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Analysis of superstructure

16.56m Span of Overall width 12.00m


Sailent features of super-structure:
Effective span of the longitudinal girder(C/C of supports) = 16 m
Overall depth of girder = 1.500 m
Width of web = 0.325 m
Thickness of slab (I.e average thickness in case of varying th.) = 0.23 m

Spacing of longitudinal girders (I.e average Spacing in case of varying spacing.) = 2.8 m
Number of longitudinal girders = 4 Nos.
Number of cross girders = 3 Nos.
Thickness of crosss girder = 0.3 m
Depth of cross girder = 1.500 m
Analysis of the super-structure:

Grillage analysis has been carried-out by using the structural analysis programe (STAAD). For the analysis
purpose super-structure is idealised with number of longitudinal and transverse members, assumed as beam
elements, Stiffnesses of the longitudinal girders were calculated by considering of the deck slab and considering
the exact dimensions of the girders. we are now considering the torsoinal stiffness of main girder. The Staad
program furnished does not move the loads in transerve direction and that movement may not be neccesary.
Dead load and superimposed dead load is applied in the form of UDL on the beam elements. Live load analysis
has been carried by using the moving load option available in STAAD package, by moving the vehicle both in
longitudinal direction. The analysis results were appended for ready reference. Following pages shows the step
by step procedure for design of longtudinal and cross girders by considering the values from the analysis
results.

USING SECTION SECTION WIZARD SECTION PROPERTIES ARE COMPUTED


OUTER GIRDER-1
AREA IXX IYY IZZ REMARKS
1.5570 0.0270 0.644 0.324 END 38.925
1.4320 0.0187 0.636 0.307 TAPER 35.800
1.3070 0.0103 0.627 0.289 RUNNING 32.675
OUTER GIRDER-1 (END)

``

OUTER GIRDER-1 (RUNNING)

1
INNER GIRDER
AREA IXX IYY IZZ REMARKS
1.4490 0.0258 0.488 0.311 END 36.225
1.3240 0.0177 0.461 0.295 TAPER 33.100
1.1990 0.0096 0.433 0.279 RUNNING 29.975
INNER GIRDER - (END)

INNER GIRDER - (RUNNING)

A) LOADING ON OUTER GIRDER - OG1&OG2


End Portion = 1.557 x 25 = 38.93 KN/m
Running Portion = 1.199 x 25 = 32.68 KN/m

2
B) LOADING ON INNER GIRDER- IG1&IG2
End Portion = 1.449 x 25 = 36.23 KN/m
Running Portion = 1.199 x 25 = 29.98 KN/m
C) LOAD DUE TO CROSS GIRDER
Area of Cross girder = 1.5 x 0.3 m2
0.45 x 25 = 11.25 KN/m
D) LOAD DUE TO CRASH BARRIER
Area of Crash Barrier 0.261 m2
0.261 x 25 = 6.53 KN/m

E) WEARING COAT LOAD


Outer Girder 1 = 1.1 x 2= 2.20 KN/m
Inner Girder 1 = 2.65 x 2= 5.30 KN/m

Outer Girder 2 = 1.1 x 2= 2.20 KN/m

LIVE LOAD:-
The Following Vehicular loads have been considered in the anaylsis
70R - Wheeled
Class A - 2 Nos
Impactor Factor = 4.5/(6+L) = 20.455%

All the forces are input over the girders in the form of eccentic UDL and the STAAD static analysis has been
Performed and the results in various members are tabulated to asses the critical condition case.

3
IDEALISATION OF NODES

4
IDEALISATION OF BEAMS

5
I. DEAD LOAD ANALYSIS
STAAD SPACE
START JOB INFORMATION
ENGINEER DATE 07-Jul-14
END JOB INFORMATION
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0; 2 0.28 0 0; 3 0.9 0 0; 4 1.8 0 0; 5 2.35 0 0; 6 2.905 0 0; 7 3.78 0 0;
8 4.655 0 0; 9 5.53 0 0; 10 5.655 0 0; 11 6.53 0 0; 12 7.405 0 0; 13 8.28 0 0;
14 9.155 0 0; 15 10.03 0 0; 16 10.905 0 0; 17 11.03 0 0; 18 11.905 0 0;
19 12.78 0 0; 20 13.655 0 0; 21 14.26 0 0; 22 14.76 0 0; 23 15.66 0 0;
24 16.28 0 0; 25 16.56 0 0; 26 0 0 1.6; 27 0.28 0 1.6; 28 0.9 0 1.6;
29 1.7 0 1.6; 30 1.8 0 1.6; 31 2.35 0 1.6; 32 2.905 0 1.6; 33 3.78 0 1.6;
34 4.28 0 1.6; 35 4.655 0 1.6; 36 5.53 0 1.6; 37 5.655 0 1.6; 38 6.53 0 1.6;
39 7.405 0 1.6; 40 8.28 0 1.6; 41 9.155 0 1.6; 42 10.03 0 1.6; 43 10.905 0 1.6;
44 11.03 0 1.6; 45 11.905 0 1.6; 46 12.78 0 1.6; 47 13.655 0 1.6;
48 14.26 0 1.6; 49 14.76 0 1.6; 50 15.66 0 1.6; 51 16.28 0 1.6; 52 16.56 0 1.6;
53 0 0 4.4; 54 0.28 0 4.4; 55 0.9 0 4.4; 56 1.7 0 4.4; 57 1.8 0 4.4;
58 2.35 0 4.4; 59 2.905 0 4.4; 60 3.78 0 4.4; 61 4.28 0 4.4; 62 4.655 0 4.4;
63 5.53 0 4.4; 64 5.655 0 4.4; 65 6.53 0 4.4; 66 7.405 0 4.4; 67 8.28 0 4.4;
68 9.155 0 4.4; 69 10.03 0 4.4; 70 10.905 0 4.4; 71 11.03 0 4.4;
72 11.905 0 4.4; 73 12.78 0 4.4; 74 13.655 0 4.4; 75 14.26 0 4.4;
76 14.76 0 4.4; 77 15.66 0 4.4; 78 16.28 0 4.4; 79 16.56 0 4.4; 80 0 0 7.2;
81 0.28 0 7.2; 82 0.9 0 7.2; 83 1.8 0 7.2; 84 2.35 0 7.2; 85 2.905 0 7.2;
86 3.78 0 7.2; 87 4.655 0 7.2; 88 5.53 0 7.2; 89 5.655 0 7.2; 90 6.53 0 7.2;
91 7.405 0 7.2; 92 8.28 0 7.2; 93 9.155 0 7.2; 94 10.03 0 7.2; 95 10.905 0 7.2;
96 11.03 0 7.2; 97 11.905 0 7.2; 98 12.78 0 7.2; 99 13.655 0 7.2;
100 14.26 0 7.2; 101 14.76 0 7.2; 102 15.66 0 7.2; 103 16.28 0 7.2;
104 16.56 0 7.2; 105 0 0 10; 106 0.28 0 10; 107 0.9 0 10; 108 1.8 0 10;
109 2.35 0 10; 110 2.905 0 10; 111 3.78 0 10; 112 4.655 0 10; 113 5.53 0 10;
114 5.655 0 10; 115 6.53 0 10; 116 7.405 0 10; 117 8.28 0 10; 118 9.155 0 10;
119 10.03 0 10; 120 10.905 0 10; 121 11.03 0 10; 122 11.905 0 10;
123 12.78 0 10; 124 13.655 0 10; 125 14.26 0 10; 126 14.76 0 10;
127 15.66 0 10; 128 16.28 0 10; 129 16.56 0 10; 130 0 0 11.6; 131 0.28 0 11.6;
132 0.9 0 11.6; 133 1.8 0 11.6; 134 2.35 0 11.6; 135 2.905 0 11.6;
136 3.78 0 11.6; 137 4.655 0 11.6; 138 5.53 0 11.6; 139 5.655 0 11.6;
140 6.53 0 11.6; 141 7.405 0 11.6; 142 8.28 0 11.6; 143 9.155 0 11.6;
144 10.03 0 11.6; 145 10.905 0 11.6; 146 11.03 0 11.6; 147 11.905 0 11.6;
148 12.78 0 11.6; 149 13.655 0 11.6; 150 14.26 0 11.6; 151 14.76 0 11.6;
152 15.66 0 11.6; 153 16.28 0 11.6; 154 16.56 0 11.6;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 1 2; 2 2 3; 3 3 4; 4 4 5; 5 5 6; 6 6 7; 7 7 8; 8 8 9; 9 9 10; 10 10 11;
11 11 12; 12 12 13; 13 13 14; 14 14 15; 15 15 16; 16 16 17; 17 17 18; 18 18 19;
19 19 20; 20 20 21; 21 21 22; 22 22 23; 23 23 24; 24 24 25; 25 1 26; 26 2 27;
27 3 28; 28 4 30; 29 5 31; 30 6 32; 31 7 33; 32 8 35; 33 9 36; 34 10 37;
35 10 37; 36 11 38; 37 12 39; 38 13 40; 39 14 41; 40 15 42; 41 16 43; 42 16 43;
43 17 44; 44 18 45; 45 19 46; 46 20 47; 47 21 48; 48 22 49; 49 23 50; 50 24 51;
51 25 52; 52 26 27; 53 27 28; 54 28 29; 55 29 30; 56 30 31; 57 31 32; 58 32 33;
59 33 34; 60 34 35; 61 35 36; 62 36 37; 63 37 38; 64 38 39; 65 39 40; 66 40 41;
67 41 42; 68 42 43; 69 43 44; 70 44 45; 71 45 46; 72 46 47; 73 47 48; 74 48 49;
75 49 50; 76 50 51; 77 51 52; 78 26 53; 79 27 54; 80 28 55; 81 30 57; 82 31 58;
83 32 59; 84 33 60; 85 35 62; 86 36 63; 87 37 64; 88 37 64; 89 38 65; 90 39 66;
91 40 67; 92 41 68; 93 42 69; 94 43 70; 95 43 70; 96 44 71; 97 45 72; 98 46 73;
99 47 74; 100 48 75; 101 49 76; 102 50 77; 103 51 78; 104 52 79; 105 53 54;
106 54 55; 107 55 56; 108 56 57; 109 57 58; 110 58 59; 111 59 60; 112 60 61;
113 61 62; 114 62 63; 115 63 64; 116 64 65; 117 65 66; 118 66 67; 119 67 68;
120 68 69; 121 69 70; 122 70 71; 123 71 72; 124 72 73; 125 73 74; 126 74 75;
127 75 76; 128 76 77; 129 77 78; 130 78 79; 131 53 80; 132 54 81; 133 55 82;
134 57 83; 135 58 84; 136 59 85; 137 60 86; 138 62 87; 139 63 88; 140 64 89;
141 64 89; 142 65 90; 143 66 91; 144 67 92; 145 68 93; 146 69 94; 147 70 95;
148 70 95; 149 71 96; 150 72 97; 151 73 98; 152 74 99; 153 75 100; 154 76 101;
155 77 102; 156 78 103; 157 79 104; 158 80 81; 159 81 82; 160 82 83; 161 83 84;
162 84 85; 163 85 86; 164 86 87; 165 87 88; 166 88 89; 167 89 90; 168 90 91;
169 91 92; 170 92 93; 171 93 94; 172 94 95; 173 95 96; 174 96 97; 175 97 98;
176 98 99; 177 99 100; 178 100 101; 179 101 102; 180 102 103; 181 103 104;
182 80 105; 183 81 106; 184 82 107; 185 83 108; 186 84 109; 187 85 110;

6
188 86 111; 189 87 112; 190 88 113; 191 89 114; 192 89 114; 193 90 115;
194 91 116; 195 92 117; 196 93 118; 197 94 119; 198 95 120; 199 95 120;
200 96 121; 201 97 122; 202 98 123; 203 99 124; 204 100 125; 205 101 126;
206 102 127; 207 103 128; 208 104 129; 209 105 106; 210 106 107; 211 107 108;
212 108 109; 213 109 110; 214 110 111; 215 111 112; 216 112 113; 217 113 114;
218 114 115; 219 115 116; 220 116 117; 221 117 118; 222 118 119; 223 119 120;
224 120 121; 225 121 122; 226 122 123; 227 123 124; 228 124 125; 229 125 126;
230 126 127; 231 127 128; 232 128 129; 233 105 130; 234 106 131; 235 107 132;
236 108 133; 237 109 134; 238 110 135; 239 111 136; 240 112 137; 241 113 138;
242 114 139; 243 114 139; 244 115 140; 245 116 141; 246 117 142; 247 118 143;
248 119 144; 249 120 145; 250 120 145; 251 121 146; 252 122 147; 253 123 148;
254 124 149; 255 125 150; 256 126 151; 257 127 152; 258 128 153; 259 129 154;
260 130 131; 261 131 132; 262 132 133; 263 133 134; 264 134 135; 265 135 136;
266 136 137; 267 137 138; 268 138 139; 269 139 140; 270 140 141; 271 141 142;
272 142 143; 273 143 144; 274 144 145; 275 145 146; 276 146 147; 277 147 148;
278 148 149; 279 149 150; 280 150 151; 281 151 152; 282 152 153; 283 153 154;
DEFINE PMEMBER
54 55 PMEMBER 1
START GROUP DEFINITION
GEOMETRY
MEMBER
_DD 7 8 22 43 47 48 63 73 74 82 110 123 135 155 171 192 193 239 257
END GROUP DEFINITION
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC CONCRETE
E 2.17185e+007
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 23.5616
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
END DEFINE MATERIAL
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL CONCRETE ALL
MEMBER PROPERTY INDIAN
79 91 103 132 144 156 183 195 207 PRIS YD 1.1 ZD 0.3
1 TO 24 260 TO 283 PRIS YD 0.23 ZD 0.1
25 51 233 259 PRIS YD 0.23 ZD 0.48
26 50 234 258 PRIS YD 0.23 ZD 0.4
27 49 80 102 133 155 184 206 235 257 PRIS YD 0.23 ZD 0.9
105 TO 130 158 TO 181 PRIS AX 1.199 IX 0.0095 IY 0.433 IZ 0.278
52 TO 77 209 TO 232 PRIS AX 1.307 IX 0.01025 IY 0.627 IZ 0.29
MEMBER PROPERTY INDIAN
28 TO 48 81 TO 90 92 TO 101 134 TO 143 145 TO 154 185 TO 194 196 TO 205 236 -
237 TO 256 PRIS YD 0.23 ZD 0.875
MEMBER PROPERTY INDIAN
78 104 131 157 182 208 PRIS YD 0.23 ZD 0.08
SUPPORTS
27 54 81 106 PINNED
51 78 103 128 FIXED BUT FX FZ MX MY MZ
LOAD 1 PERMANENT LOAD
MEMBER LOAD
105 106 129 130 158 159 180 181 UNI GY -36.225
109 TO 127 161 TO 178 UNI GY -29.975
52 53 76 77 209 210 231 232 UNI GY -38.925
211 TRAP GY -38.925 -32.675
55 TRAP GY -33.3694 -32.675 0 0.1
54 TRAP GY -38.925 -33.3694 0 0.8
75 230 TRAP GY -32.675 -38.925
160 TRAP GY -36.225 -29.975
108 TRAP GY -30.6694 -29.975 0 0.1
107 TRAP GY -36.225 -30.6694 0 0.8
128 179 TRAP GY -29.975 -36.225
79 91 103 132 144 156 183 195 207 UNI GY -8.25
1 TO 24 28 260 TO 283 UNI GY -6.53
56 TO 74 109 212 TO 229 231 UNI GY -32.675
LOAD 2 SURFACING LOAD
MEMBER LOAD

