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(Redirected from Papiamento language)
Native to
Bonaire (Caribbean Netherlands)
Native speakers
271,261 (19992011)[1]
Language family
Portuguese Creole
Upper Guinea Portuguese
Official status
Official language in
Caribbean Netherlands[2]
Language codes
ISO 639-2 pap
ISO 639-3 pap
Glottolog papi1253[3]
Linguasphere 51-AAC-be
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you
may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For
an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
Papiamento (English: /?p??pi?'m?nto?, ?pp-/)[4] or Papiamentu (English: /?p??
pi?'m?ntu?, ?pp-/) is a Portuguese-based creole language spoken in the Dutch West
Indies. It is the most-widely spoken language on the Caribbean ABC islands, having
official status in Aruba and Curaao. The language is also recognized in Bonaire by
the Dutch government.[2]
Papiamento is derived from African and Portuguese languages[5] with some influences
from Indigenous American languages, English, Dutch and Spanish.[6]
Contents [hide]
1 History
1.1 Local development theory
1.2 European and African origin theory
1.3 Linguistic and historical ties with Upper Guinea Portuguese Creole
1.4 Present status
2 Dialects
3 Phonology
3.1 Orthography
3.2 Vowels and diphthongs
3.3 Stress and tone
4 Lexicon
4.1 Vocabulary
4.2 Dictionaries
4.3 Grammar
5 Expressions
6 Examples
6.1 Phrase samples
7 Comparison of vocabularies
8 See also
9 References
10 Bibliography
11 External links and further reading
The precise historical origins of Papiamento have not been established. Historical
constraints, core vocabulary and grammatical features that Papiamento shares with
Cape Verdean Creole suggest that the basic ingredients are Portuguese,[7] and that
other influences occurred at a later time (17th and 18th centuries, respectively).
Its parent language is Iberian for sure, but scholars dispute whether Papiamento is
derived from Portuguese or from Spanish. A summary of the century-long debate on
Papiamento's origins is provided in Jacobs (2009a).[8]
The name of the language itself comes from papia, pap(e)o or pap(e)ar ("to chat",
"to talk"), a word present in Portuguese (um papo, "a chat") and colloquial
Spanish; compare with Papi Kristang ("Christian talk"), a Portuguese-based creole
of Malaysia and Singapore, and the Cape Verdean Creole word papi ("to talk"), or
elsewhere in the Caribbean (Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Cuba) papear[9]"to
talk excessively" (and without sense) or "to stutter" (but also, "to eat" or
"food". Castilian Spanish papeo,[10] Portuguese papar is a children's term for "to
Spain claimed dominion over the islands in the 15th century, but made little use of
them. Portuguese merchants had been trading extensively in the West Indies, and
with the Union with Castille, this trade extended to the Castillian West Indies, as
the Spanish kings favoured the free movement of people. In 1634, the Dutch West
India Company (WIC) took possession of the islands, deporting most of the small
remaining Arawak and Spanish population to the continent, and turned them into the
hub of the Dutch slave trade between Africa and the Caribbean.
The first evidence of widespread use of Papiamento in Aruba can be seen through the
Curaao official documents in the early 18th century. In the 19th century, most
materials in the islands were written in Papiamento including Roman Catholic
schoolbooks and hymnals. The first Papiamento newspaper was published in 1871 and
titled Civilisado (The Civilized). Civilizado (stress on /za/) is Spanish and
Portuguese for "civilized" but can also be understood as having a suppressed final
"r" from the word civilizador (stress on /do/) ("civilizer").
An outline of the competing theories is provided below.
