does it happen in the colon sometimes dont
stomach or somewhere else in the work properly and this
digestive system? (If no answer is causes pain and
given assist students with the gaps in discomfort, there is no
knowledge). cure for this disease.
Q2 IBS sounds like a frustrating
condition to have. Is there any possible This information was
treatments or ways of managing the essential in seeking
condition? (If no answer is given fill in out a meal options as
the info with: dietary and lifestyle the Dietician. I
changes can help to manage the suggested a diet that
disorder). included natural

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yoghurt and bananas


for breakfast. A ginger
and cucumber salad
for lunch with
pineapple slices for a
snack. And a chicken
ginger soup with
celery and veggies for
dinner.

As the groups
consultant it was my
job to find out how
the digestive system
works together with
another system. The
muscular system
benefits from the food
that gets broken down
as an energy source,
the bones also benefit
from nutrients we get
from food such as
calcium.

Lastly as the Trainer I


have devised a plan to
assist with a healthy
digestive system.
Exercise such as
jogging will increase
the amount of energy
needed this will make
our digestive system
work faster to get
nutrients ready for our
body.

Students to write
down key points from
other group
presentations in their
workbooks.

As part of their

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assessment students
are required to answer
the questions the
teacher asks of them
in the following
lesson.

10 Evaluate: I would like to allow some Students to discuss The ideas board
mins students to come up to the ideas board their ideas relating to acts as an informal
and change or update any information body systems. way for students to
they think is incorrect or needs to be Changing terminology be reflective with
added to our knowledge of body where appropriate and their learning and
systems. using the ideas board allows students to
appropriately to help challenge their
Select students to come up to the board. develop scientific previous ideas and
literacy and build or change
Allow students to discuss ideas, knowledge. them. Formative
facilitate where necessary and correct Assessment.
students where needed.
3 mins Wrap Up: Great job with your Students write down
presentations class, I have a question question to answer
that I would like everyone to think about next lesson.
and answer next lesson.

If you were to be a body system which


one would you be and why?

(Students by this point should be aware


of how connected the body systems are.
As the teacher I am wanting students to
be creative with their responses and I
am wanting them to challenge this
question with their knowledge.)
Adaptations / Accommodations for Students Needs

Student groupings will allow for students with mixed ability levels to interact and work with
different students. The group sizes have taken into consideration that some students with lower
abilities may require extra support or help from their peers.

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Part B: 5E Lesson Sequence Resources (Appendix)

This resource is designed and formatted for 2 pages and is used for the first group
activity. [Resource 1]

Around the Lab in 20 minutes:


Body Systems Edition
Station 1: Can anybody lend me a hand!

Working in pairs follow the instructions in the following image.


Observations
1) What happened at the blue arrow?
What is the arm doing, what is
involved?

2) Write your observations from the red


arrow. Did you notice any differences?

3) What are the muscles (red arrow, blue


arrow) called and what body system
do they belong to?

Station 2: Balloon Challenge!

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In this challenge we are trying to find out who has the biggest lungs!
Follow the following instructions and observe what happens to the chest and stomach of
each student in your group.
1. Each student is to take 1 balloon only
2. Take 1 deep breath
3. Exhale to blow up the balloon
Observations
1) What was happening to your group members chest/stomach as they inhaled/exhaled?

2) What body system do the lungs belong to and what is their role?

Station 3: Just beat it!

This activity will require students to record their resting pulse and after running on the
spot for 30 seconds. Use a stopwatch to record your data.
1. Place your index finger and middle finger gently on your neck until you feel a pulse.
2. When you are ready start the timer and record your resting pulse.
3. Run on the spot as fast as you can for 30 seconds.
4. Take your pulse as soon as you finish and record your pulse after running.

Activity Time Pulse


Rest 30 seconds
After Running 30 seconds

1) Why do humans have a pulse?

2) Was your pulse faster or slower after running? Why?

3) What body system does this station represent?

Station 4: Its crunch time!

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During this activity you will work in pairs. Take a 2 biscuits per person and complete the
following steps.
1. Write down how the biscuit feels.
2. Chew the biscuit and pay attention to what is happening to it
3. After you have chewed the biscuit how does it feel in your mouth
4. Swallow the biscuit and write down all of your observations.

1) How did the biscuit change?

2) What has started to happen during step 2?

3) What happens to the biscuit after it has been swallowed?

4) What system is this station representing?

This resource is designed and formatted for 9 PowerPoint pages and is used for the
Explain Phase. [Resource 2]

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This resource is designed and formatted for 2 pages and is used for the group
presentation, it includes a marking guide with outcomes. [Resource 3]

The Professionals Talk Body (10% Task)

The Mission: You have been chosen as a panel of experts in your field to carry out research
on one human body system. Each team will have a different system to research, these
include the digestive, circulatory, respiratory and skeletal/muscular systems. As a team you
will present your findings in a short presentation for 3-5 mins with each team member to
deliver a portion of the presentation.