7
105 TO 130 158 TO 181 UNI GY -5.6
52 TO 77 109 209 TO 232 UNI GY -5.4
PERFORM ANALYSIS
PRINT SUPPORT REACTION ALL
PRINT MAXFORCE ENVELOPE LIST 52 TO 77 79 91 105 TO 130 132 144 183 195
FINISH

8
II. LIVE LOAD ANALYSIS
STAAD SPACE
START JOB INFORMATION
ENGINEER DATE 07-Jul-14
END JOB INFORMATION
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0; 2 0.28 0 0; 3 0.9 0 0; 4 1.8 0 0; 5 2.35 0 0; 6 2.905 0 0; 7 3.78 0 0;
8 4.655 0 0; 9 5.53 0 0; 10 5.655 0 0; 11 6.53 0 0; 12 7.405 0 0; 13 8.28 0 0;
14 9.155 0 0; 15 10.03 0 0; 16 10.905 0 0; 17 11.03 0 0; 18 11.905 0 0;
19 12.78 0 0; 20 13.655 0 0; 21 14.26 0 0; 22 14.76 0 0; 23 15.66 0 0;
24 16.28 0 0; 25 16.56 0 0; 26 0 0 1.6; 27 0.28 0 1.6; 28 0.9 0 1.6;
29 1.7 0 1.6; 30 1.8 0 1.6; 31 2.35 0 1.6; 32 2.905 0 1.6; 33 3.78 0 1.6;
34 4.28 0 1.6; 35 4.655 0 1.6; 36 5.53 0 1.6; 37 5.655 0 1.6; 38 6.53 0 1.6;
39 7.405 0 1.6; 40 8.28 0 1.6; 41 9.155 0 1.6; 42 10.03 0 1.6; 43 10.905 0 1.6;
44 11.03 0 1.6; 45 11.905 0 1.6; 46 12.78 0 1.6; 47 13.655 0 1.6;
48 14.26 0 1.6; 49 14.76 0 1.6; 50 15.66 0 1.6; 51 16.28 0 1.6; 52 16.56 0 1.6;
53 0 0 4.4; 54 0.28 0 4.4; 55 0.9 0 4.4; 56 1.7 0 4.4; 57 1.8 0 4.4;
58 2.35 0 4.4; 59 2.905 0 4.4; 60 3.78 0 4.4; 61 4.28 0 4.4; 62 4.655 0 4.4;
63 5.53 0 4.4; 64 5.655 0 4.4; 65 6.53 0 4.4; 66 7.405 0 4.4; 67 8.28 0 4.4;
68 9.155 0 4.4; 69 10.03 0 4.4; 70 10.905 0 4.4; 71 11.03 0 4.4;
72 11.905 0 4.4; 73 12.78 0 4.4; 74 13.655 0 4.4; 75 14.26 0 4.4;
76 14.76 0 4.4; 77 15.66 0 4.4; 78 16.28 0 4.4; 79 16.56 0 4.4; 80 0 0 7.2;
81 0.28 0 7.2; 82 0.9 0 7.2; 83 1.8 0 7.2; 84 2.35 0 7.2; 85 2.905 0 7.2;
86 3.78 0 7.2; 87 4.655 0 7.2; 88 5.53 0 7.2; 89 5.655 0 7.2; 90 6.53 0 7.2;
91 7.405 0 7.2; 92 8.28 0 7.2; 93 9.155 0 7.2; 94 10.03 0 7.2; 95 10.905 0 7.2;
96 11.03 0 7.2; 97 11.905 0 7.2; 98 12.78 0 7.2; 99 13.655 0 7.2;
100 14.26 0 7.2; 101 14.76 0 7.2; 102 15.66 0 7.2; 103 16.28 0 7.2;
104 16.56 0 7.2; 105 0 0 10; 106 0.28 0 10; 107 0.9 0 10; 108 1.8 0 10;
109 2.35 0 10; 110 2.905 0 10; 111 3.78 0 10; 112 4.655 0 10; 113 5.53 0 10;
114 5.655 0 10; 115 6.53 0 10; 116 7.405 0 10; 117 8.28 0 10; 118 9.155 0 10;
119 10.03 0 10; 120 10.905 0 10; 121 11.03 0 10; 122 11.905 0 10;
123 12.78 0 10; 124 13.655 0 10; 125 14.26 0 10; 126 14.76 0 10;
127 15.66 0 10; 128 16.28 0 10; 129 16.56 0 10; 130 0 0 11.6; 131 0.28 0 11.6;
132 0.9 0 11.6; 133 1.8 0 11.6; 134 2.35 0 11.6; 135 2.905 0 11.6;
136 3.78 0 11.6; 137 4.655 0 11.6; 138 5.53 0 11.6; 139 5.655 0 11.6;
140 6.53 0 11.6; 141 7.405 0 11.6; 142 8.28 0 11.6; 143 9.155 0 11.6;
144 10.03 0 11.6; 145 10.905 0 11.6; 146 11.03 0 11.6; 147 11.905 0 11.6;
148 12.78 0 11.6; 149 13.655 0 11.6; 150 14.26 0 11.6; 151 14.76 0 11.6;
152 15.66 0 11.6; 153 16.28 0 11.6; 154 16.56 0 11.6; 155 16.6 0 0;
156 16.88 0 0; 157 17.5 0 0; 158 18.4 0 0; 159 18.95 0 0; 160 19.505 0 0;
161 20.38 0 0; 162 21.255 0 0; 163 22.13 0 0; 164 22.255 0 0; 165 23.13 0 0;
166 24.005 0 0; 167 24.88 0 0; 168 25.755 0 0; 169 26.63 0 0; 170 27.505 0 0;
171 27.63 0 0; 172 28.505 0 0; 173 29.38 0 0; 174 30.255 0 0; 175 30.86 0 0;
176 31.36 0 0; 177 32.26 0 0; 178 32.88 0 0; 179 33.16 0 0; 180 16.6 0 1.6;
181 16.88 0 1.6; 182 17.5 0 1.6; 183 18.4 0 1.6; 184 18.95 0 1.6;
185 19.505 0 1.6; 186 20.38 0 1.6; 187 21.255 0 1.6; 188 22.13 0 1.6;
189 22.255 0 1.6; 190 23.13 0 1.6; 191 24.005 0 1.6; 192 24.88 0 1.6;
193 25.755 0 1.6; 194 26.63 0 1.6; 195 27.505 0 1.6; 196 27.63 0 1.6;
197 28.505 0 1.6; 198 29.38 0 1.6; 199 30.255 0 1.6; 200 30.86 0 1.6;
201 31.36 0 1.6; 202 32.26 0 1.6; 203 32.88 0 1.6; 204 33.16 0 1.6;
205 18.3 0 1.6; 206 20.88 0 1.6; 207 16.6 0 4.4; 208 16.88 0 4.4;
209 17.5 0 4.4; 210 18.4 0 4.4; 211 18.95 0 4.4; 212 19.505 0 4.4;
213 20.38 0 4.4; 214 21.255 0 4.4; 215 22.13 0 4.4; 216 22.255 0 4.4;
217 23.13 0 4.4; 218 24.005 0 4.4; 219 24.88 0 4.4; 220 25.755 0 4.4;
221 26.63 0 4.4; 222 27.505 0 4.4; 223 27.63 0 4.4; 224 28.505 0 4.4;
225 29.38 0 4.4; 226 30.255 0 4.4; 227 30.86 0 4.4; 228 31.36 0 4.4;
229 32.26 0 4.4; 230 32.88 0 4.4; 231 33.16 0 4.4; 232 18.3 0 4.4;
233 20.88 0 4.4; 234 16.6 0 7.2; 235 16.88 0 7.2; 236 17.5 0 7.2;
237 18.4 0 7.2; 238 18.95 0 7.2; 239 19.505 0 7.2; 240 20.38 0 7.2;
241 21.255 0 7.2; 242 22.13 0 7.2; 243 22.255 0 7.2; 244 23.13 0 7.2;
245 24.005 0 7.2; 246 24.88 0 7.2; 247 25.755 0 7.2; 248 26.63 0 7.2;
249 27.505 0 7.2; 250 27.63 0 7.2; 251 28.505 0 7.2; 252 29.38 0 7.2;
253 30.255 0 7.2; 254 30.86 0 7.2; 255 31.36 0 7.2; 256 32.26 0 7.2;
257 32.88 0 7.2; 258 33.16 0 7.2; 259 16.6 0 10; 260 16.88 0 10; 261 17.5 0 10;
262 18.4 0 10; 263 18.95 0 10; 264 19.505 0 10; 265 20.38 0 10;

9
266 21.255 0 10; 267 22.13 0 10; 268 22.255 0 10; 269 23.13 0 10;
270 24.005 0 10; 271 24.88 0 10; 272 25.755 0 10; 273 26.63 0 10;
274 27.505 0 10; 275 27.63 0 10; 276 28.505 0 10; 277 29.38 0 10;
278 30.255 0 10; 279 30.86 0 10; 280 31.36 0 10; 281 32.26 0 10;
282 32.88 0 10; 283 33.16 0 10; 284 16.6 0 11.6; 285 16.88 0 11.6;
286 17.5 0 11.6; 287 18.4 0 11.6; 288 18.95 0 11.6; 289 19.505 0 11.6;
290 20.38 0 11.6; 291 21.255 0 11.6; 292 22.13 0 11.6; 293 22.255 0 11.6;
294 23.13 0 11.6; 295 24.005 0 11.6; 296 24.88 0 11.6; 297 25.755 0 11.6;
298 26.63 0 11.6; 299 27.505 0 11.6; 300 27.63 0 11.6; 301 28.505 0 11.6;
302 29.38 0 11.6; 303 30.255 0 11.6; 304 30.86 0 11.6; 305 31.36 0 11.6;
306 32.26 0 11.6; 307 32.88 0 11.6; 308 33.16 0 11.6;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 1 2; 2 2 3; 3 3 4; 4 4 5; 5 5 6; 6 6 7; 7 7 8; 8 8 9; 9 9 10; 10 10 11;
11 11 12; 12 12 13; 13 13 14; 14 14 15; 15 15 16; 16 16 17; 17 17 18; 18 18 19;
19 19 20; 20 20 21; 21 21 22; 22 22 23; 23 23 24; 24 24 25; 25 1 26; 26 2 27;
27 3 28; 28 4 30; 29 5 31; 30 6 32; 31 7 33; 32 8 35; 33 9 36; 34 10 37;
35 10 37; 36 11 38; 37 12 39; 38 13 40; 39 14 41; 40 15 42; 41 16 43; 42 16 43;
43 17 44; 44 18 45; 45 19 46; 46 20 47; 47 21 48; 48 22 49; 49 23 50; 50 24 51;
51 25 52; 52 26 27; 53 27 28; 54 28 29; 55 29 30; 56 30 31; 57 31 32; 58 32 33;
59 33 34; 60 34 35; 61 35 36; 62 36 37; 63 37 38; 64 38 39; 65 39 40; 66 40 41;
67 41 42; 68 42 43; 69 43 44; 70 44 45; 71 45 46; 72 46 47; 73 47 48; 74 48 49;
75 49 50; 76 50 51; 77 51 52; 78 26 53; 79 27 54; 80 28 55; 81 30 57; 82 31 58;
83 32 59; 84 33 60; 85 35 62; 86 36 63; 87 37 64; 88 37 64; 89 38 65; 90 39 66;
91 40 67; 92 41 68; 93 42 69; 94 43 70; 95 43 70; 96 44 71; 97 45 72; 98 46 73;
99 47 74; 100 48 75; 101 49 76; 102 50 77; 103 51 78; 104 52 79; 105 53 54;
106 54 55; 107 55 56; 108 56 57; 109 57 58; 110 58 59; 111 59 60; 112 60 61;
113 61 62; 114 62 63; 115 63 64; 116 64 65; 117 65 66; 118 66 67; 119 67 68;
120 68 69; 121 69 70; 122 70 71; 123 71 72; 124 72 73; 125 73 74; 126 74 75;
127 75 76; 128 76 77; 129 77 78; 130 78 79; 131 53 80; 132 54 81; 133 55 82;
134 57 83; 135 58 84; 136 59 85; 137 60 86; 138 62 87; 139 63 88; 140 64 89;
141 64 89; 142 65 90; 143 66 91; 144 67 92; 145 68 93; 146 69 94; 147 70 95;
148 70 95; 149 71 96; 150 72 97; 151 73 98; 152 74 99; 153 75 100; 154 76 101;
155 77 102; 156 78 103; 157 79 104; 158 80 81; 159 81 82; 160 82 83; 161 83 84;
162 84 85; 163 85 86; 164 86 87; 165 87 88; 166 88 89; 167 89 90; 168 90 91;
169 91 92; 170 92 93; 171 93 94; 172 94 95; 173 95 96; 174 96 97; 175 97 98;
176 98 99; 177 99 100; 178 100 101; 179 101 102; 180 102 103; 181 103 104;
182 80 105; 183 81 106; 184 82 107; 185 83 108; 186 84 109; 187 85 110;
188 86 111; 189 87 112; 190 88 113; 191 89 114; 192 89 114; 193 90 115;
194 91 116; 195 92 117; 196 93 118; 197 94 119; 198 95 120; 199 95 120;
200 96 121; 201 97 122; 202 98 123; 203 99 124; 204 100 125; 205 101 126;
206 102 127; 207 103 128; 208 104 129; 209 105 106; 210 106 107; 211 107 108;
212 108 109; 213 109 110; 214 110 111; 215 111 112; 216 112 113; 217 113 114;
218 114 115; 219 115 116; 220 116 117; 221 117 118; 222 118 119; 223 119 120;
224 120 121; 225 121 122; 226 122 123; 227 123 124; 228 124 125; 229 125 126;
230 126 127; 231 127 128; 232 128 129; 233 105 130; 234 106 131; 235 107 132;
236 108 133; 237 109 134; 238 110 135; 239 111 136; 240 112 137; 241 113 138;
242 114 139; 243 114 139; 244 115 140; 245 116 141; 246 117 142; 247 118 143;
248 119 144; 249 120 145; 250 120 145; 251 121 146; 252 122 147; 253 123 148;
254 124 149; 255 125 150; 256 126 151; 257 127 152; 258 128 153; 259 129 154;
260 130 131; 261 131 132; 262 132 133; 263 133 134; 264 134 135; 265 135 136;
266 136 137; 267 137 138; 268 138 139; 269 139 140; 270 140 141; 271 141 142;
272 142 143; 273 143 144; 274 144 145; 275 145 146; 276 146 147; 277 147 148;
278 148 149; 279 149 150; 280 150 151; 281 151 152; 282 152 153; 283 153 154;
284 155 156; 285 156 157; 286 157 158; 287 158 159; 288 159 160; 289 160 161;
290 161 162; 291 162 163; 292 163 164; 293 164 165; 294 165 166; 295 166 167;
296 167 168; 297 168 169; 298 169 170; 299 170 171; 300 171 172; 301 172 173;
302 173 174; 303 174 175; 304 175 176; 305 176 177; 306 177 178; 307 178 179;
308 155 180; 309 156 181; 310 157 182; 311 158 183; 312 159 184; 313 160 185;
314 161 186; 315 162 187; 316 163 188; 317 164 189; 318 165 190; 319 166 191;
320 167 192; 321 168 193; 322 169 194; 323 170 195; 324 171 196; 325 172 197;
326 173 198; 327 174 199; 328 175 200; 329 176 201; 330 177 202; 331 178 203;
332 179 204; 333 180 181; 334 181 182; 335 182 205; 336 205 183; 337 183 184;
338 184 185; 339 185 186; 340 186 206; 341 206 187; 342 187 188; 343 188 189;
344 189 190; 345 190 191; 346 191 192; 347 192 193; 348 193 194; 349 194 195;
350 195 196; 351 196 197; 352 197 198; 353 198 199; 354 199 200; 355 200 201;
356 201 202; 357 202 203; 358 203 204; 359 180 207; 360 181 208; 361 182 209;
362 183 210; 363 184 211; 364 185 212; 365 186 213; 366 187 214; 367 188 215;