Local development theory[edit]

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There are various local development theories. One such theory proposes that
Papiamento developed in the Caribbean from an original Portuguese-African pidgin
used for communication between African slaves and Portuguese slavetraders, with
later Dutch and Spanish (and even some Arawak) influences. Another theory is that
Papiamento first evolved from the use in this region since 1499 of 'lenguas' and
the first Repopulation of the ABC islands by the Spanish by the Cdula real decreed
in November 1525, in which Juan Martinez de Ampus, factor of Espaola, had been
granted the right to repopulate the depopulated Islas intiles of Oroba, Islas de
los Gigantes and Buon Aire. Columbus took ten natives back to Europe precisely so
that they could acquire knowledge of the Spanish language and culture, a policy he
maintained throughout future voyages. On his return to America, Columbus was
accompanied by two interpreters ('lenguas', literally, 'tongues'), Alonso de
Cceres and a young boy from Guanahani (the Bahamas) who was given the name Diego
Coln. Subsequent expeditions followed the same pattern. In 1499 Alonso de Ojeda,
Juan de la Cosa and Amerigo Vespuccio took captives to serve as lenguas. Ojeda
actually married his native interpreter and guide, Isabel.[11] The evolution of
Papiamento continued under the Dutch Colonization under the influence of the 16th
century 'Dutch'/European/Native American (ABC islands) and 'Portuguese'/Native
American (Brazilian) languages with the second Repopulation of these ABC islands
under Peter Stuyvesant, who arrived here from the ex-Dutch Brazilian colonies.
The Judaeo-Portuguese population of the ABC islands increased substantially after
1654, when the Portuguese recovered the Dutch-held territories in Northeast Brazil
causing most of the Portuguese-speaking Jews in those lands to flee from
religious persecution. The precise role of Sephardic Jews in the early development
is unclear, but it is certain[citation needed] that Jews played a prominent role in
the later development of Papiamento. Many early residents of Curaao were Sephardic
Jews either from Portugal, Spain, or Portuguese Brazil. Therefore, it can be
assumed[citation needed] that Judaeo-Spanish was brought to the island of Curaao,
where it gradually spread to other parts of the community. As the Jewish community
became the prime merchants and traders in the area, business and everyday trading
was conducted in Papiamento with some Ladino influences. While various nations
owned the island and official languages changed with ownership, Papiamento became
the constant language of the residents.
European and African origin theory[edit]
Peter Stuyvesant's appointment to the ABC islands followed his service in Brazil.
He brought Indians, soldiers, etc. from Brazil to Curaao as well as to New
Netherland. In Stuyvesant's Resolution Book, document #4b in the Curaao Papers
presents the multi-ethnic makeup of the garrison and the use of local Indians as
cowboys: "... whereas the number of Indians, together with those of Aruba and
Bonnairo, have increased here by half, and we have learned that they frequently
ride ..." They communicated with each other in 'Papiamento' a language originating
when the first Europeans began to arrive on these islands under Ojeda, Juan de
Ampues, Bejarano and mixing with the natives. Stuyvesant also took some Esopus
Indians captives in New Netherland and brought them as slaves to Curaao. There was
little Dutch government activity in the management of DWI because during the period
15681648, they were actively fighting for their independence and were not in a
position to manage their colonies.
A more recent theory holds that the origins of Papiamento lie in the Afro-
Portuguese creoles that arose almost a century earlier, in the west coast of Africa
and in the Portuguese Cape Verde islands. From the 16th to the late 17th century,
most of the slaves taken to the Caribbean came from Portuguese trading posts
("factories") in those regions. Around those ports there developed several
Portuguese-African pidgins and creoles, such as Guinea-Bissau Creole, Mina, Cape
Verdean Creole, Angolar, and Guene. The latter bears strong resemblances to
Papiamento. According to this theory, Papiamento was derived from those pre-
existing pidgins/creoles, especially Guene, which were brought to the ABC islands
by slaves and/or traders from Cape Verde and West Africa.[12]
Some specifically claim that the Afro-Portuguese mother language of Papiamento
arose from a mixture of the Mina pidgin/creole (a mixture of Cape Verdean
pidgin/creole with Twi) and the Angolar creole (derived from languages of Angola
and Congo). Proponents of this theory of Papiamento contend that it can easily be
compared and linked with other Portuguese creoles, especially the African ones
(namely Forro, Guinea-Bissau Creole, and the Cape Verdean Creole). For instance,
compare mi ("I" in Cape Verdean Creole and Papiamento) or bo (meaning you in both
creoles). Mi is from the Portuguese mim (pronounced [mi]) "me", and bo is from
Portuguese vs "you".[13] The use of "b" instead of "v" is very common in the
African Portuguese Creoles (probably deriving from the pronunciation of Portuguese
settlers in Africa, numerous from Northern Portugal). However, because of the
similarities between Portuguese and Spanish, it can also be argued that these two
words derive from Spanish "mi" and "vos" (usually pronounced bos).