Each team of experts will consist of 5 professional roles:


1. The Doctor: Find a disease that impacts this your body system
2. The Trainer: Provide an exercise or activity that can positively affect your system directly
or indirectly.
3. The Dietitian: Research foods that benefit your system and make suggestions for meal
ideas.
4. The Designer: Find images, diagrams and descriptions to accompany the images.
5. The Consultant: Research how your system links to one other body system, meet with
other consultants provide their information back to your team.

The following links have been provided for you to assist with your information:
http://teenshealth.org/en/teens/your-body/: click the Body link in the left column and select Body
Basics Library and select Body Basics Library from here work through your body system or
search using the search bar.
http://www.healwithfood.org/: will be able to assist with suggestions for dietitians.
http://www.teachpe.com/anatomy/short_term_effects.php : this will give trainers a starting point,
think creatively as your activity may not directly improve your body system.

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Any questions or difficulties that groups are experiencing need sent through the consultant so
they can bring questions to other groups or the head collaborator (the Teacher )
Note: Reference any resources that you use.

What needs to be included in your presentation:

Students must:

1) Describe their body system and have each group member participate in the
presentation.
2) Each professional must talk about their research findings.
3) The presentation must include images.
4) Presentation needs to be within 3-5 mins
5) Students need to answer reflection questions (Must be completed to receive mark)

Outcomes:

LW3: Multicellular organisms contain systems of organs that carry out specialized
functions that enable them to survive and reproduce.

e. describe the role of the digestive, circulatory, excretory, skeletal/muscular and


respiratory systems in maintaining a human as a functioning multicellular
organism.

WS6 f. performing specific roles safely and responsibly when working collaboratively
to complete a task within a timeline.

WS9 a. presenting ideas, findings and solutions to a problem using scientific language
and representations using digital technologies as appropriate.

Marking Guide:

Section Criteria Marks Awarded


Content Body System is described /6
with each group member
participating.
Visuals Pictures are appropriate and /2
used to improve
presentation
Time Group stays within time /2
allocation
Reflection Questions Questions answered on time Y/N

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Part C: 5E Sequence Justification


A) How does your sequence of lessons align with research based educational

theories or principles? (e.g. pedagogical content knowledge, constructivism,

formative assessment, conceptual change).

The 5E lesson sequence follows the 5E model, which includes the following phases:

Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate and Evaluate (5Es) (Sickel, Witzig, Vanmali &

Abell, 2013). Each phase, engages the learner in purposefully created lessons to

enhance students learning outcomes. Vygotsky (1978), discussed the need for social

learning and that deep learning occurs through internalizing conflicting ideas (Sickel

et al., 2013). The 5E sequence allows learners to challenge their own prior

knowledge and work through misconceptions and build knowledge through this

conflict. Ergin (pg. 14-20, 2012), states the 5E model is based on a constructivist

view. Constructivism, as described by Baviskar, Hartle & Whitney (2009), is a theory

of learning and not teaching. The constructivist approach, is one that implements

theory to purposefully create an experience. This experience can create an internal

conflict or a gap in the students knowledge, which creates cognitive dissonance

(Baviskar, Hartle & Whitney, pg. 541-550, 2009). This cognitive dissonance, can be

compared to internalized conflict in the 5E model. Both theories suggest challenging

students prior knowledge is essential for successful learning. Constructivism should

also include eliciting knowledge, the application of knowledge and reflection, which

can be closely related to the 5E lesson sequence which incorporates these ideas

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through the 5Es (Baviskar, Hartle & Whitney, 2009). Ergin (2012), suggests,

constructivism to be seen as a means of learning in a dynamic manner through

experiences and interaction. The teacher needs to know their content to be able to

deliver these experiences to students. Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK), is an

academic construct that defines the relationship between teaching and learning, and

that teaching requires much more than just content knowledge, and that student

learning is far more complex than wrote learning (Loughran et al., 2012). That is not

to say that teachers do not need to fully understand their content, however, it is the

synthesis of teaching praxis and learning praxis to achieve meaningful learning and

student outcomes. To successfully implement PCK, teachers will need to incorporate

insightful assessments that connect the learning in a way that accommodates for

diverse interests, understanding and ability (Park & Chen, 2012). Formative

assessments are a dynamic way of assessing students, feedback is provided to

enhance learning and can occur during the lesson (Bell, Cowie, Bronwen & Ebrary,

2002). Formative assessments, such as probes, used by Keeley et al. (2007), allow

the assessment to be for learning, rather than of learning, in this way we can use

eliciting student ideas by providing a problem/scenario to help develop scientific

knowledge and create cognitive dissonance. Assessments are essential for learners,

Bell, Cowie, Bronwen & Ebrary (2002) highlight the importance for student self-

confidence, success and pride in their work, the importance of their learning and the

chance to gauge their transformation of knowledge.