10
368 189 216; 369 190 217; 370 191 218; 371 192 219; 372 193 220; 373 194 221;
374 195 222; 375 196 223; 376 197 224; 377 198 225; 378 199 226; 379 200 227;
380 201 228; 381 202 229; 382 203 230; 383 204 231; 384 207 208; 385 208 209;
386 209 232; 387 232 210; 388 210 211; 389 211 212; 390 212 213; 391 213 233;
392 233 214; 393 214 215; 394 215 216; 395 216 217; 396 217 218; 397 218 219;
398 219 220; 399 220 221; 400 221 222; 401 222 223; 402 223 224; 403 224 225;
404 225 226; 405 226 227; 406 227 228; 407 228 229; 408 229 230; 409 230 231;
410 207 234; 411 208 235; 412 209 236; 413 210 237; 414 211 238; 415 212 239;
416 213 240; 417 214 241; 418 215 242; 419 216 243; 420 217 244; 421 218 245;
422 219 246; 423 220 247; 424 221 248; 425 222 249; 426 223 250; 427 224 251;
428 225 252; 429 226 253; 430 227 254; 431 228 255; 432 229 256; 433 230 257;
434 231 258; 435 234 235; 436 235 236; 437 236 237; 438 237 238; 439 238 239;
440 239 240; 441 240 241; 442 241 242; 443 242 243; 444 243 244; 445 244 245;
446 245 246; 447 246 247; 448 247 248; 449 248 249; 450 249 250; 451 250 251;
452 251 252; 453 252 253; 454 253 254; 455 254 255; 456 255 256; 457 256 257;
458 257 258; 459 234 259; 460 235 260; 461 236 261; 462 237 262; 463 238 263;
464 239 264; 465 240 265; 466 241 266; 467 242 267; 468 243 268; 469 244 269;
470 245 270; 471 246 271; 472 247 272; 473 248 273; 474 249 274; 475 250 275;
476 251 276; 477 252 277; 478 253 278; 479 254 279; 480 255 280; 481 256 281;
482 257 282; 483 258 283; 484 259 260; 485 260 261; 486 261 262; 487 262 263;
488 263 264; 489 264 265; 490 265 266; 491 266 267; 492 267 268; 493 268 269;
494 269 270; 495 270 271; 496 271 272; 497 272 273; 498 273 274; 499 274 275;
500 275 276; 501 276 277; 502 277 278; 503 278 279; 504 279 280; 505 280 281;
506 281 282; 507 282 283; 508 259 284; 509 260 285; 510 261 286; 511 262 287;
512 263 288; 513 264 289; 514 265 290; 515 266 291; 516 267 292; 517 268 293;
518 269 294; 519 270 295; 520 271 296; 521 272 297; 522 273 298; 523 274 299;
524 275 300; 525 276 301; 526 277 302; 527 278 303; 528 279 304; 529 280 305;
530 281 306; 531 282 307; 532 283 308; 533 284 285; 534 285 286; 535 286 287;
536 287 288; 537 288 289; 538 289 290; 539 290 291; 540 291 292; 541 292 293;
542 293 294; 543 294 295; 544 295 296; 545 296 297; 546 297 298; 547 298 299;
548 299 300; 549 300 301; 550 301 302; 551 302 303; 552 303 304; 553 304 305;
554 305 306; 555 306 307; 556 307 308;
DEFINE PMEMBER
54 55 PMEMBER 1
START GROUP DEFINITION
GEOMETRY
MEMBER
_DD 7 8 22 43 47 48 63 73 74 82 110 123 135 155 171 192 193 239 257 290 291 -
305 324 328 329 344 354 355 363 389 402 414 432 448 469 514 530
END GROUP DEFINITION
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC CONCRETE
E 2.17185e+007
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 23.5616
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
END DEFINE MATERIAL
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL CONCRETE MEMB 1 TO 556
MEMBER PROPERTY INDIAN
79 91 103 132 144 156 183 195 207 360 371 382 411 422 433 460 471 -
482 PRIS YD 1.1 ZD 0.3
1 TO 24 260 TO 307 533 TO 556 PRIS YD 0.23 ZD 0.1
25 51 233 259 308 332 508 532 PRIS YD 0.23 ZD 0.48
26 50 234 258 309 331 509 531 PRIS YD 0.23 ZD 0.4
27 49 80 102 133 155 184 206 235 257 310 330 361 381 412 432 461 481 510 -
530 PRIS YD 0.23 ZD 0.9
105 TO 130 158 TO 181 384 TO 409 435 TO 457 -
458 PRIS AX 1.199 IX 0.0095 IY 0.433 IZ 0.278
52 TO 77 209 TO 232 333 TO 358 484 TO 506 -
507 PRIS AX 1.307 IX 0.01025 IY 0.627 IZ 0.29
MEMBER PROPERTY INDIAN
28 TO 48 81 TO 90 92 TO 101 134 TO 143 145 TO 154 185 TO 194 196 TO 205 236 -
237 TO 256 311 TO 329 362 TO 370 372 TO 380 413 TO 421 423 TO 431 462 TO 470 -
472 TO 480 511 TO 529 PRIS YD 0.23 ZD 0.875
MEMBER PROPERTY INDIAN

11
78 104 131 157 182 208 359 383 410 434 459 483 PRIS YD 0.23 ZD 0.08
SUPPORTS
27 54 81 106 181 208 235 260 PINNED
51 78 103 128 203 230 257 282 FIXED BUT FX FZ MX MY MZ
DEFINE MOVING LOAD
**********CLASS-A WHEELED VEHL ********
TYPE 1 LOAD 15.75 15.75 66.52 66.52 39.68 39.68 39.68 39.68
DIST 1.1 3.2 1.2 4.3 3 3 3 WID 1.8
*****70R WHEELED VEHL L TYPE********
TYPE 2 LOAD 99.2 99.2 99.2 99.2 70.02 70.02 46.68
DIST 1.37 3.05 1.37 2.13 1.52 3.96 WID 0
*****70R WHEELED VEHL M & N TYPE********
TYPE 3 LOAD 49.6 49.6 49.6 49.6 35.01 35.01 23.34
DIST 1.37 3.05 1.37 2.13 1.52 3.96 WID 0
*********************************
*****VEHL @ LEFT SIDE OF SPAN *****
*********************************
*****CLASS A WHEELED VEHL********
LOAD GENERATION 300
TYPE 1 -18.8 0 2.7 XINC 0.25
TYPE 1 -18.8 0 6.2 XINC 0.25
TYPE 1 -18.8 0 9.7 XINC 0.25
*****70R WHEELED VEHL L TYPE********
LOAD GENERATION 300
TYPE 2 -13.4 0 2.13 XINC 0.25
TYPE 2 -13.4 0 4.06 XINC 0.25
TYPE 1 -18.8 0 9.55 XINC 0.25
*****70R WHEELED VEHL M TYPE********
LOAD GENERATION 300
TYPE 3 -13.4 0 1.905 XINC 0.25
TYPE 3 -13.4 0 2.7 XINC 0.25
TYPE 3 -13.4 0 3.49 XINC 0.25
TYPE 3 -13.4 0 4.285 XINC 0.25
TYPE 1 -18.8 0 9.55 XINC 0.25
*****70R WHEELED VEHL N TYPE********
LOAD GENERATION 300
TYPE 3 -13.4 0 1.955 XINC 0.25
TYPE 3 -13.4 0 2.715 XINC 0.25
TYPE 3 -13.4 0 3.475 XINC 0.25
TYPE 3 -13.4 0 4.235 XINC 0.25
TYPE 1 -18.8 0 9.55 XINC 0.25
*****70R WHEELED VEHL M TYPE********
LOAD GENERATION 300
TYPE 3 -13.4 0 4.86 XINC 0.25
TYPE 3 -13.4 0 5.62 XINC 0.25
TYPE 3 -13.4 0 6.38 XINC 0.25
TYPE 3 -13.4 0 7.14 XINC 0.25
LOAD GENERATION 300
TYPE 2 -13.4 0 2.13 XINC 0.25
TYPE 2 -13.4 0 4.06 XINC 0.25
PERFORM ANALYSIS
PRINT SUPPORT REACTION ALL
PRINT MAXFORCE ENVELOPE LIST 52 TO 77 79 91 105 TO 130 132 144 183 195
FINISH

12
III.JACK LIFTING ANALYSIS
STAAD SPACE
START JOB INFORMATION
ENGINEER DATE 07-Jul-14
END JOB INFORMATION
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0; 2 0.28 0 0; 3 0.9 0 0; 4 1.8 0 0; 5 2.35 0 0; 6 2.905 0 0; 7 3.78 0 0;
8 4.655 0 0; 9 5.53 0 0; 10 5.655 0 0; 11 6.53 0 0; 12 7.405 0 0; 13 8.28 0 0;
14 9.155 0 0; 15 10.03 0 0; 16 10.905 0 0; 17 11.03 0 0; 18 11.905 0 0;
19 12.78 0 0; 20 13.655 0 0; 21 14.26 0 0; 22 14.76 0 0; 23 15.66 0 0;
24 16.28 0 0; 25 16.56 0 0; 26 0 0 1.6; 27 0.28 0 1.6; 28 0.9 0 1.6;
29 1.7 0 1.6; 30 1.8 0 1.6; 31 2.35 0 1.6; 32 2.905 0 1.6; 33 3.78 0 1.6;
34 4.28 0 1.6; 35 4.655 0 1.6; 36 5.53 0 1.6; 37 5.655 0 1.6; 38 6.53 0 1.6;
39 7.405 0 1.6; 40 8.28 0 1.6; 41 9.155 0 1.6; 42 10.03 0 1.6; 43 10.905 0 1.6;
44 11.03 0 1.6; 45 11.905 0 1.6; 46 12.78 0 1.6; 47 13.655 0 1.6;
48 14.26 0 1.6; 49 14.76 0 1.6; 50 15.66 0 1.6; 51 16.28 0 1.6; 52 16.56 0 1.6;
53 0 0 4.4; 54 0.28 0 4.4; 55 0.9 0 4.4; 56 1.7 0 4.4; 57 1.8 0 4.4;
58 2.35 0 4.4; 59 2.905 0 4.4; 60 3.78 0 4.4; 61 4.28 0 4.4; 62 4.655 0 4.4;
63 5.53 0 4.4; 64 5.655 0 4.4; 65 6.53 0 4.4; 66 7.405 0 4.4; 67 8.28 0 4.4;
68 9.155 0 4.4; 69 10.03 0 4.4; 70 10.905 0 4.4; 71 11.03 0 4.4;
72 11.905 0 4.4; 73 12.78 0 4.4; 74 13.655 0 4.4; 75 14.26 0 4.4;
76 14.76 0 4.4; 77 15.66 0 4.4; 78 16.28 0 4.4; 79 16.56 0 4.4; 80 0 0 7.2;
81 0.28 0 7.2; 82 0.9 0 7.2; 83 1.8 0 7.2; 84 2.35 0 7.2; 85 2.905 0 7.2;
86 3.78 0 7.2; 87 4.655 0 7.2; 88 5.53 0 7.2; 89 5.655 0 7.2; 90 6.53 0 7.2;
91 7.405 0 7.2; 92 8.28 0 7.2; 93 9.155 0 7.2; 94 10.03 0 7.2; 95 10.905 0 7.2;
96 11.03 0 7.2; 97 11.905 0 7.2; 98 12.78 0 7.2; 99 13.655 0 7.2;
100 14.26 0 7.2; 101 14.76 0 7.2; 102 15.66 0 7.2; 103 16.28 0 7.2;
104 16.56 0 7.2; 105 0 0 10; 106 0.28 0 10; 107 0.9 0 10; 108 1.8 0 10;
109 2.35 0 10; 110 2.905 0 10; 111 3.78 0 10; 112 4.655 0 10; 113 5.53 0 10;
114 5.655 0 10; 115 6.53 0 10; 116 7.405 0 10; 117 8.28 0 10; 118 9.155 0 10;
119 10.03 0 10; 120 10.905 0 10; 121 11.03 0 10; 122 11.905 0 10;
123 12.78 0 10; 124 13.655 0 10; 125 14.26 0 10; 126 14.76 0 10;
127 15.66 0 10; 128 16.28 0 10; 129 16.56 0 10; 130 0 0 11.6; 131 0.28 0 11.6;
132 0.9 0 11.6; 133 1.8 0 11.6; 134 2.35 0 11.6; 135 2.905 0 11.6;
136 3.78 0 11.6; 137 4.655 0 11.6; 138 5.53 0 11.6; 139 5.655 0 11.6;
140 6.53 0 11.6; 141 7.405 0 11.6; 142 8.28 0 11.6; 143 9.155 0 11.6;
144 10.03 0 11.6; 145 10.905 0 11.6; 146 11.03 0 11.6; 147 11.905 0 11.6;
148 12.78 0 11.6; 149 13.655 0 11.6; 150 14.26 0 11.6; 151 14.76 0 11.6;
152 15.66 0 11.6; 153 16.28 0 11.6; 154 16.56 0 11.6; 155 0.28 0 2.15;
156 0.28 0 7.75; 157 0.28 0 3.85; 158 0.28 0 9.45; 159 16.28 0 2.15;
160 16.28 0 7.75; 161 16.28 0 3.85; 162 16.28 0 9.45;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 1 2; 2 2 3; 3 3 4; 4 4 5; 5 5 6; 6 6 7; 7 7 8; 8 8 9; 9 9 10; 10 10 11;
11 11 12; 12 12 13; 13 13 14; 14 14 15; 15 15 16; 16 16 17; 17 17 18; 18 18 19;
19 19 20; 20 20 21; 21 21 22; 22 22 23; 23 23 24; 24 24 25; 25 1 26; 26 2 27;
27 3 28; 28 4 30; 29 5 31; 30 6 32; 31 7 33; 32 8 35; 33 9 36; 34 10 37;
35 10 37; 36 11 38; 37 12 39; 38 13 40; 39 14 41; 40 15 42; 41 16 43; 42 16 43;
43 17 44; 44 18 45; 45 19 46; 46 20 47; 47 21 48; 48 22 49; 49 23 50; 50 24 51;
51 25 52; 52 26 27; 53 27 28; 54 28 29; 55 29 30; 56 30 31; 57 31 32; 58 32 33;
59 33 34; 60 34 35; 61 35 36; 62 36 37; 63 37 38; 64 38 39; 65 39 40; 66 40 41;
67 41 42; 68 42 43; 69 43 44; 70 44 45; 71 45 46; 72 46 47; 73 47 48; 74 48 49;
75 49 50; 76 50 51; 77 51 52; 78 26 53; 79 27 155; 80 28 55; 81 30 57;
82 31 58; 83 32 59; 84 33 60; 85 35 62; 86 36 63; 87 37 64; 88 37 64; 89 38 65;
90 39 66; 91 40 67; 92 41 68; 93 42 69; 94 43 70; 95 43 70; 96 44 71; 97 45 72;
98 46 73; 99 47 74; 100 48 75; 101 49 76; 102 50 77; 103 51 159; 104 52 79;
105 53 54; 106 54 55; 107 55 56; 108 56 57; 109 57 58; 110 58 59; 111 59 60;
112 60 61; 113 61 62; 114 62 63; 115 63 64; 116 64 65; 117 65 66; 118 66 67;
119 67 68; 120 68 69; 121 69 70; 122 70 71; 123 71 72; 124 72 73; 125 73 74;
126 74 75; 127 75 76; 128 76 77; 129 77 78; 130 78 79; 131 53 80; 132 54 81;
133 55 82; 134 57 83; 135 58 84; 136 59 85; 137 60 86; 138 62 87; 139 63 88;
140 64 89; 141 64 89; 142 65 90; 143 66 91; 144 67 92; 145 68 93; 146 69 94;
147 70 95; 148 70 95; 149 71 96; 150 72 97; 151 73 98; 152 74 99; 153 75 100;
154 76 101; 155 77 102; 156 78 103; 157 79 104; 158 80 81; 159 81 82;
160 82 83; 161 83 84; 162 84 85; 163 85 86; 164 86 87; 165 87 88; 166 88 89;
167 89 90; 168 90 91; 169 91 92; 170 92 93; 171 93 94; 172 94 95; 173 95 96;