Papiamento is, in some degree, intelligible with Cape Verdean creoles and could be
explained by the immigration of Portuguese Sephardic Jews from Cape Verde to these
Caribbean islands, although this same fact could also be used by dissenters to
explain a later Portuguese influence on an already existing Spanish-based creole.
Another comparison is the use of the verb ta and taba ta from vernacular Portuguese
t (an aphesis of estar, "to be" or est, "it is") with verbs where Portuguese does
and with others where it does not use it: "Mi ta + verb" or "Mi taba ta + verb",
also the rule in the So Vicente Creole and other Barlavento Cape Verdean Creoles.
These issues can also be seen in other Portuguese Creoles (Martinus 1996; see also
Fouse 2002 and McWhorter 2000), but some are also found in colloquial Spanish.
Linguistic and historical ties with Upper Guinea Portuguese Creole[edit]
Current research on the origins of Papiamento focuses specifically on the
linguistic and historical relationships between Papiamento and Upper Guinea
Portuguese Creole as spoken on the Santiago island of Cape Verde and in Guinea-
Bissau and Casamance. Elaborating on comparisons done by Martinus (1996) and Quint
(2000),[15] Jacobs (2008,[16] 2009a, 2009b[17]) defends the hypothesis that
Papiamento is a relexified offshoot of an early Upper Guinea Portuguese Creole
variety, transferred from Senegambia to Curaao in the second half of the 17th
century, a period in which the Dutch controlled the harbour of Gore, just below
the tip of the Cape Verde Peninsula. On Curaao, this variety underwent internal
changes as well as contact-induced changes at all levels of the grammar (though
particularly in the lexicon) due to contact with Spanish and, to a lesser extent,
Dutch as well as with a variety of Kwa and Bantu languages. These changes
notwithstanding, the morpho-syntactic framework of Papiamento is still remarkably
close to that of the Upper Guinea Creoles of Cape Verde and Guinea-
Present status[edit]
Many Papiamento speakers are multilingual and are also able to speak Dutch, English
and Spanish. Papiamento has been an official language of Aruba since May, 2003.[18]
In the former Netherlands Antilles (which at the time comprised Bonaire, Curaao,
Saba, Sint Eustatius and Sint Maarten) Papiamento was made an official language on
March 7, 2007.[19] After its dissolution, the language's official status was
confirmed in the newly formed Caribbean Netherlands (part of the Netherlands
proper, and compromising Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius),[20] until January 1,
2011; since then, Bonaire is the only portion of the Caribbean Netherlands in which
it is recognized.[2]
Papiamento is also spoken elsewhere in the Netherlands, particularly on Saba and
Sint Eustatius, and on St. Maarten, by immigrants from Aruba, Bonaire and Curaao.
Venezuelan Spanish and American English are constant influences today. Code-
switching and lexical borrowing between Papiamento, Spanish, Dutch and English
among native speakers is common. This is perceived as a threat to the further
development of Papiamento due to a language ideology that is committed to
preserving the authentic African or Creole "feel" of Papiamento.
Papiamento has two main dialects, one in Aruba and one in Bonaire and Curaao, with
lexical and intonational differences.[21] There are also minor differences between
Curaao and Bonaire.
Spoken (Aruban) Papiamento sounds much more like Spanish. The most apparent
difference between the two dialects is given away in the name difference. Whereas
Bonaire and Curaao opted for a phonology-based spelling, Aruba uses an etymology-
based spelling. Many words in Aruba end with "o" while that same word ends with "u"
in Bonaire and Curaao. And even in Curaao, the use of the u-ending is still more
pronounced among the Sephardic Jewish population. Similarly, there is also a
difference between the usage of "k" in Bonaire and Curaao and "c" in Aruba.
