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Haemorrhage

List :

Common causes of sever haemorrhage ?


1-penetrating and blunt traua of :
-splenice or liver injury
-haemothorax
-Pelvis fracture
2-gastrointinal bleeding :
-bleeding esophageal varies
-duodenal ulcer
3-ruptured aortic aneurysm
4-major surgery
5-obstetrical bleeding :
-pre and post parlum haemorrhage
-ruptured ectopic pregnancy

Classification of haemorrhge ?
1-site : a- external b- internal
2-types of disrupted vessel : a- arterial b- venous c- capillary
3-timing in relation to trauma : a- primary haemorrhage b- reactionary c- secondary

Aetiology ?
1-traumatic : accidental surgical interventional
2-pathological :
-atherosclerotic [ ruptured aortic aneurysm ] .
-inflammatory [ bleeding peptice ulcer ] .
-neoplastice [ haematuria in renal cancer ] .
3-bleeding diathesis : [ spontaneous haemorrhage ] .

Management of haemorrhage ?
1-stop haemorrhage
2-restore blood volume
3-optimize oxygen delivery
4-monitoring
Shock
Classification of shock
1-hypovolaemic shock 2-cardiogenic shock 3-neurogenic shock 4-anaphylactic shock
5-septic shock 6-endocrinal shock 7-obstructive shock

Respiratory disorder
Predisposing factor of chronic bronchitis:-
1-upper respiratory tract infection 2-pulonary congestion as in heart failure
3-bronchial obstruction due to excessive secretins 4-smoking
5-certain occupations 6-allergy
Clinical manifestation of acute bronchitis :-
1-typically it begins as (URI) 2-later the cough produces sputum
3-fever,malaise and headache 4-inspiratory crackles may be heard
5-dry,irritating non productive cough
Clinical manifestation of chronic bronchitis
1-chronic cough 2-bronchospasm 3-sputum
4-wheezing 5-dyspnea and haemoptysis 6-lack of energy,almsie and headache
Types of asthma
1-allergic asthma 2-non allergic asthma 3-mixed asthma
Causes of asthma
1-allergy 2-hormonal 3-psychogenic asthma
Clinical manifestation of asthma

1-early signs :- *cough *dyspnea *tachypnea *wheezing *uses accessory uscles of respiration

2-later signs :- *cyanosis *hypoxia *co2 retention *sweating *tachycardia *eczema and urticaria

Complications of asthma
1-asthmatic bronchitis 2-ephysema 3-spontaneous pneumo thorax 4-anxiety 5-respiratory failure
5-atelectasis 7-pulmonary hypertension
Modes of transmission of t.b
1-airborne transmission 2-talking,coughing and sneezing
3-ingestion in (GIT) infected milk 4-skin(butchers)
Risk factors of t.b
1-person in close contact with infectious t.b 2-elderly person 3-cancer person
4-person infected by hepatitis virus 5-malnutrition person 6- person with chronic disease
7-health care workers
The probability for t.b transmission depends on
1-infectiusness of the person with t.b 2-environment 3-duration of exposture
4-virulence of the organism
Clinical manifestation of t.b
1-constitutional symptoms :-
*fatigue,pale,anorexia and weight loss *fever,night sweats and indigestion
*general influenza
2-pulmonary signs and symptoms :-
*cough producing sputum *heoptysis *chest pain and dyspnea
3-extra pulmonary tuberculosis:-
*mycobacterium can infected any organ in the body
Classification of t.b
1-class 0 :no exposure, no infection
2-class 1 :exposure ,no evidence of infection
3-class 2 :latent infection ,no disease
4-class3 :disease,clinically active
5-class4 :disease,not clinically active
6-class5 :suspected disease ,diagnosis pending
Complication of t.b
1-pleural effusion 2-tuberculsis pneumonia 3-other organ involvement with t.b
Classification of pneumonia
1-bacterial:- *gramm positive bacteria *gramm negative bacteria
2-mycoplasm 3-viral 4-protozon 5- other causes
Clinical manifestation of pneumonia
1-sudden onset,rapidly rising fever (39,5:40,5)
2-cough productive sputum 3-pleuritic chest pain
4-tachypnea 5-rapid bunding pulse 6-tachypnea
Complication of pneumonia
1-pleural effusion 2-hypotension and shock 3-pericarditis 4-delirium 5-atelectasis
6-delayed resolution