13
174 96 97; 175 97 98; 176 98 99; 177 99 100; 178 100 101; 179 101 102;
180 102 103; 181 103 104; 182 80 105; 183 81 156; 184 82 107; 185 83 108;
186 84 109; 187 85 110; 188 86 111; 189 87 112; 190 88 113; 191 89 114;
192 89 114; 193 90 115; 194 91 116; 195 92 117; 196 93 118; 197 94 119;
198 95 120; 199 95 120; 200 96 121; 201 97 122; 202 98 123; 203 99 124;
204 100 125; 205 101 126; 206 102 127; 207 103 160; 208 104 129; 209 105 106;
210 106 107; 211 107 108; 212 108 109; 213 109 110; 214 110 111; 215 111 112;
216 112 113; 217 113 114; 218 114 115; 219 115 116; 220 116 117; 221 117 118;
222 118 119; 223 119 120; 224 120 121; 225 121 122; 226 122 123; 227 123 124;
228 124 125; 229 125 126; 230 126 127; 231 127 128; 232 128 129; 233 105 130;
234 106 131; 235 107 132; 236 108 133; 237 109 134; 238 110 135; 239 111 136;
240 112 137; 241 113 138; 242 114 139; 243 114 139; 244 115 140; 245 116 141;
246 117 142; 247 118 143; 248 119 144; 249 120 145; 250 120 145; 251 121 146;
252 122 147; 253 123 148; 254 124 149; 255 125 150; 256 126 151; 257 127 152;
258 128 153; 259 129 154; 260 130 131; 261 131 132; 262 132 133; 263 133 134;
264 134 135; 265 135 136; 266 136 137; 267 137 138; 268 138 139; 269 139 140;
270 140 141; 271 141 142; 272 142 143; 273 143 144; 274 144 145; 275 145 146;
276 146 147; 277 147 148; 278 148 149; 279 149 150; 280 150 151; 281 151 152;
282 152 153; 283 153 154; 284 155 157; 285 156 158; 286 157 54; 287 158 106;
288 159 161; 289 160 162; 290 161 78; 291 162 128;
DEFINE PMEMBER
54 55 PMEMBER 1
START GROUP DEFINITION
GEOMETRY
MEMBER
_DD 7 8 22 43 47 48 63 73 74 82 110 123 135 155 171 192 193 239 257
END GROUP DEFINITION
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC CONCRETE
E 2.17185e+007
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 23.5616
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
END DEFINE MATERIAL
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL CONCRETE ALL
MEMBER PROPERTY INDIAN
79 91 103 132 144 156 183 195 207 284 TO 291 PRIS YD 1.1 ZD 0.3
1 TO 24 260 TO 283 PRIS YD 0.23 ZD 0.1
25 51 233 259 PRIS YD 0.23 ZD 0.48
26 50 234 258 PRIS YD 0.23 ZD 0.4
27 49 80 102 133 155 184 206 235 257 PRIS YD 0.23 ZD 0.9
105 TO 130 158 TO 181 PRIS AX 1.199 IX 0.0095 IY 0.433 IZ 0.278
52 TO 77 209 TO 232 PRIS AX 1.307 IX 0.01025 IY 0.627 IZ 0.29
MEMBER PROPERTY INDIAN
28 TO 48 81 TO 90 92 TO 101 134 TO 143 145 TO 154 185 TO 194 196 TO 205 236 -
237 TO 256 PRIS YD 0.23 ZD 0.875
MEMBER PROPERTY INDIAN
78 104 131 157 182 208 PRIS YD 0.23 ZD 0.08
SUPPORTS
155 TO 158 PINNED
159 TO 162 FIXED BUT FX FZ MX MY MZ
LOAD 1 PERMANENT LOAD
MEMBER LOAD
105 106 129 130 158 159 180 181 UNI GY -36.225
109 TO 127 161 TO 178 UNI GY -29.975
52 53 76 77 209 210 231 232 UNI GY -38.925
211 TRAP GY -38.925 -32.675
55 TRAP GY -33.3694 -32.675 0 0.1
54 TRAP GY -38.925 -33.3694 0 0.8
75 230 TRAP GY -32.675 -38.925
160 TRAP GY -36.225 -29.975
108 TRAP GY -30.6694 -29.975 0 0.1
107 TRAP GY -36.225 -30.6694 0 0.8
128 179 TRAP GY -29.975 -36.225
79 91 103 132 144 156 183 195 207 284 TO 291 UNI GY -8.25

14
1 TO 24 28 260 TO 283 UNI GY -6.53
56 TO 74 109 212 TO 229 231 UNI GY -32.675
LOAD 2 SURFACING LOAD
MEMBER LOAD
105 TO 130 158 TO 181 UNI GY -5.6
52 TO 77 109 209 TO 232 UNI GY -5.4
PERFORM ANALYSIS
PRINT SUPPORT REACTION LIST 1 TO 154
PRINT MAXFORCE ENVELOPE LIST 52 TO 77 79 91 105 TO 130 132 144 183 195 284 -
285 TO 287
FINISH

15
SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS STAAD REACTION FOR DEAD LOAD & LIVE LOAD
i) Self weight load
Support Reaction ( Left Side ) Support Reaction ( Right Side )
Load Total
Load Node Node Remarks
Case Reaction
27 54 81 106 51 78 103 128
Dead Load ( Permanent Load ) 1 378 289 289 378 378 289 289 378 2668
Surfacing Load ( Wearing coat only ) 2 46 49 49 46 46 49 49 46 380
Foot path Live load ( Variable load ) 3
ii) One Span load Condition
Support Reaction ( Left Side ) Support Reaction ( Right Side )
Load Total
Load Node Node Remarks
Case Reaction
27 54 81 106 51 78 103 128
70R Class - A ( From Lt edge) 59 346 290 326 197 1159
70R Wheeled - 'l' type ( From Lt edge) 359 345 360 243 173 1121
70R Wheeled - 'm' type ( From Lt edge) 659 341 367 340 173 1221
70R Wheeled - 'n' type ( From Lt edge) 959 340 370 238 173 1121 Critical

70R Wheeled - 'n' type ( Mid of Deck width - 1255 12 350 419 17 798
cross only)
ii) Two Span load Condition
Support Reaction ( Left Side ) Support Reaction ( Right Side )
Load Total
Load Node Node Remarks
Case Reaction
51 78 103 128 227 290 293 356
70R Class - A ( From Lt edge) 125 9 193 208 132 165 136 162 91 1096
70R Wheeled - 'l' type ( From Lt edge) 420 8 323 100 65 85 113 159 147 1000
70R Wheeled - 'm' type ( From Lt edge) 720 8 329 97 65 83 116 157 147 1002
70R Wheeled - 'n' type ( From Lt edge) 1020 8 331 96 65 83 118 156 147 1004 Critical
70R Wheeled - 'n' type ( Mid of Deck width -
1301 34 206 250 6 -3 221 270 5 989
cross only)
d' Distance - OG1 & OG2

DESIGN OF OUTER GIRDER


Effective Span 23.40m
1.400m from support d' Distance
1.1 Material Data :
Grade of Concrete fck = M 30
Grade of Steel fyk = Fe 500
Design value of concrete compressive strength, fcd = 20 Mpa
Design yield strength of reinforcement, fyd = 435 Mpa
Modulus of elasticity of steel, Es = 200000 N/mm2
Effective Length of Span, lo = 16000 mm
Partial safety factor for concrete, c = 1.50
Partial safety factor for steel, s = 1.15
1.2 Geometric Data;
Total Depth, D = 1500 mm
Depth of comp. flange, df = 230 mm
Width of Web, bw = 325 mm
Clear cover to any reinforcement = 40 mm (Moderate)
The Effective Flange Width, beff = 3200 mm
1.3 Effective width of flanged Beams
b
beff
beff1 beff2 0.0035
c 0.446 fck
x
df
D
d

``
As

st =(0.87fy/Es)+.002 0.87 fy
b1 bw b2 Strain Diagram Stress Diagram

FIGURE - I
beff = beff,i + bw < b = 325 + 1637.5 + 1237.5 = 3200 3200 mm

17
d' Distance - OG1 & OG2

IRC : 112-2011 From Table 6.5


b = 3200 Stress - Strain Relation for design of sections
3200 c = fcd (1-(1-(c/c2)))
1638 1238 c = 3.5 For 0 < c < c2
c2= 2
32 mm = 2

230
fcd = ckf / m
= 0.67 IRC : 112-2011 Cl. 6.4.2.8
1800 1400 fcd = 0.67 x 30/ 1.5 = 13.4
325 c = 13.4(1-(1-(3.5/2)2)

1414 mm

1500 mm
5.863 N/mm2
1637.5
1237.5

5630.00 mm2 64
64
68

1487.5 625 1087.5


b = 3200
FIGURE - II
Diameter of Main Bars = 32 mm
From bottom of
Spacing of Bars = 32 mm As As.y
grider (y)
1St Row = 5 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 4021.239 mm2 x 68 mm 273444.3 mm2
nd
2 Row = 2 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 1608.495 mm2 x 132 mm 212321.3 mm2
3rd Row = 0 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 0 mm2 x 196 mm 0 mm2
4th Row = 0 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 0 mm2 x 260 mm 0 mm2
Total Area of Steel = 5629.734 mm 2
485765.6 mm2
CG of bars from bottom of girder, d' = As.y / As = 86
Effective Depth, d D - d' = 1414 mm
1.4 Moment, Shear & torsion from As per Staad Output Result
Member L/C Node Shear Torsion Moment
1.4.1 PERMANENT LOADS
55 1 29 277.338 14.528 -430.798
1 30 -274.036 -14.528 458.367 at 1.40m d' Distance
1.4.2 SURFACING LOADS
55 2 29 36.421 -0.200 -57.137
2 30 -35.881 0.200 60.752 at 1.40m d' Distance
1.4.4 VARIABLE LOADS
55 1562 29 336.462 -22.001 -466.121
1562 30 -336.462 22.001 499.767 at 1.40m d' Distance
1.4.5 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR FOR VERIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL STRENGTH
Impact Factored load Basic Design Loads
Loads Combi
nation

18
d' Distance - OG1 & OG2

Basic
Loads Combi Torsi
Shear Torsion Moment nation Shear Moment
on
PERMANENT LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 277.338 14.528 458.367 1.35 374.0 20.0 619.0
b) variable
Relievingloads
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable
SURFACING loads
LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 36.421 0.200 60.752 1.75 64.0 0.0 106.0
b) variable
Relievingloads
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable
VARIABLE LOADSloads
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 336.462 22.001 499.767 1.50 505.0 33 750.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 1.15 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
II) Pedestrain live load
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 0 0 0 1.50 0.0 0.0 0.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 1.50 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total = 943.0 53 1475.0
1.4.6 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR FOR VERIFICATION OF SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE
Impact Factored load Freque Design Loads
nt
Loads Torsi
Shear Torsion Moment Combi Shear Moment
on
nation
PERMANENT LOADS
a) Dead load,Snow load if = 277.338 14.528 458.367 1.00 277.3 14.5 458.0
b) present,SIDL
Relieving to theincluding
effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable
SURFACING LOADS loads
a) Addind to the effect of = 36.421 0.200 60.752 1.00 36.0 0.0 61.0
b) variable
Relieving loads
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable
VARIABLE LOADS loads
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 336.462 22.001 499.767 0.75 252.0 17.0 375.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 0.20 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
II) Pedestrain live load
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 0 0 0 0.75 0.0 0.0 0.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 0.20 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total = 565.3 32 894.0
Design BM M = 1475 kN.m
Design SF VEd = 943 kN

19
d' Distance - OG1 & OG2

Design Torsion TEd = 53 kN.m


1.5 Design of Torsion
TEd = 53 kN.m ( Total Torsion )
A = 1250*325 + 625*250+2*0.5*150*150 325

1100
= 585000 mm2

1500 mm
U = 1100*2+250*2+625+ 212.132*2
= 3749 mm
tef = A/U= 156.04 mm 0.156 m
Ak = (bw - tef) (D - tef)
= (325-157)*(1500-157)