For example:
English Papiamento Papiamentu Portuguese Spanish
Stick Palo Palu Pau Palo
House Cas Kas Casa Casa
Knife Cuchiu Kuchu Faca Cuchillo
Main article: Papiamento orthography
There are two orthographies: a more phonetic one in Bonaire and Curaao, and an
etymological spelling used in Aruba.
Vowels and diphthongs[edit]
Most Papiamento vowels are based on Ibero-Romance vowels, but some are also based
on Dutch vowels like : ee /e?/, ui /y/, ie /i/, oe /u/, ij/ei /?i/, oo /o?/, and
aa /a?/.[citation needed]
Papiamento has the following nine vowels.[22] The orthography (writing system) of
Curaao has one symbol for each vowel.
IPA Curaao orthography Aruba orthography
a a in kana a in cana (= walk)
e e in sker, nechi e in scheur (= to rip, Dutch: scheuren)
? in skr, nchi e in sker (= scissors, Dutch: schaar)
i i in chik i in chikito (= small)
o o in bonchi, dol o in dolor (= pain)
? in bnchi, dler o in dollar (= currency)
u u in kunuku u in cunucu (= farm)
in brg u in brug (= bridge, Dutch: brug)
y in hr uu in huur (= rent, Dutch: huur)
There are dialects that exist in the island itself. An example is the Aruban word,
"dolor" ("pain"), which is the same in Curaao's version, but written differently.
The R is silent in certain parts of the island. It is also written without the R.
In addition to the vowels listed above, schwa also occurs in Papiamento. The letter
e is pronounced as schwa in the final unstressed syllables of words such as
agradabel and komader.[23] Other vowels in unstressed syllables can become somewhat
centralized (schwa-like) in rapid casual speech.
Stress and tone[edit]
Polysyllabic words that end in vowels are stressed on the next-to-last syllable;
most words ending in consonants are stressed on the final syllable. There are
exceptions. When a word deviates from these rules, the stressed vowel should be
indicated by an acute accent mark. The accent marks are often omitted in casual
Papiamento words have distinct tone patterns. According to recent linguistic
research, there are two classes of words: those that typically have rising pitch on
the stressed syllable, and those that typically have falling pitch on the stressed
syllable.[25] The latter category includes most of the two-syllable verbs in the
language. Any given word's tone contours may change depending on discursive factors
such as whether the sentence is affirmative, interrogative, or imperative.[26]
Altering tone in Papiamento can distinguish meaning and grammatical function:
compare noun 'para' (PA-ra: bird) with verb 'para' (pa-RA:stand or stop)
[clarification needed]
Independently from tone, stress can also be altered: compare 'pa-ra' (stand or
stop) with 'pa-ra' (stopped or standing).
Papiamento/u uses prosodic accent. Tone (with stress) is largely dependent on the
grammatical function of the word in sentence. Compare:
word(s) meaning grammatical functions stress pattern accent pattern
kini-kini falcon noun substantive ki-ni-ki-ni kini-KI-ni (low-x-high-x)
divi-divi Caesalpinia coriaria tree noun substantive di-vi-di-vi divi-DI-vi
blanku blanku "snowwhite" (emphatic doubling) adjective blan-ku blan-ku
BLAN-ku blanku (high-x-low-x)
palu haltu tree+high 'tall tree' noun substantive+adjective pa-lu hal-tu
PA-lu haltu (high-x-low-x)
poko-poko slow/calm adverb po-ko po-ko PO-ko poko (high-x-low-x)
bira ront turn+round (to) turn around verb+adverb bi-ra ront bira RONT (low-x-
masha bon very+good adverb+adjective masha bon masha BON (low-x-high)
The following are the grammatical rules of Papiamento intonation:
-Verbs usually have rising tone; a following adverb receives high intonation (ex.
'bira RONT:' turn around).
-Nouns (substantives) and adjectives usually have falling tone, a following
adjective receives low intonation (ex. 'PA-lu haltu:' tall tree).
-In words of more than three syllables, grammatical tone or accent will fall on the
last stressed syllable. The first stressed syllable receives the opposite tone for
contrast: compare noun 'kini-kini' (kini-KI-ni): falcon with adverb 'poko-poko'
(PO-ko-poko): slowly.