The 5E lesson sequence that has been designed for Stage 4 closely incorporates

current theory to inform the lesson. The Engage phase, incorporates eliciting

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knowledge from students to help the teacher know how to better assist the students

in their learning outcomes, this can be related to the constructivist approach, PCK

and the 5E model. The engage phase also encourages students to be at the center of

their learning with the teacher facilitating. The Explore phase, allows students to

continue developing their conceptual knowledge through specifically created

activities. Students are able to further investigate the question asked of them in the

Engage phase to allow the lesson to flow. The Explore phase, should introduce the

students to cognitive dissonance, which will encourage students to seek to out

answers with the teacher not providing any information at this point (Baviskar,

Hartle, Whitney, 2009; Ergin, 2012). The Explain phase, allows students to confront

their conflicting ideas from the questions during their activities, with the teacher

providing terminology and new content to help build their conceptual knowledge.

The Elaborate phase, can be seen to further develop and build their knowledge in a

way that allows students freedom to explore through additional content. The

students are tasked with a group presentation as part of their summative

assessment task, this presentation will be a way for students to have pride in their

new knowledge. The Evaluate phase, is used as the final presentation and a

reflection on the classes collective knowledge and how they have changed over the

5E lesson sequence. The use of formative assessment is frequent throughout the 5E

lesson sequence with verbal feedback being provided consistently throughout the

lessons (Dixon & Worrell, 2016). The activities have been created in a way that

enables students to build and develop their scientific literacy and enhance their

team work.

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B) How does your sequence of lessons incorporate strategies to improve literacy

and numeracy skills of your future students?

The 5E sequence actively uses formative assessment to provide students with

ongoing feedback, this is also for scientific terminology which can be seen in

resource 2, the PowerPoint used for the Explain phase. Students have been provided

with worksheets that require them to write their observations, and whilst minimal

students are required to use stopwatches and count their pulse and record data in a

table. This encourages students literacy and numeracy skills directly by getting

them to write and interact with numbers. The ideas board (a whiteboard with paper

that can fold over to allow easy access to previous ideas) is used to reflect on

students growth with the specific emphasis on scientific terminology (literacy) and

conceptual knowledge. Lastly, the assessment task allows students to have

accountability for their learning and will allow them to create their own

presentations. The 5E lesson sequence has been carefully planned to encourage

engagement and learning development (Mohr, Dixon & Young, 2015).

C) Consider your 5E unit as being situated in a school term. How could your 5E

unit connect to other topics in the stage 4 curriculum to form a broader

program?

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This 5E unit was designed as the initial introduction to the body systems with the

intention being assessing students prior knowledge and letting students reflect on

their growth to give students a greater sense of accomplishment from seeing their

ongoing learning achievements. This unit could follow a chemical world (CW) / food

based unit of work which would link the importance of CW content to the human

body. The physical world unit of forces could be used to explain the human body and

the various types of ways we interact with the world. Understanding the human

body systems would enable students to link real world phenomena to themselves as

each individual will be able to relate to their own body.

References

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Baviskar, S., Hartle, R., & Whitney, T. (2009). Essential Criteria to Characterize Constructivist

Teaching: Derived from a review of the literature and applied to five constructivistteaching

method articles. International Journal of Science Education, 31(4), 541-550.

Bell, B., Cowie, Bronwen, & Ebrary, Inc. (2002). Formative assessment and science

education (Science & technology education library ; v. 12). London ; Dordrecht: Kluwer

Academic.

Berry, A., Friedrichsen, Patricia J., editor, Loughran, John, editor, & Ebooks Corporation.

(2015). Re-examining pedagogical content knowledge in science education (Teaching and

learning in science series).

Dixon, D. D. Worrell, F. C. (2016) Formative and Summative Assessment in the Classroom,

Theory into Practice, 55(2), 153-159

Ergin, I. (2012). Constructivist approach based 5E model and usability instructional

physics. Latin-American Journal of Physics Education, 6(1), 14-20.

Keeley, P., Eberle, Francis, Tugel, Joyce, & Ebrary, Inc. (2007).25 more formative assessment

probes (Uncovering student ideas in science ; 2). Arlington, Va.: NSTA Press.

Lofts, G., Evergreen, M. J. (2011). Science Quest 8: Australian Curriculum Edition. Milton,

QLD, John Wiley & Sons

Loughran, J., Berry, Amanda, Mulhall, Pamela, & Ebrary, Inc. (2012). Understanding and

developing science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (2nd ed., Professional learning ; v.

12). Rotterdam: Sense.

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Mohr, K. A. J., Dixon, K., Young, C. (2015) Effective and Efficient: Maximizing Literacy

Assessment and Instruction in Using Informative Assessments towards Effective Literacy

Instruction. Emerald Insight, Vol (1), 251-291

Park, S., & Chen, Y. (2012). Mapping out the integration of the components of pedagogical

content knowledge (PCK): Examples from high school biology classrooms. Journal of Research

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