150
= 227073 mm2 227.0730
Uk = 2 (D - tef) + 2 (bw - tef) 625

250
= [2*(1500-157)]+[2*(325-157)]
= 3026 mm
75.04478
v = 0.6 (1-(fck/310)) = 0.540 IRC112-Pg.No:90 - Eq.No:10.6
1.6 Check if concrete section is adequate
TEd / TRd max + VEd / VRd max 1 IRC112-Pg.No:108 - Eq.No:10.47
TRd max = 2 v cw fcd Ak tef sin cos IRC112-Pg.No:108 - Eq.No:10.48
= 2*0.54*1*20*227.073*0.156*sin 45 * cos 45
2*0.54*1*20*227.073*0.156*0.707*0.707
= 382.57 kN.m
TEd / TRd max + VEd / VRd max = (53/382.58)+(943/2263.4) = 0.556 < 1
1.7 Design of Main reinforcement
1.7.1 Determination of x/d
X/d = =1.2 - ((1.44 - (6.68Mu / fck bf d2 ))1/2
= 1.2-(1.44-(6.68*1475x10^6 )/ (30x 3200x1414^2))1/2
= 0.022 No Compression Reinforcement Required
1.7.2 Determination of Lever arm 'z'
z = d - ( 1 - 0.416 x/d )
= 1414* (1 - 0.416 x 0.022)))
= 1401 mm < 0.95d = 1343 mm
= 1401 mm
1.7.3 Depth of N.A From top of section
x = (d-z) / 0.4
= ( 1414 - 1401.06 ) / 0.4
= 32 mm < 1.25 df = 288 mm Yes
Hence the stress block does lie within the depth of top flange
1.7.4 Tension Reinforcement Required from
As = M / (0.87 fy z)
= 1475x10^6 / ( 0.87 x 500 x 1401.059 )
= 2420 mm2
Ftd = 0.5 VEd Cot IRC : 112-2011 Cl. 10.3.3.3 ( 6)
= 0.5 x 943 x Cot 33.5 = 0.5X943 x 1.511
= 712.4 kN
As = Ftd / 0.87 x fyk
= 712.359X10^3/ (0.87 x 500)

20
d' Distance - OG1 & OG2

1638 mm2
= 2420 + 1638 = 4058 mm2 =
nos of 4021 2
Provide 5 32 mm = mm (g1-5nos)
2 nos of 32 mm = 1608 mm2 (g2-5nos)
0 nos of 32 mm = 0 mm2
0 nos of 32 mm = 0 mm2
5630 mm2 Safe
1.7.5 Check minimum reinforcement
As min = 0.26 fctm bt d / fyk
fctm = 0.259 (fck)^2/3 For fck 60MPa
= 0.259 * (30)^2/3 = 2.5
As min = (0.26*2.51*325*1414)/(500)
= 598 mm2
1.7.6 Check maximum reinforcement
As max = 0.04 Ac
= 0.04*325*1500
= 19500 mm2
1.8 Design of Shear
1.8.1 Concrete strut capacity
V Rd max = cw bw z v1 fcd / cot + tan IRC112-Pg.No:90-Eq.No:10.8
cw= 1 (No axial force)
z = 0.9 d = 1261
v1 = 0.6 < 80 Mpa
VRd max = (1*325*1260.96*0.6*20) / (cot 33.5 + tan33.5 )
= 2263 kN
VEd = 943 kN
= VRd max > Ved max
1.8.2 Vertical stirrups
The Shear Links required can be Calculate
VRds = = Asw /s z fywd cot IRC112-Pg.No:90 Eq.10.7
Asw / s = Area of Legs of links / Link spacing
z = 0.9 d = 1261
fywd = 0.8 x fyk/gm IRC112-Pg.No:86
= 0.8x500 = 400 Cot = 33
Asw / s = VEd/ z fywd cot
= 943x10^3 / (1261 x 33 x (1/Tan(D211))
943000/504400 * 1.54
Asw / s = 1.214
Additional torsional Reinforcement
Asl = TEd Uk cot / 2 Ak fyd IRC112-Pg.No:109-Eq.No:10.49
= 32.966*10^3*3025.84*cot 45 / 2*227073*434.79
= 505.18 mm2 0.505
Total Vertical stirrups = 1.71900 = 1.719
Provide 2L 12 mm @ 110 mm ( a1 )
226 / s = 110
Dia of rod = 12 Asw / Sf prov = 226 / 110 = 2.055

21
d' Distance - OG1 & OG2

Asw / Sf Req < Asw / Sf Prov


Safe
1.8.3 Minimum links
w = Asw / s x bw x sin ) IRC112-Pg.No:86 Eq 16.4
w.min = ( 0.072*((fck)) / (fyk ) IRC112-Pg.No:95 Eq 10.20
= (0.072*30 / 500)
= 0.000789
bw = 325 mm
= sin 90 = 1
Min. Asw/s = w.min * bw * sin
Min. Asw/s = 0.0007887 x 325 x sin 90
Min. Asw/s = 256.33 mm2
Provide 2L 10 mm @ 300 mm c/c 524 mm2 safe
1.8.4 Shear between web & flanges
Change in moment over distance d' Distance from zero moment is
M = 894 kN.m
Change in Longitudinal force @ the Flange-Web interface is
Fd = (M/(d-hf/2)) x ((bf-bw)/2)/bf)
= ((894*10^3 )/ (1414- (230/2)))*(((3200-625)/2) / 3200)
= 277 kN
x = 0.85xleff /2
= 6.80 m
Fd/x = 277/6.8
= 40.72 KN/m
VEdf = Fd / df x IRC112-Pg.No:97-Eq.No:10.22
= 177 kN/m2
VRd max = vdf fcd sin cos
v= 0.6(1-(fck/250))
= 0.528
VRd max = 0.528*20*sin 45 * cos 45
= 1214 N/mm2 0.177 N/mm2
1.8.5 Transverse reinforcement
Asf / s = VEdf df / fyd cot IRC112-Pg.No:98-Eq.No:10.23
= (177.05*230) / (434.79*cot 45) = 94 mm2/ m
1.8.6 Side face reinforcement
Side face reinforcement required for both face
= 0.1 * 585000 mm2 = 585 mm2
100
Using 10 mm dia bars ,no. of bars in one face
= 585 = 5.0 or 6 bars
2* 78.5
Maximum Depth Side face = 1100 / 5 = 220 mm > 300 mm ok
Provide 10 dia bars 6 no. on each face ( f1 & f2 )

1.9 Calculation of Crack Width


1.9.1 Calculate the stress in the tension steel

22
d' Distance - OG1 & OG2

sc = M / [d - (x/3)] As
= (1475*10^6) / ( (1414- (32/3) )*5630 )
= 186.69 N/mm2 < 434.8 N/mm2 OK
1.9.2 Calculate the stress in the concrete
c = M*2 / ( bf * X * Z)
= (1475*10^6)*2 / (3200x609.283x1401.059)
= 1.0799 N/mm2 < 20.0 N/mm2 OK
For various bars used
eq = ( n1 12 + n2 22 ) / ( n1 1 + n2 2 ) IRC112-Pg.No:127-Eq.No:12.9
= 32 mm
c = 40.0 mm
k1 = Deformed bars
= 0.8
k2 = Bending
= 0.5
eff = As / Ac eff IRC112-Pg.No:126-Eq.No:12.7
Ac eff = bw Dc eff
= 325*215 = 69875 mm2
eff = 4021.24 / 69875 = 0.06
1.9.3 Calculate the maximum crack spacing S r max
Sr max = ( 3.4 c + 0.425 k1 k2 ) / eff IRC112-Pg.No:127-Eq.No:12.8
Sr max = ( 3.4 c + 0.425 k1 k2 ) / eff
= [( 3.4 * 40) + (0.425 * 0.8*0.5*32)] / 0.06
= 230.53 mm
( sm - cm ) = {sc-kt ( fct eff / eff ) (1+e eff)}/Es 0.6 (sc / Es)
kt = 0.5 (as per IRC 112) IRC112-Pg.No:125-Eq.No:12.6.
e = Es / Ecm
Ecm = 22 (fcm / 12.5)0.3
= 22*( (30+10) / 12.5 )^0.3
= 31.2 Mpa
e = 200000 / 31.19 = 6.413
fct eff = Greater of 2.9 MPa or fctm = 2.90 Mpa
( sm - cm ) = {186.7- {0.5(2.9/0.06) (1+(6.42*0.06))}}/200000
= 0.00076098
1.9.4 Calculate of crack width
Wk = Sr max ( sm - cm ) IRC112-Pg.No:125-Eq.No:12.5
Wk = 230.53*0.01
= 0.175 mm

23
Tapper - OG1 & OG2

DESIGN OF OUTER GIRDER


Effective Span 23.40m
1.520m from support Tapper End
1.1 Material Data :
Grade of Concrete fck = M 30
Grade of Steel fyk = Fe 500
Design value of concrete compressive strength, fcd = 20 Mpa
Design yield strength of reinforcement, fyd = 435 Mpa
Modulus of elasticity of steel, Es = 200000 N/mm2
Effective Length of Span, lo = 16000 mm
Partial safety factor for concrete, c = 1.50
Partial safety factor for steel, s = 1.15
1.2 Geometric Data;
Total Depth, D = 1500 mm
Depth of comp. flange, df = 230 mm
Width of Web, bw = 325 mm
Clear cover to any reinforcement = 40 mm (Moderate)
The Effective Flange Width, beff = 3200 mm
1.3 Effective width of flanged Beams
b
beff
beff1 beff2 0.0035
c 0.446 fck
x
df
D
d

``
As

st =(0.87fy/Es)+.002 0.87 fy
b1 bw b2 Strain Diagram Stress Diagram

FIGURE - I
beff = beff,i + bw < b = 325 + 1637.5 + 1237.5 = 3200 3200 mm

24
Tapper - OG1 & OG2

IRC : 112-2011 From Table 6.5


b = 3200 Stress - Strain Relation for design of sections
3200 c = fcd (1-(1-(c/c2)))
1638 1238 c = 3.5 For 0 < c < c2
c2= 2
29 mm = 2

230
fcd = ckf / m
= 0.67 IRC : 112-2011 Cl. 6.4.2.8
1800 1400 fcd = 0.67 x 30/ 1.5 = 13.4
325 c = 13.4(1-(1-(3.5/2)2)

1414 mm

1500 mm
5.863 N/mm2
1637.5
1237.5

5630.00 mm2 64
64
68

1487.5 625 1087.5


b = 3200
FIGURE - II
Diameter of Main Bars = 32 mm
From bottom of
Spacing of Bars = 32 mm As As.y
grider (y)
1St Row = 5 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 4021.239 mm2 x 68 mm 273444.3 mm2
nd
2 Row = 2 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 1608.495 mm2 x 132 mm 212321.3 mm2
3rd Row = 0 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 0 mm2 x 196 mm 0 mm2
4th Row = 0 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 0 mm2 x 260 mm 0 mm2
Total Area of Steel = 5629.734 mm 2
485765.6 mm2
CG of bars from bottom of girder, d' = As.y / As = 86
Effective Depth, d D - d' = 1414 mm
1.4 Moment, Shear & torsion from As per Staad Output Result
Member L/C Node Shear Torsion Moment
1.4.1 PERMANENT LOADS
54 1 28 306.256 14.528 -197.657
1 29 -277.338 -14.528 430.798 at 1.52m Tapper End
1.4.2 SURFACING LOADS
54 2 28 40.741 -0.200 -26.273
2 29 -36.421 0.200 57.137 at 1.52m Tapper End

1.4.4 VARIABLE LOADS


54 1562 28 336.462 -22.001 -196.952
1562 29 -336.462 22.001 466.121 at 1.52m Tapper End

25
Tapper - OG1 & OG2

1.4.5 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR FOR VERIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL STRENGTH


Impact Factored load Basic Design Loads
Loads Combi Torsi
Shear Torsion Moment nation Shear Moment
on
PERMANENT LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 306.256 14.528 430.798 1.35 413.0 20.0 582.0
b) variable
Relievingloads
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable
SURFACING loads
LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 40.741 0.200 57.137 1.75 71.0 0.0 100.0
b) variable
Relievingloads
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable
VARIABLE LOADSloads
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 336.462 22.001 466.121 1.50 505.0 33 699.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 1.15 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
II) Pedestrain live load
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 0 0 0 1.50 0.0 0.0 0.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 1.50 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total = 989.0 53 1381.0
1.4.6 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR FOR VERIFICATION OF SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE
Impact Factored load Freque Design Loads
nt
Loads Torsi
Shear Torsion Moment Combi Shear Moment
on
nation
PERMANENT LOADS
a) Dead load,Snow load if = 306.256 14.528 430.798 1.00 306.3 14.5 431.0
b) present,SIDL
Relieving including
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable loads
SURFACING LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 40.741 0.200 57.137 1.00 41.0 0.0 57.0
b) variable
Relieving loads
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable loads
VARIABLE LOADS
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 336.462 22.001 466.121 0.75 252.0 17.0 350.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 0.20 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
II) Pedestrain live load
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 0 0 0 0.75 0.0 0.0 0.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 0.20 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total = 599.3 32 838.0

26
Tapper - OG1 & OG2

Design BM M = 1381 kN.m


Design SF VEd = 989 kN
Design Torsion TEd = 53 kN.m
1.5 Design of Torsion
TEd = 53 kN.m ( Total Torsion )
A = 1250*325 + 625*250+2*0.5*150*150 325

1100
= 585000 mm2

1500 mm
U = 1100*2+250*2+625+ 212.132*2
= 3749 mm
tef = A/U= 156.04 mm 0.156 m
Ak = (bw - tef) (D - tef)
= (325-157)*(1500-157)

150
= 227073 mm2 227.0730
Uk = 2 (D - tef) + 2 (bw - tef) 625

250
= [2*(1500-157)]+[2*(325-157)]
= 3026 mm
75.04478
v = 0.6 (1-(fck/310)) = 0.540 IRC112-Pg.No:90 - Eq.No:10.6
1.6 Check if concrete section is adequate
TEd / TRd max + VEd / VRd max 1 IRC112-Pg.No:108 - Eq.No:10.47
TRd max = 2 v cw fcd Ak tef sin cos IRC112-Pg.No:108 - Eq.No:10.48
= 2*0.54*1*20*227.073*0.156*sin 45 * cos 45
2*0.54*1*20*227.073*0.156*0.707*0.707
= 382.57 kN.m
TEd / TRd max + VEd / VRd max = (53/382.58)+(989/2265.3) = 0.576 < 1
1.7 Design of Main reinforcement
1.7.1 Determination of x/d
X/d = =1.2 - ((1.44 - (6.68Mu / fck bf d2 ))1/2
= 1.2-(1.44-(6.68*1381x10^6 )/ (30x 3200x1414^2))1/2
= 0.020 No Compression Reinforcement Required
1.7.2 Determination of Lever arm 'z'
z = d - ( 1 - 0.416 x/d )
= 1414* (1 - 0.416 x 0.02)))
= 1402 mm < 0.95d = 1343 mm
= 1402 mm
1.7.3 Depth of N.A From top of section
x = (d-z) / 0.4
= ( 1414 - 1402.24 ) / 0.4
= 29 mm < 1.25 df = 288 mm Yes
Hence the stress block does lie within the depth of top flange
1.7.4 Tension Reinforcement Required from
As = M / (0.87 fy z)
= 1381x10^6 / ( 0.87 x 500 x 1402.236 )
= 2264 mm2
Ftd = 0.5 VEd Cot IRC : 112-2011 Cl. 10.3.3.3 ( 6)
= 0.5 x 989 x Cot 33.5 = 0.5X989 x 1.511
= 747.1 kN