-An adverb has rising tone, so a following adjective receives high tone (ex. 'masha
BON' very good).
!!! The adverbs 'bon' (good) and 'mal' (bad), even though they are adjectives, in
grammar will always have adverbial, rising tone character (ex. 'bon ha-SI:' well-
done). They will always behave like adverbs, even when they qualify nouns (ex. 'bon
DI-a:' good day). They behave like adverbs even when doubled for emphasis ('bon-
BON:' very good).
(Note: in all above examples, primary stress remains on the second word, while
secondary stress remains on the first word, independently of tone changes. It is
thus more accurate to transcribe 'PA-lu hal-tu' and 'bira RONT', with bold typing
indicating stress and CAPITAL LETTERS indicating high tone syllables. Unstressed
syllables' tone is dependent on contact syllables.)
-The particle of negation 'no' always receives rising tone: the following verb is
inevitably raised in pitch: compare 'mi ta PA-pia' (I speak) and 'mi no TA PA-pia'
(I do not speak). This negating pitch-raise is crucial and is retained even after
contraction of the particle in informal speech: 'mi'n TA papia' ("I don't speak")
It is theorized that the unusual presence of both stress and tone in Papiamento is
an inheritance of African languages (which use tone) and Portuguese (which has
Most of the vocabulary is derived from Spanish and Portuguese and most of the time
the real origin is unknown due to the great similarity between the two Iberian
languages and the adaptations required by Papiamento. A 100-Swadesh List of
Papiamento can be found online.[27] Linguistic studies have shown that roughly two
thirds of the words in Papiamento's present vocabulary are of Iberian origin, a
quarter are of Dutch origin, some of Native American origin, and the rest come from
other tongues. A recent study by Buurt & Joubert inventoried several hundred words
of indigenous Arawak origins.[28]
Examples of words of Iberian and Roman, Latin origin, which are impossible to label
as either Portuguese or Spanish:
por fabor/sea asina di = please Spanish/Portuguese, por favor
seora = mrs, madam Spanish, seora; Portuguese, senhora;
ku? = which? Spanish, Cul?; Portuguese, Qual?;
Kuantu? = how much? Spanish, Cunto?; Portuguese, Quanto?;
While the presence of word-final /u/ can easily be traced to Portuguese, the
diphthongization of some vowels is characteristic of Spanish. The use of /b/
(rather than /v/) is difficult to interpret; although the two are separate phonemes
in standard Portuguese, they merge in the dialects of northern Portugal, just like
they do in Spanish. Also, a sound-shift could have occurred in the direction of
Spanish, whose influence on Papiamento came later than that of Portuguese.
Other words can have dual origin, and certainly dual influence. For instance:
subrino (nephew): sobrinho in Portuguese, sobrino in Spanish. The pronunciation of
"o" as /u/ is traceable to Portuguese, while the use of "n" instead of "nh"
(IPA /?/) in the ending "-no", relates to Spanish.
Portuguese origin words:
barbult = butterfly Portuguese, borboleta;
sapatu = shoe Spanish, zapato; Portuguese, sapato;
kach = dog Spanish, cachorro (puppy); Portuguese, cachorro (dog or puppy);
bisia = neighbour Spanish, vecino, vecina; Portuguese, vizinho, vizinha;
galia = chicken (hen) Spanish, gallina; Portuguese, galinha;
gai = rooster Spanish, gallo; Portuguese, galo
Spanish origin words:
siudat (siudatnan) = city Spanish, ciudad; Portuguese, cidade
sombre/sinkuri = hat Spanish, sombrero; Portuguese, chapu
karson = trousers Spanish, pantaln or calzn; Portuguese, calo[citation
hmber = man Spanish, hombre; Portuguese, homem[citation needed]
Dutch origin words:
apel = apple Dutch, appel
blou = blue Dutch, blauw
buki = book Dutch, boek
lesa = to read Dutch, lezen
English origin words;
bk = back
bter = bottle
Italian origin words:
kushina = kitchen Italian cucina; Spanish cocina; Portuguese cozinha
lanterna/latern = lantern Italian lanterna; Spanish linterna; Portuguese,
Native American words:
orkan = hurricane Taino, hurakan; Carib, yuracan, hyoracan; Dutch, orkaan
"GUIA para los espaoles hablar papiamento y viceversa: Para que los de Curazao
puedan hablar espanol (1876)
Author: N. N.; Publisher: Impr. del Comercio; Year: 1876 Possible copyright status:
NOT_IN_COPYRIGHT; Language: Spanish Digitizing sponsor: Google Book from the
collections of: Harvard University Collection: americana Notes: Cover-title: Guia-
manual para que los espaoles puedan hablar y comprender el papiamento patois de
Curazao y vice-versa [29]
Gerrit P Jansen en de Bastiaan Gaay Fortman, Diccionario Papiamento-Holandes,
Curaaosch Genootschap der Wetenschappen, 1945
Mansur, Jossy M. (1991) Dictionary English-Papiamento Papiamento-English.