27
Tapper - OG1 & OG2

As = Ftd / 0.87 x fyk


= 747.108X10^3/ (0.87 x 500)
1717 mm2
= 2264 + 1717 = 3981 mm2 =
Provide 5 nos of 32 mm = 4021 mm2 (g1-5nos)
2 nos of 32 mm = 1608 mm2 (g2-5nos)
0 nos of 32 mm = 0 mm2
0 nos of 32 mm = 0 mm2
5630 mm2 Safe
1.7.5 Check minimum reinforcement
As min = 0.26 fctm bt d / fyk
fctm = 0.259 (fck)^2/3 For fck 60MPa
= 0.259 * (30)^2/3 = 2.5
As min = (0.26*2.51*325*1414)/(500)
= 598 mm2
1.7.6 Check maximum reinforcement
As max = 0.04 Ac
= 0.04*325*1500
= 19500 mm2
1.8 Design of Shear
1.8.1 Concrete strut capacity
V Rd max = cw bw z v1 fcd / cot + tan IRC112-Pg.No:90-Eq.No:10.8
cw = 1 (No axial force)
z = 0.9 d = 1262
v1 = 0.6 < 80 Mpa
VRd max = (1*325*1262.02*0.6*20) / (cot 33.5 + tan33.5 )
= 2265 kN
VEd = 989 kN
= VRd max > Ved max
1.8.2 Vertical stirrups
The Shear Links required can be Calculate
VRds = = Asw /s z fywd cot IRC112-Pg.No:90 Eq.10.7
Asw / s = Area of Legs of links / Link spacing
z = 0.9 d = 1262
fywd = 0.8 x fyk/gm IRC112-Pg.No:86
= 0.8x500 = 400 Cot = 33
Asw / s = VEd/ z fywd cot
= 989x10^3 / (1262 x 33 x (1/Tan(D211))
989000/504800 * 1.54
Asw / s = 1.272
Additional torsional Reinforcement
Asl = TEd Uk cot / 2 Ak fyd IRC112-Pg.No:109-Eq.No:10.49
= 32.966*10^3*3025.84*cot 45 / 2*227073*434.79
= 505.18 mm2 0.505
Total Vertical stirrups = 1.77700 = 1.777
Provide 2L 12 mm @ 110 mm ( a1 )

28
Tapper - OG1 & OG2

226 / s = 110
Dia of rod = 12 Asw / Sf prov = 226 / 110 = 2.055
Asw / Sf Req < Asw / Sf Prov
Safe
1.8.3 Minimum links
w = Asw / s x bw x sin ) IRC112-Pg.No:86 Eq 16.4
w.min = ( 0.072*((fck)) / (fyk ) IRC112-Pg.No:95 Eq 10.20
= (0.072*30 / 500)
= 0.000789
bw = 325 mm
= sin 90 = 1
Min. Asw/s = w.min * bw * sin
Min. Asw/s = 0.0007887 x 325 x sin 90
Min. Asw/s = 256.33 mm2
Provide 2L 10 mm @ 300 mm c/c 524 mm2 safe
1.8.4 Shear between web & flanges
Change in moment over distance Tapper End from zero moment is
M = 838 kN.m
Change in Longitudinal force @ the Flange-Web interface is
Fd = (M/(d-hf/2)) x ((bf-bw)/2)/bf)
= ((838*10^3 )/ (1414- (230/2)))*(((3200-625)/2) / 3200)
= 260 kN
x = 0.85xleff /2
= 6.80 m
Fd/x = 260/6.8
= 38.17 KN/m
VEdf = Fd / df x IRC112-Pg.No:97-Eq.No:10.22
2
= 166 kN/m
VRd max = vdf fcd sin cos
v= 0.6(1-(fck/250))
= 0.528
VRd max = 0.528*20*sin 45 * cos 45
= 1214 N/mm2 0.166 N/mm2
1.8.5 Transverse reinforcement
Asf / s = VEdf df / fyd cot IRC112-Pg.No:98-Eq.No:10.23
= (165.96*230) / (434.79*cot 45) = 88 mm2/ m
1.8.6 Side face reinforcement
Side face reinforcement required for both face
= 0.1 * 585000 mm2 = 585 mm2
100
Using 10 mm dia bars ,no. of bars in one face
= 585 = 5.0 or 6 bars
2* 78.5
Maximum Depth Side face = 1100 / 5 = 220 mm > 300 mm ok
Provide 10 dia bars 6 no. on each face ( f1 & f2 )

29
Tapper - OG1 & OG2

1.9 Calculation of Crack Width


1.9.1 Calculate the stress in the tension steel
sc = M / [d - (x/3)] As
= (838*10^6) / ( (1414- (29/3) )*5630 )
= 174.67 N/mm2 < 434.8 N/mm2 OK
1.9.2 Calculate the stress in the concrete
c = M*2 / ( bf * X * Z)
= (1381*10^6)*2 / (3200x609.283x1402.236)
= 1.0103 N/mm2 < 20.0 N/mm2 OK
For various bars used
eq = ( n1 12 + n2 22 ) / ( n1 1 + n2 2 ) IRC112-Pg.No:127-Eq.No:12.9
= 32 mm
c = 40.0 mm
k1 = Deformed bars
= 0.8
k2 = Bending
= 0.5
eff = As / Ac eff IRC112-Pg.No:126-Eq.No:12.7
Ac eff = bw Dc eff
= 325*215 = 69875 mm2
eff = 4021.24 / 69875 = 0.06
1.9.3 Calculate the maximum crack spacing S r max
Sr max = ( 3.4 c + 0.425 k1 k2 ) / eff IRC112-Pg.No:127-Eq.No:12.8
Sr max = ( 3.4 c + 0.425 k1 k2 ) / eff
= [( 3.4 * 40) + (0.425 * 0.8*0.5*32)] / 0.06
= 230.53 mm
( sm - cm ) = {sc-kt ( fct eff / eff ) (1+e eff)}/Es 0.6 (sc / Es)
kt = 0.5 (as per IRC 112) IRC112-Pg.No:125-Eq.No:12.6.
e = Es / Ecm
Ecm = 22 (fcm / 12.5)0.3
= 22*( (30+10) / 12.5 )^0.3
= 31.2 Mpa
e = 200000 / 31.19 = 6.413
fct eff = Greater of 2.9 MPa or fctm = 2.90 Mpa
( sm - cm ) = {174.67- {0.5(2.9/0.06) (1+(6.42*0.06))}}/200000
= 0.00070087
1.9.4 Calculate of crack width
Wk = Sr max ( sm - cm ) IRC112-Pg.No:125-Eq.No:12.5
Wk = 230.53*0.01
= 0.162 mm

30
L by 8 - 0G1 & OG2

DESIGN OF OUTER GIRDER


Effective Span 23.40m
4.000m from support L/8 span
1.1 Material Data :
Grade of Concrete fck = M 30
Grade of Steel fyk = Fe 500
Design value of concrete compressive strength, fcd = 20 Mpa
Design yield strength of reinforcement, fyd = 435 Mpa
Modulus of elasticity of steel, Es = 200000 N/mm2
Effective Length of Span, lo = 16000 mm
Partial safety factor for concrete, c = 1.50
Partial safety factor for steel, s = 1.15
1.2 Geometric Data;
Total Depth, D = 1500 mm
Depth of comp. flange, df = 230 mm
Width of Web, bw = 325 mm
Clear cover to any reinforcement = 40 mm (Moderate)
The Effective Flange Width, beff = 3200 mm
1.3 Effective width of flanged Beams
b
beff
beff1 beff2 0.0035
c 0.446 fck
x
df
D
d

``
As

st =(0.87fy/Es)+.002 0.87 fy
b1 bw b2 Strain Diagram Stress Diagram

FIGURE - I
beff = beff,i + bw < b = 325 + 1637.5 + 1237.5 = 3200 3200 mm

31
L by 8 - 0G1 & OG2

IRC : 112-2011 From Table 6.5


b = 3200 Stress - Strain Relation for design of sections
3200 c = fcd (1-(1-(c/c2)))
1638 1238 c = 3.5 For 0 < c < c2
c2= 2
42 mm = 2

230
fcd = ckf / m
= 0.67 IRC : 112-2011 Cl. 6.4.2.8
1800 1400 fcd = 0.67 x 30/ 1.5 = 13.4
325 c = 13.4(1-(1-(3.5/2)2)

1400 mm

1500 mm
5.863 N/mm2
1637.5
1237.5

8042.00 mm2 64
64
68

1487.5 625 1087.5


b = 3200
FIGURE - II
Diameter of Main Bars = 32 mm
From bottom of
Spacing of Bars = 32 mm As As.y
grider (y)
1St Row = 5 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 4021.239 mm2 x 68 mm 273444.3 mm2
nd
2 Row = 5 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 4021.239 mm2 x 132 mm 530803.5 mm2
3rd Row = 0 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 0 mm2 x 196 mm 0 mm2
4th Row = 0 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 0 mm2 x 260 mm 0 mm2
Total Area of Steel = 8042.478 mm 2
804247.8 mm2
CG of bars from bottom of girder, d' = As.y / As = 100
Effective Depth, d D - d' = 1400 mm
1.4 Moment, Shear & torsion from As per Staad Output Result
Member L/C Node Shear Torsion Moment
1.4.1 PERMANENT LOADS
56 1 30 260.006 8.741 -458.234
1 31 -242.034 -8.741 596.295 at 4.00m L/8 span
1.4.2 SURFACING LOADS
56 2 30 35.865 -0.179 -60.777
2 31 -32.895 0.179 79.686 at 4.00m L/8 span

1.4.4 VARIABLE LOADS


56 1564 30 320.588 -21.072 -470.477
1564 31 -320.588 21.072 646.800 at 4.00m L/8 span

32
L by 8 - 0G1 & OG2

1.4.5 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR FOR VERIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL STRENGTH


Impact Factored load Basic Design Loads
Loads Combi Torsi
Shear Torsion Moment nation Shear Moment
on
PERMANENT LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 260.006 8.741 596.295 1.35 351.0 12.0 805.0
b) variable
Relievingloads
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable
SURFACING loads
LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 35.865 0.179 79.686 1.75 63.0 0.0 139.0
b) variable
Relievingloads
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable
VARIABLE LOADSloads
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 320.588 21.072 646.8 1.50 481.0 32 970.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 1.15 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
II) Pedestrain live load
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 0 0 0 1.50 0.0 0.0 0.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 1.50 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total = 895.0 44 1914.0
1.4.6 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR FOR VERIFICATION OF SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE
Impact Factored load Freque Design Loads
nt
Loads Torsi
Shear Torsion Moment Combi Shear Moment
on
nation
PERMANENT LOADS
a) Dead load,Snow load if = 260.006 8.741 596.295 1.00 260.0 8.7 596.0
b) present,SIDL
Relieving including
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable loads
SURFACING LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 35.865 0.179 79.686 1.00 36.0 0.0 80.0
b) variable
Relieving loads
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable loads
VARIABLE LOADS
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 320.588 21.072 646.8 0.75 240.0 16.0 485.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 0.20 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
II) Pedestrain live load
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 0 0 0 0.75 0.0 0.0 0.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 0.20 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total = 536.0 25 1161.0

33
L by 8 - 0G1 & OG2

Design BM M = 1914 kN.m


Design SF VEd = 895 kN
Design Torsion TEd = 44 kN.m
1.5 Design of Torsion
TEd = 44 kN.m ( Total Torsion )
A = 1250*325 + 625*250+2*0.5*150*150 325

1100
= 585000 mm2

1500 mm
U = 1100*2+250*2+625+ 212.132*2
= 3749 mm
tef = A/U= 156.04 mm 0.156 m
Ak = (bw - tef) (D - tef)
= (325-157)*(1500-157)

150
= 227073 mm2 227.0730
Uk = 2 (D - tef) + 2 (bw - tef) 625

250
= [2*(1500-157)]+[2*(325-157)]
= 3026 mm
75.04478
v = 0.6 (1-(fck/310)) = 0.540 IRC112-Pg.No:90 - Eq.No:10.6
1.6 Check if concrete section is adequate
TEd / TRd max + VEd / VRd max 1 IRC112-Pg.No:108 - Eq.No:10.47
TRd max = 2 v cw fcd Ak tef sin cos IRC112-Pg.No:108 - Eq.No:10.48
= 2*0.54*1*20*227.073*0.156*sin 45 * cos 45
2*0.54*1*20*227.073*0.156*0.707*0.707
= 382.57 kN.m
TEd / TRd max + VEd / VRd max = (44/382.58)+(895/2234.4) = 0.516 < 1
1.7 Design of Main reinforcement
1.7.1 Determination of x/d
X/d = =1.2 - ((1.44 - (6.68Mu / fck bf d2 ))1/2
= 1.2-(1.44-(6.68*1914x10^6 )/ (30x 3200x1400^2))1/2
= 0.029 No Compression Reinforcement Required
1.7.2 Determination of Lever arm 'z'
z = d - ( 1 - 0.416 x/d )
= 1400* (1 - 0.416 x 0.029)))
= 1383 mm < 0.95d = 1330 mm
= 1383 mm
1.7.3 Depth of N.A From top of section
x = (d-z) / 0.4
= ( 1400 - 1383.11 ) / 0.4
= 42 mm < 1.25 df = 288 mm Yes
Hence the stress block does lie within the depth of top flange
1.7.4 Tension Reinforcement Required from
As = M / (0.87 fy z)
= 1914x10^6 / ( 0.87 x 500 x 1383.11 )
= 3181 mm2
Ftd = 0.5 VEd Cot IRC : 112-2011 Cl. 10.3.3.3 ( 6)
= 0.5 x 895 x Cot 33.5 = 0.5X895 x 1.511
= 676.1 kN

34
L by 8 - 0G1 & OG2

As = Ftd / 0.87 x fyk


= 676.099X10^3/ (0.87 x 500)
1554 mm2
= 3181 + 1554 = 4735 mm2 =
Provide 5 nos of 32 mm = 4021 mm2 (g1-5nos)
5 nos of 32 mm = 4021 mm2 (g2-5nos)
0 nos of 32 mm = 0 mm2
0 nos of 32 mm = 0 mm2
8042 mm2 Safe
1.7.5 Check minimum reinforcement
As min = 0.26 fctm bt d / fyk
fctm = 0.259 (fck)^2/3 For fck 60MPa
= 0.259 * (30)^2/3 = 2.5
As min = (0.26*2.51*325*1400)/(500)
= 592 mm2
1.7.6 Check maximum reinforcement
As max = 0.04 Ac
= 0.04*325*1500
= 19500 mm2
1.8 Design of Shear
1.8.1 Concrete strut capacity
V Rd max = cw bw z v1 fcd / cot + tan IRC112-Pg.No:90-Eq.No:10.8
cw = 1 (No axial force)
z = 0.9 d = 1245
v1 = 0.6 < 80 Mpa
VRd max = (1*325*1244.8*0.6*20) / (cot 33.5 + tan33.5 )
= 2234 kN
VEd = 895 kN
= VRd max > Ved max
1.8.2 Vertical stirrups
The Shear Links required can be Calculate
VRds = = Asw /s z fywd cot IRC112-Pg.No:90 Eq.10.7
Asw / s = Area of Legs of links / Link spacing
z = 0.9 d = 1245
fywd = 0.8 x fyk/gm IRC112-Pg.No:86
= 0.8x500 = 400 Cot = 33
Asw / s = VEd/ z fywd cot
= 895x10^3 / (1245 x 33 x (1/Tan(D211))
895000/498000 * 1.54
Asw / s = 1.167
Additional torsional Reinforcement
Asl = TEd Uk cot / 2 Ak fyd IRC112-Pg.No:109-Eq.No:10.49
= 27.368*10^3*3025.84*cot 45 / 2*227073*434.79
= 419.39 mm2 0.419
Total Vertical stirrups = 1.58600 = 1.586
Provide 2L 12 mm @ 110 mm ( a4)