Oranjestad: Edicionnan Clasico Diario
Tip Marugg Dikshonario Erotiko; a dictionary of all words with an erotic meaning
used in Papiamento.
Betty Ratzlaff (2008) Papiamento-Ingles, Dikshonario Bilingual e di dos edishon.
Bonaire: St. Jong Bonaire
Websters online Papiamento English Dictionary
E. R. Goilo (2000) Papiamento Textbook. Oranjestad: De Wit Stores N.V.
Hopi scuma, tiki chuculati ("A lot of foam, little chocolate"): too good to be
Eynan e porco su rabo ta krul ("That is where the pig's tail curls"): that is where
the problem lies.
Sopi pura ta sali salo ("Quick soup turns salty"): good things take time.
Phrase samples[edit]
NOTE: These examples are from Curaao Papiamento and not from Aruban Papiamento.
Kon ta bai? or Kon ta k'e bida?: "How are you?" or "How is life?", Portuguese, Como
vai?/Como est a vida?, Spanish Cmo te va? Cmo te va la vida?
Por fabor/ Sea asina di: "Please" Portuguese/Spanish por favor
Danki: "Thank you" Dutch, Dank je
Ainda no: "Not yet" Portuguese Ainda no
Mi (ta) stima bo: "I love you" Portuguese Eu (te) estimo (voc) / Eu te amo
Laga nos ban sali!/ban sali: "Let's go out!", Spanish Salgamos!
Krda skirbi mi bk mas lih posibel!: "Remember to write me back as soon as
possible!" Portuguese: Recorde-se de me escrever assim que for possvel.
Bo mama ta mash bunita: "Your mother is very beautiful" Portuguese Tua/Sua me
muito bonita.
Comparison of vocabularies[edit]
This section provides a comparison of the vocabularies of Portuguese, Papiamento
and the Portuguese creoles of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde. Spanish and Galician
are also shown for contrast.
English Portuguese Bonaire and Curaao Aruba Guinea-Bissau Cape
Verdean* ** Spanish Galician
Welcome Bem-vindo Bon bin Bon Bini B bim drito Bem-vindo***
Bienvenido Benvido
Good morning Bom dia Bon dia Bon dia Bon dia Bon dia Buenos
das Bo dia
Thank you Obrigado / Obrigada Danki Danki Obrigadu Obrigadu Gracias
How are you? Como [ que] [tu] vais / [voc] vai? Como est? Como ests? Kon ta
bai? Con ta bay? Kum ku bo na bai? Kumo bu sta? Cmo ests? Cmo te
va? Como che vai?