35
L by 8 - 0G1 & OG2

226 / s = 110
Dia of rod = 12 Asw / Sf prov = 226 / 110 = 2.055
Asw / Sf Req < Asw / Sf Prov
Safe
1.8.3 Minimum links
w = Asw / s x bw x sin ) IRC112-Pg.No:86 Eq 16.4
w.min = ( 0.072*((fck)) / (fyk ) IRC112-Pg.No:95 Eq 10.20
= (0.072*30 / 500)
= 0.000789
bw = 325 mm
= sin 90 = 1
Min. Asw/s = w.min * bw * sin
Min. Asw/s = 0.0007887 x 325 x sin 90
Min. Asw/s = 256.33 mm2
Provide 2L 10 mm @ 300 mm c/c 524 mm2 safe
1.8.4 Shear between web & flanges
Change in moment over distance L/8 span from zero moment is
M = 1161 kN.m
Change in Longitudinal force @ the Flange-Web interface is
Fd = (M/(d-hf/2)) x ((bf-bw)/2)/bf)
= ((1161*10^3 )/ (1400- (230/2)))*(((3200-625)/2) / 3200)
= 364 kN
x = 0.85xleff /2
= 6.80 m
Fd/x = 364/6.8
= 53.46 KN/m
VEdf = Fd / df x IRC112-Pg.No:97-Eq.No:10.22
2
= 232.4 kN/m
VRd max = vdf fcd sin cos
v= 0.6(1-(fck/250))
= 0.528
VRd max = 0.528*20*sin 45 * cos 45
= 1214 N/mm2 0.232 N/mm2
1.8.5 Transverse reinforcement
Asf / s = VEdf df / fyd cot IRC112-Pg.No:98-Eq.No:10.23
= (232.43*230) / (434.79*cot 45) = 123 mm2/ m
1.8.6 Side face reinforcement
Side face reinforcement required for both face
= 0.1 * 585000 mm2 = 585 mm2
100
Using 10 mm dia bars ,no. of bars in one face
= 585 = 5.0 or 6 bars
2* 78.5
Maximum Depth Side face = 1100 / 5 = 220 mm > 300 mm ok
Provide 10 dia bars 6 no. on each face ( f1 & f2 )

36
L by 8 - 0G1 & OG2

1.9 Calculation of Crack Width


1.9.1 Calculate the stress in the tension steel
sc = M / [d - (x/3)] As
= (1914*10^6) / ( (1400- (42/3) )*8042 )
= 171.72 N/mm2 < 434.8 N/mm2 OK
1.9.2 Calculate the stress in the concrete
c = M*2 / ( bf * X * Z)
= (1914*10^6)*2 / (3200x685.971x1383.11)
= 1.2608 N/mm2 < 20.0 N/mm2 OK
For various bars used
eq = ( n1 12 + n2 22 ) / ( n1 1 + n2 2 ) IRC112-Pg.No:127-Eq.No:12.9
= 32 mm
c = 40.0 mm
k1 = Deformed bars
= 0.8
k2 = Bending
= 0.5
eff = As / Ac eff IRC112-Pg.No:126-Eq.No:12.7
Ac eff = bw Dc eff
= 325*250 = 81250 mm2
eff = 4021.24 / 81250 = 0.05
1.9.3 Calculate the maximum crack spacing S r max
Sr max = ( 3.4 c + 0.425 k1 k2 ) / eff IRC112-Pg.No:127-Eq.No:12.8
Sr max = ( 3.4 c + 0.425 k1 k2 ) / eff
= [( 3.4 * 40) + (0.425 * 0.8*0.5*32)] / 0.05
= 245.92 mm
( sm - cm ) = {sc-kt ( fct eff / eff ) (1+e eff)}/Es 0.6 (sc / Es)
kt = 0.5 (as per IRC 112) IRC112-Pg.No:125-Eq.No:12.6.
e = Es / Ecm
Ecm = 22 (fcm / 12.5)0.3
= 22*( (30+10) / 12.5 )^0.3
= 31.2 Mpa
e = 200000 / 31.19 = 6.413
fct eff = Greater of 2.9 MPa or fctm = 2.90 Mpa
( sm - cm ) = {171.72- {0.5(2.9/0.05) (1+(6.42*0.05))}}/200000
= 0.00066561
1.9.4 Calculate of crack width
Wk = Sr max ( sm - cm ) IRC112-Pg.No:125-Eq.No:12.5
Wk = 245.92*0.01
= 0.164 mm

37
L by 4 - 0G1 & OG2

DESIGN OF OUTER GIRDER


Effective Span 23.40m
2.000m from support L/4 Span
1.1 Material Data :
Grade of Concrete fck = M 30
Grade of Steel fyk = Fe 500
Design value of concrete compressive strength, fcd = 20 Mpa
Design yield strength of reinforcement, fyd = 435 Mpa
Modulus of elasticity of steel, Es = 200000 N/mm2
Effective Length of Span, lo = 16000 mm
Partial safety factor for concrete, c = 1.50
Partial safety factor for steel, s = 1.15
1.2 Geometric Data;
Total Depth, D = 1500 mm
Depth of comp. flange, df = 230 mm
Width of Web, bw = 325 mm
Clear cover to any reinforcement = 40 mm (Moderate)
The Effective Flange Width, beff = 3200 mm
1.3 Effective width of flanged Beams
b
beff
beff1 beff2 0.0035
c 0.446 fck
x
df
D
d

``
As

st =(0.87fy/Es)+.002 0.87 fy
b1 bw b2 Strain Diagram Stress Diagram

FIGURE - I
beff = beff,i + bw < b = 325 + 1637.5 + 1237.5 = 3200 3200 mm

38
L by 4 - 0G1 & OG2

IRC : 112-2011 From Table 6.5


b = 3200 Stress - Strain Relation for design of sections
3200 c = fcd (1-(1-(c/c2)))
1638 1238 c = 3.5 For 0 < c < c2
c2= 2
68 mm = 2

230
fcd = ckf / m
= 0.67 IRC : 112-2011 Cl. 6.4.2.8
1800 1400 fcd = 0.67 x 30/ 1.5 = 13.4
325 c = 13.4(1-(1-(3.5/2)2)

1400 mm

1500 mm
5.863 N/mm2
1637.5
1237.5

8042.00 mm2 64
64
68

1487.5 625 1087.5


b = 3200
FIGURE - II
Diameter of Main Bars = 32 mm
From bottom of
Spacing of Bars = 32 mm As As.y
grider (y)
1St Row = 5 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 4021.239 mm2 x 68 mm 273444.3 mm2
nd
2 Row = 5 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 4021.239 mm2 x 132 mm 530803.5 mm2
3rd Row = 0 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 0 mm2 x 196 mm 0 mm2
4th Row = 0 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 0 mm2 x 260 mm 0 mm2
Total Area of Steel = 8042.478 mm 2
804247.8 mm2
CG of bars from bottom of girder, d' = As.y / As = 100
Effective Depth, d D - d' = 1400 mm
1.4 Moment, Shear & torsion from As per Staad Output Result
Member L/C Node Shear Torsion Moment
1.4.1 PERMANENT LOADS
59 1 33 175.427 2.579 -891.923
1 34 -159.089 -2.579 975.552 at 2.00m L/4 Span
1.4.2 SURFACING LOADS
59 2 33 25.059 -0.124 -121.175
2 34 -22.359 0.124 133.030 at 2.00m L/4 Span

1.4.4 VARIABLE LOADS


59 1573 33 242.938 -11.988 -845.451
1568 34 -193.233 -2.200 1040.027 at 2.00m L/4 Span

39
L by 4 - 0G1 & OG2

1.4.5 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR FOR VERIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL STRENGTH


Impact Factored load Basic Design Loads
Loads Combi Torsi
Shear Torsion Moment nation Shear Moment
on
PERMANENT LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 175.427 2.579 975.552 1.35 237.0 3.0 1317.0
b) variable
Relievingloads
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable
SURFACING loads
LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 25.059 0.124 133.03 1.75 44.0 0.0 233.0
b) variable
Relievingloads
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable
VARIABLE LOADSloads
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 193.233 2.2 1040.027 1.50 290.0 3 1560.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 1.15 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
II) Pedestrain live load
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 0 0 0 1.50 0.0 0.0 0.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 1.50 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total = 571.0 6 3110.0
1.4.6 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR FOR VERIFICATION OF SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE
Impact Factored load Freque Design Loads
nt
Loads Torsi
Shear Torsion Moment Combi Shear Moment
on
nation
PERMANENT LOADS
a) Dead load,Snow load if = 175.427 2.579 975.552 1.00 175.4 2.6 976.0
b) present,SIDL
Relieving including
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable loads
SURFACING LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 25.059 0.124 133.03 1.00 25.0 0.0 133.0
b) variable
Relieving loads
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable loads
VARIABLE LOADS
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 193.233 2.2 1040.027 0.75 145.0 2.0 780.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 0.20 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
II) Pedestrain live load
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 0 0 0 0.75 0.0 0.0 0.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 0.20 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total = 345.4 5 1889.0

40
L by 4 - 0G1 & OG2

Design BM M = 3110 kN.m


Design SF VEd = 571 kN
Design Torsion TEd = 6 kN.m
1.5 Design of Torsion
TEd = 6 kN.m ( Total Torsion )
A = 1250*325 + 625*250+2*0.5*150*150 325

1100
= 585000 mm2

1500 mm
U = 1100*2+250*2+625+ 212.132*2
= 3749 mm
tef = A/U= 156.04 mm 0.156 m
Ak = (bw - tef) (D - tef)
= (325-157)*(1500-157)

150
= 227073 mm2 227.0730
Uk = 2 (D - tef) + 2 (bw - tef) 625

250
= [2*(1500-157)]+[2*(325-157)]
= 3026 mm
75.04478
v = 0.6 (1-(fck/310)) = 0.540 IRC112-Pg.No:90 - Eq.No:10.6
1.6 Check if concrete section is adequate
TEd / TRd max + VEd / VRd max 1 IRC112-Pg.No:108 - Eq.No:10.47
TRd max = 2 v cw fcd Ak tef sin cos IRC112-Pg.No:108 - Eq.No:10.48
= 2*0.54*1*20*227.073*0.156*sin 45 * cos 45
2*0.54*1*20*227.073*0.156*0.707*0.707
= 382.57 kN.m
TEd / TRd max + VEd / VRd max = (6/382.58)+(571/2217.46) = 0.274 < 1
1.7 Design of Main reinforcement
1.7.1 Determination of x/d
X/d = =1.2 - ((1.44 - (6.68Mu / fck bf d2 ))1/2
= 1.2-(1.44-(6.68*3110x10^6 )/ (30x 3200x1400^2))1/2
= 0.047 No Compression Reinforcement Required
1.7.2 Determination of Lever arm 'z'
z = d - ( 1 - 0.416 x/d )
= 1400* (1 - 0.416 x 0.047)))
= 1373 mm < 0.95d = 1330 mm
= 1373 mm
1.7.3 Depth of N.A From top of section
x = (d-z) / 0.4
= ( 1400 - 1372.63 ) / 0.4
= 68 mm < 1.25 df = 288 mm Yes
Hence the stress block does lie within the depth of top flange
1.7.4 Tension Reinforcement Required from
As = M / (0.87 fy z)
= 3110x10^6 / ( 0.87 x 500 x 1372.627 )
= 5209 mm2
Ftd = 0.5 VEd Cot IRC : 112-2011 Cl. 10.3.3.3 ( 6)
= 0.5 x 571 x Cot 33.5 = 0.5X571 x 1.511
= 431.3 kN

41
L by 4 - 0G1 & OG2

As = Ftd / 0.87 x fyk


= 431.343X10^3/ (0.87 x 500)
992 mm2
= 5209 + 992 = 6201 mm2 =
Provide 5 nos of 32 mm = 4021 mm2 (g1-5nos)
5 nos of 32 mm = 4021 mm2 (g2-5nos)
0 nos of 32 mm = 0 mm2 (g3-5nos)
0 nos of 32 mm = 0 mm2
8042 mm2 Safe
1.7.5 Check minimum reinforcement
As min = 0.26 fctm bt d / fyk
fctm = 0.259 (fck)^2/3 For fck 60MPa
= 0.259 * (30)^2/3 = 2.5
As min = (0.26*2.51*325*1400)/(500)
= 592 mm2
1.7.6 Check maximum reinforcement
As max = 0.04 Ac
= 0.04*325*1500
= 19500 mm2
1.8 Design of Shear
1.8.1 Concrete strut capacity
V Rd max = cw bw z v1 fcd / cot + tan IRC112-Pg.No:90-Eq.No:10.8
cw = 1 (No axial force)
z = 0.9 d = 1235
v1 = 0.6 < 80 Mpa
VRd max = (1*325*1235.37*0.6*20) / (cot 33.5 + tan33.5 )
= 2217 kN
VEd = 571 kN
= VRd max > Ved max
1.8.2 Vertical stirrups
The Shear Links required can be Calculate
VRds = = Asw /s z fywd cot IRC112-Pg.No:90 Eq.10.7
Asw / s = Area of Legs of links / Link spacing
z = 0.9 d = 1235
fywd = 0.8 x fyk/gm IRC112-Pg.No:86
= 0.8x500 = 400 Cot = 33
Asw / s = VEd/ z fywd cot
= 571x10^3 / (1235 x 33 x (1/Tan(D211))
571000/494000 * 1.54
Asw / s = 0.751
Additional torsional Reinforcement
Asl = TEd Uk cot / 2 Ak fyd IRC112-Pg.No:109-Eq.No:10.49
= 3.732*10^3*3025.84*cot 45 / 2*227073*434.79
= 57.19 mm2 0.057
Total Vertical stirrups = 0.80800 = 0.808
Provide 2L 12 mm @ 125 mm ( a5 )