Very good Muito bom Mash bon Masha bon Mutu bon Mutu bon Muy bueno,
Muy bien Moi ben
I am fine Eu estou bem/(bom) Mi ta bon Mi ta bon N' sta bon N sta bon
(Yo) Estoy bien (Eu) estou ben
I, I am Eu, eu sou Mi, Mi ta Ami ta, Mi ta N', Mi i N, Mi e Yo, yo
soy Eu, son eu
Have a nice day Passa/Passe/Tenha um bom dia Pasa un bon dia Pasa un bon dia
Pasa un bon dia Pasa un bon dia Pasa/Pase/Tenga un buen da Pasa un bo
See you later At logo / At depois Te awer/ Te despues Te aworo, Te
despues N' ta odj-u dipus N ta odj-u dips, Te lgu Te veo despus/
Hasta luego Vxote despois/ At logo
Food Comida / Vianda Kuminda Cuminda Bianda Kumida Comida
Bread Po Pan Pan Pon Pon Pan Pan
Juice Sumo (not common in Brazil) / Suco Djus Juice Sumu Sumu Zumo (common in
Spain) / Jugo (common in Latin America) Zume
I like Curaao Eu gosto de Curaao Mi gusta Krsou Mi gusta Corsou, Mi
gusta Korsou N' gosta di Curaao N gosta di Curaao Me gusta Curazao
Gstame Curaao/Curaao gstame/Gostame Curaao/Gosto de Curaao
*Santiago Creole variant
**Writing system used in this example: ALUPEC
***Portuguese expression used in creole.
See also[edit]
Afro-Latin American
Creole language
Joceline Clemencia
Portuguese-based creole languages
Spanish-based creole languages
Jump up ^ Papiamento at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
^ Jump up to: a b c Papiamento can be used in relations with the Dutch government.
"Invoeringswet openbare lichamen Bonaire, Sint Eustatius en Saba" (in Dutch).
wetten.nl. Retrieved 2011-01-01.
Jump up ^ Hammarstrm, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017).
"Papiamento". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of
Human History.
Jump up ^ Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.),
Longman, ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0
Jump up ^ Jacobs, Bart (2012-03-23). "The Upper Guinea origins of Papiamento"
(PDF). Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitt Mnchen. portaldoconhecimento.gov.cv/.
Jump up ^ Romero, Simon (2010-07-05). "Willemstad Journal: A Language Thrives in
Its Caribbean Home". The New York Times.
Jump up ^ E.F. Martinus (1996) "The kiss of a slave. Papiamentu's West-African
connections". (Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Amsterdam)
Jump up ^ Jacobs, Bart (2009a) "The Upper Guinea Origins of Papiamento: Linguistic
and Historical Evidence". Diachronica 26:3, 319379
Jump up ^ Papear. Diccionario de la Real Academia Espaola.
Jump up ^ Papeo. Diccionario de la Real Academia Espaola.
Jump up ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 24,
2011. Retrieved June 24, 2015.
Jump up ^ Baptista, Marlyse (2009). On the development of nominal and verbal
morphology in four lusophone creoles (seminar presentation given 6 November 2009,
University of Pittsburgh).
Jump up ^ E.F. Martinus (1996) A Kiss of the Slave: Papiamento and its West African
Jump up ^ McWorter (2002) The Missing Spanish Creoles. Berkeley: University of
California Press http://www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/8709/8709.ch2.pdf
Jump up ^ Quint, Nicolas (2000) Le Cap Verdien: Origines et Devenir dune Langue
Mtisse. Paris: LHarmattan
Jump up ^ Jacobs, Bart (2008) "Papiamento: A diachronic analysis of its core
morphology". Phrasis 2, 5982
Jump up ^ Jacobs, Bart (2009b) "The origins of Old Portuguese features in
Papiamento". In: Nicholas Faraclas, Ronald Severing, Christa Weijer & Liesbeth
Echteld (eds.), Leeward voices: Fresh perspectives on Papiamento and the
literatures and cultures of the ABC Islands, 1138. Curaao: FPI/UNA
Jump up ^ Migge, Bettina; Lglise, Isabelle; Bartens, Angela (2010). Creoles in
Education: An Appraisal of Current Programs and Projects. Amsterdam: John Benjamins
Publishing Company. p. 268. ISBN 978-90-272-5258-6.
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Jump up ^ Kook, H., & Narain, G. (1993). Papiamento. In G. Extra & L. Verhoeven
(eds.), Community Languages in the Netherlands (pp. 6991). Amsterdam: Swets &
Jump up ^ Philippe Maurer. Die Verschriftung des Papiamento, in Zum Stand der
Kodifizierung romanischer Kleinsprachen. Gunter Narr Verlag, 1990
Jump up ^ Mario Dijkhoff. Ortografija di Papiamento. Mnster, 1984.
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Indiaanse Woorden in het Papiamento. Curaao
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Eva Eckkrammer: How to Pave the Way for the Emancipation of a Creole Language.
Papiamento, or What Can a Literature Do for its Language. In: Hoogbergen, Wim
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Eva Eckkrammer: The Standardisation of Papiamento: New Trends, Problems and
Perspectives. In: Dazzi Gross, Anna-Alice / Lorenza Mondada (eds.). Les langues
minoritaires en contexte. Minderheitensprachen im Kontext. Bd. I. Les langues
minoritaires entre diversit et standardisation. Minderheitensprachen zwischen
Vielfalt und Standardisierung. Neuchtel: Institut de linguistique de lUniversit
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Eva Eckkrammer: Papiamento, Cultural Resistance, and Socio-Cultural Challenges: The
ABC Islands in a Nutshell. In: Journal of Caribbean Literatures 5/1, 2007, 7393.
Quint, Nicolas. 2000. Le Cap-Verdien: Origines et devenir dune langue mtisse.
Paris: LHarmattan
Jacobs, Bart. 2008. "Papiamento: A diachronic analysis of its core morphology".
Phrasis 2008 (2), 5982.
Jacobs, Bart. 2009a. The Upper Guinea origins of Papiamento. Linguistic and
historical evidence. Diachronica 26:3, 319379.
Jacobs, Bart. 2009b. "The origins of Old Portuguese features in Papiamento". In:
Nicholas Faraclas, Ronald Severing, Christa Weijer & Liesbeth Echteld (eds.),
Leeward voices: Fresh perspectives on Papiamento and the literatures and cultures
of the ABC Islands. Volume 1, 1138. Curaao: FPI/UNA.
Jacobs, Bart. 2012. Origins of a creole: The history of Papiamento and its African
ties. Berlin: de Gruyter.
Efraim Frank Martinus (1996) The Kiss of a Slave: Papiamento's West-African
Connections. University of Amsterdam Press.
Gary Fouse (2002) The Story of Papiamento. New York: University Press of America
John H. Holm (1989) Pidgins and Creoles Volume One. Theory and Structure.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Sidney Joubert & Matthias Perl (2007). "The Portuguese Language on Curao and Its
Role in the Formation of Papiamento", Journal of Caribbean Literatures, 5:1, 4360.
John McWhorter (2000) The Missing Spanish Creoles: Recovering the Birth of
Plantation Contact Language. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Gerard van Buurt & Sidney M Joubert (1997) Stemmen uit het Verleden, Indiaanse
Woorden in het Papiamento. Curaao
External links and further reading[edit]
Papiamento edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
General (socio-)linguistic and historical information on Papiamento, including an
unedited poem (with translation) from the Curaaoan poet Lucille Berry-Haseth
Papiamento Official Aruba Government Portal
Papiamento English Dictionary
Newspaper from Aruba
Website for learning Papiamento, linked to youtube channel Henky's Papiamento
La Prensa A Leading Curaao Newspaper in Papiamento
Hasibokos I-News in Papiamento (and Dutch)
Papiamento history and grammatical features
Bible Excerpt in Papiamento
Papiamento Translator a simple online translator
iPapiamentu A blog on learning Papiamento for English speakers
Papiamentu tur dia A blog for English-speaking students of Papiamento
For a discussion about the origins of Papiamento, see "Papiamentu facts", an essay
by Attila Narin.
"A Language Thrives in Its Caribbean Home" article by Simon Romero in The New York
Times July 4, 2010
Ortografia di Papiamento INTRODUCCION
Vocabulario di Papiamento (Lista di palabra na Papiamento)
Lista di Palabra Papiamentu (Fundashon pa Planifikashon di Idioma)
Regla di gramatica di Papiamento
Stilistica di Papiamento
Bookish Plaza online bookstore with literature from Aruba and Curaao
[show] v t e
Netherlands Languages of the Netherlands
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Portuguese-based creole languages
[show] v t e
Varieties of Spanish by continent
Categories: Languages of ArubaPapiamentoSpanish-based pidgins and
creolesPortuguese-based pidgins and creolesLanguages of the African diaspora
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