42
L by 4 - 0G1 & OG2

226 / s = 125
Dia of rod = 12 Asw / Sf prov = 226 / 125 = 1.808
Asw / Sf Req < Asw / Sf Prov
Safe
1.8.3 Minimum links
w = Asw / s x bw x sin ) IRC112-Pg.No:86 Eq 16.4
w.min = ( 0.072*((fck)) / (fyk ) IRC112-Pg.No:95 Eq 10.20
= (0.072*30 / 500)
= 0.000789
bw = 325 mm
= sin 90 = 1
Min. Asw/s = w.min * bw * sin
Min. Asw/s = 0.0007887 x 325 x sin 90
Min. Asw/s = 256.33 mm2
Provide 2L 10 mm @ 300 mm c/c 524 mm2 safe
1.8.4 Shear between web & flanges
Change in moment over distance L/4 Span from zero moment is
M = 1889 kN.m
Change in Longitudinal force @ the Flange-Web interface is
Fd = (M/(d-hf/2)) x ((bf-bw)/2)/bf)
= ((1889*10^3 )/ (1400- (230/2)))*(((3200-625)/2) / 3200)
= 591 kN
x = 0.85xleff /2
= 6.80 m
Fd/x = 592/6.8
= 86.98 KN/m
VEdf = Fd / df x IRC112-Pg.No:97-Eq.No:10.22
2
= 378.2 kN/m
VRd max = vdf fcd sin cos
v= 0.6(1-(fck/250))
= 0.528
VRd max = 0.528*20*sin 45 * cos 45
= 1214 N/mm2 0.378 N/mm2
1.8.5 Transverse reinforcement
Asf / s = VEdf df / fyd cot IRC112-Pg.No:98-Eq.No:10.23
= (378.18*230) / (434.79*cot 45) = 200 mm2/ m
1.8.6 Side face reinforcement
Side face reinforcement required for both face
= 0.1 * 585000 mm2 = 585 mm2
100
Using 10 mm dia bars ,no. of bars in one face
= 585 = 5.0 or 7 bars
2* 78.5
Maximum Depth Side face = 1100 / 5 = 220 mm > 300 mm ok
Provide 10 dia bars 7 no. on each face ( f1 & f2 )

43
L by 4 - 0G1 & OG2

1.9 Calculation of Crack Width


1.9.1 Calculate the stress in the tension steel
sc = M / [d - (x/3)] As
= (3110*10^6) / ( (1400- (68/3) )*8042 )
= 280.77 N/mm2 < 434.8 N/mm2 OK
1.9.2 Calculate the stress in the concrete
c = M*2 / ( bf * X * Z)
= (3110*10^6)*2 / (3200x685.971x1372.627)
= 2.0643 N/mm2 < 20.0 N/mm2 OK
For various bars used
eq = ( n1 12 + n2 22 ) / ( n1 1 + n2 2 ) IRC112-Pg.No:127-Eq.No:12.9
= 32 mm
c = 40.0 mm
k1 = Deformed bars
= 0.8
k2 = Bending
= 0.5
eff = As / Ac eff IRC112-Pg.No:126-Eq.No:12.7
Ac eff = bw Dc eff
= 325*250 = 81250 mm2
eff = 4021.24 / 81250 = 0.05
1.9.3 Calculate the maximum crack spacing S r max
Sr max = ( 3.4 c + 0.425 k1 k2 ) / eff IRC112-Pg.No:127-Eq.No:12.8
Sr max = ( 3.4 c + 0.425 k1 k2 ) / eff
= [( 3.4 * 40) + (0.425 * 0.8*0.5*32)] / 0.05
= 245.92 mm
( sm - cm ) = {sc-kt ( fct eff / eff ) (1+e eff)}/Es 0.6 (sc / Es)
kt = 0.5 (as per IRC 112) IRC112-Pg.No:125-Eq.No:12.6.
e = Es / Ecm
Ecm = 22 (fcm / 12.5)0.3
= 22*( (30+10) / 12.5 )^0.3
= 31.2 Mpa
e = 200000 / 31.19 = 6.413
fct eff = Greater of 2.9 MPa or fctm = 2.90 Mpa
( sm - cm ) = {280.78- {0.5(2.9/0.05) (1+(6.42*0.05))}}/200000
= 0.00121089
1.9.4 Calculate of crack width
Wk = Sr max ( sm - cm ) IRC112-Pg.No:125-Eq.No:12.5
Wk = 245.92*0.01
= 0.298 mm

44
DESIGN OF OUTER GIRDER
Effective Span 23.40m
8.000m from support Midspan
1.1 Material Data :
Grade of Concrete fck = M 30
Grade of Steel fyk = Fe 500
Design value of concrete compressive strength, fcd = 20 Mpa
Design yield strength of reinforcement, fyd = 435 Mpa
2
Modulus of elasticity of steel, Es = 200000 N/mm
Effective Length of Span, lo = 16000 mm
Partial safety factor for concrete, c = 1.50
Partial safety factor for steel, s = 1.15
1.2 Geometric Data;
Total Depth, D = 1500 mm
Depth of comp. flange, df = 230 mm
Width of Web, bw = 325 mm
Clear cover to any reinforcement = 40 mm (Moderate)
The Effective Flange Width, beff = 3200 mm
1.3 Effective width of flanged Beams
b
beff
beff1 beff2 0.0035
c 0.446 fck
x
df
D
d

``
As

st =(0.87fy/Es)+.002 0.87 fy
b1 bw b2 Strain Diagram Stress Diagram

FIGURE - I
beff = beff,i + bw < b = 325 + 1637.5 + 1237.5 = 3200 3200 mm
Stress - Strain Relation for design of sections
c = fcd (1-(1-(c/c2))) For 0 < c < c2
c = 3.5 IRC : 112-2011 From Table 6.5
c2= 2 IRC : 112-2011 From Table 6.5

45
= 2 IRC : 112-2011 From Table 6.5
fcd = ckf / m
= 0.67 IRC : 112-2011 Cl. 6.4.2.8
fcd = 0.67 x 30/ 1.5 = 13.4
c = 13.4(1-(1-(3.5/2)2)
5.86 N/mm2
b = 3200
3200
1638 1238

95 mm

230
1800 1400
325

1378 mm

1500 mm
1637.5
1237.5

10455.00 mm2 64
64
68

1487.5 625 1087.5


b = 3200

FIGURE - II
Diameter of Main Bars = 32 mm
From bottom of
Spacing of Bars = 32 mm As As.y
grider (y)
St
1 Row = 5 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 4021.239 mm2 x 68 mm 273444.3 mm2
2
2nd Row = 5 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 4021.239 mm2 x 132 mm 530803.5 mm
rd 2
3 Row = 3 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 2412.743 mm2 x 196 mm 472897.6 mm
th
4 Row = 0 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 0 mm
2
x 260 mm 0 mm2
5th Row = 0 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 0 mm2 x 324 mm 0 mm2
2
Total Area of Steel = 10455.221 mm2 1277145 mm
CG of bars from bottom of girder, d' = As.y / As = 122
Effective Depth, d D - d' = 1378 mm
1.4 Moment, Shear & torsion from As per Staad Output Result
Member L/C Node Shear Torsion Moment

1.4.1 PERMANENT LOADS

46
65 1 39 27.504 -9.575 -1265.894

1 40 1.086 9.575 1277.452 at 8.00m Midspan

1.4.2 SURFACING LOADS

65 2 39 5.213 -0.010 -176.159

2 40 -0.488 0.010 178.654 at 8.00m Midspan

1.4.4 VARIABLE LOADS

65 1588 39 129.108 -1.099 -906.752

1570 40 -84.822 -10.538 1445.973 at 8.00m Midspan

1.4.4 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR FOR VERIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL STRENGTH


Impact Factored load Basic Design Loads
Loads Combi Torsi
Shear Torsion Moment nation Shear Moment
on
PERMANENT LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 27.504 9.575 1277.452 1.35 37.0 13.0 1725.0
b) variable loads
Relieving to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable
SURFACING loads
LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 5.213 0.01 178.654 1.75 9.0 0.0 313.0
b) variable loads
Relieving to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable
VARIABLE LOADSloads
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 129.108 10.538 1445.973 1.50 194.0 16 2169.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 1.15 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
II) Pedestrain live load
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 0 0 0 1.50 0.0 0.0 0.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.50 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total = 240.0 29 4207.0
1.4.5 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR FOR VERIFICATION OF SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE
Impact Factored load Freque Design Loads
nt
Loads Torsi
Shear Torsion Moment Combi Shear Moment
on
nation
PERMANENT LOADS
a) Dead load,Snow load if = 27.504 9.575 1277.452 1.00 27.5 9.6 1277.0
present,SIDL including

47
b) Relieving to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable loads
SURFACING LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 5.213 0.01 178.654 1.00 5.0 0.0 179.0
b) variable
Relieving loads
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable
VARIABLE LOADS loads
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 129.108 10.538 1445.973 0.75 97.0 8.0 1084.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 0.20 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
II) Pedestrain live load
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 0 0 0 0.75 0.0 0.0 0.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.20 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total = 129.5 17.6 2540.0
Design BM M = 4207 kN.m
Design SF VEd = 240 kN
Design Torsion TEd = 29 kN.m

1.5 Design of Main reinforcement


1.5.1 Determination of x/d
X/d = =1.2 - ((1.44 - (6.68Mu / fck bf d2 ))1/2
= 1.2-(1.44-(6.68*4207x10^6 )/ (30x 3200x1378^2))1/2
= 0.066 No Compression Reinforcement Required
1.5.2 Determination of Lever arm 'z'
z = d - ( 1 - 0.416 x/d )
= 1378* (1 - 0.416 x 0.066)))
= 1340 mm < 0.95 d = 1309 mm
= 1340 mm
1.5.3 Depth of N.A From top of section
x = (d-z) / 0.4
= ( 1378 - 1340.17 ) / 0.4
= 95 mm < 1.25 df = 288 mm Yes
Hence the stress block does lie within the depth of top flange
1.5.4 Tension Reinforcement Required from
As = M / (0.87 fy z)
= 4207x10^6 / ( 0.87 x 500 x 1340.166 )
= 7216 mm2
Ftd = 0.5 VEd Cot IRC : 112-2011 Cl. 10.3.3.3 ( 6)
= 0.5 x 240 x Cot 33.5

48
0.5X240 x 1.511
= 181.3 kN
As = Ftd / 0.87 x fyk
= 181.3X10^3/ (0.87 x 500)
2
417 mm
2
= 7216 + 417 = 7633 mm
Provide 5 nos of 32 mm = 4021 mm2 (g1-5nos)
2
5 nos of 32 mm = 4021 mm (g2-5nos)
2
3 nos of 32 mm = 2413 mm (g3-5nos)
2
0 nos of 32 mm = 0 mm (g4-3nos)
2
0 nos of 32 mm = 0 mm
2
10455 mm Safe
1.5.5 Check minimum reinforcement
As min = 0.26 fctm bt d / fyk
fctm = 0.259 (fck)^2/3 For fck 60MPa
= 0.259 * (30)^2/3 = 2.5
As min = (0.26*2.51*325*1378)/(500)
= 582 mm2
1.5.6 Check maximum reinforcement
As max = 0.04 Ac
= 0.04*325*1500
= 19500 mm2

1.6 Design of Shear


1.6.1 Shear capacity without shear reinforcement
VRd,c = *0.12 k (80 1 fck ) 0.33 + 0.15 cp ] bw d IRC112-Pg.No:88
3/2 1/2
v min = 0.031 k fck = 0.28 IRC112-Pg.No:88 , Eq.10.3
k = 1 + (200/d) 2 IRC112-Pg.No:88 , (Fig 10.2)
= 1.381
1 = Asl / bw d 0.02 IRC112-Pg.No:88 , (Fig 10.5)
= 0.0233
cp NEd / Ac < 0.2 fcd = 0 (No axial force)
VRd,c = ((0.12*1.39*((80*0.03*30)^(1/3)))+(0.15*0))*325*1378
= 284 kN > 240 kN
Shear reinforcement is not needed
VRd,c (min) = (vmin + k 1 cp ) bw d
= (0.28+(0.15*0))*325*1378
= 123.4 kN
1.6.2 Concrete strut capacity
V Rd max = cw bw z v1 fcd / cot + tan IRC112-Pg.No:90-Eq.No:10.8

49
cw = 1 (No axial force)
z = 0.9 d = 1206
v1 = 0.6 < 80 Mpa
VRd max = (1*325*1206.15*0.6*20) / (cot 33.5 + tan33.5 )
= 2165 kN
VEd = 240 kN
= VRd max > Ved max
1.6.3 Vertical stirrups
The Shear Links required can be Calculate
VRds = = Asw /s z fywd cot IRC112-Pg.No:90 Eq.10.7
Asw / s = Area of Legs of links / Link spacing
z = 0.9 d = 1206
fywd = 0.8 x fyk/gm IRC112-Pg.No:86
= 0.8x500 = 400
Cot = 33.5
Asw / s = VEd/ z fywd cot
= 240x10^3 / (1206 x 400 x (1/Tan(33.5))
240000/482400 * 1.511
Asw / s = 0.329
Additional torsional Reinforcement
Asl = TEd Uk cot / 2 Ak fyd IRC112-Pg.No:109-Eq.No:10.49
= 29*10^3*3075.63*cot 45 / 2*131775*434.79
= 778.39 mm2 0.778
Total Vertical stirrups = 0.32900 = 0.329
Provide 2L 12 mm @ 150 mm ( a6 )
226 / s = 150
Dia of rod = 12
Asw / Sf prov = 226 / 150
= 1.51
Asw / Sf Req < Asw / Sf Prov
Safe
1.6.4 Minimum links
w = Asw / s x bw x sin ) IRC112-Pg.No:86 Eq 16.4
w.min = ( 0.072*((fck)) / (fyk ) IRC112-Pg.No:95 Eq 10.20
= (0.072*30 / 500)
= 0.000789
bw = 325 mm
= sin 90 = 1
Min. Asw/s = w.min * bw * sin

50
Min. Asw/s = 0.0007887 x 325 x sin 90
Min. Asw/s = 256.33 mm2
Provide 2L 10 mm @ 300 mm c/c 524 mm2 safe
1.6.5 Maximum longitudinal spacing of links `
sl max = 0.75 d (1+cot ) IRC112-Pg.No:180-Eq.No:16.6
= 0.75 * 1378(1+cot 90)
= 1033.50 mm
1.6.6 Maximum transverse spacing of link legs
st max = 0.75 d < 600 IRC112-Pg.No:180-Eq.No:16.8
= 0.75 * 1378
= 1033.50 mm > 600 mm
1.6.7 Shear between web & flanges
Change in moment over distance Midspan from zero moment is
M = 2540 kN.m
Change in Longitudinal force @ the Flange-Web interface is
Fd = (M/(d-hf/2)) x ((bf-bw)/2)/bf)
= ((2540*10^3 )/ (1378- (230/2)))*(((3200-625)/2) / 3200)
= 809 kN
x = 0.85xleff /2
= 6.80 m
Fd/x = 810/6.8
= 118.99 KN/m
VEdf = Fd / df x IRC112-Pg.No:97-Eq.No:10.22
2
= 517.4 kN/m
VRd max = vdf fcd sin cos
v= 0.6(1-(fck/250))
= 0.528
VRd max = 0.528*20*sin 45 * cos 45
= 1214 N/mm2 0.517 N/mm2
1.6.8 Transverse reinforcement
Asf / s = VEdf df / fyd cot IRC112-Pg.No:98-Eq.No:10.23
= (517.36*230) / (434.79*cot 45)
= 273.7 mm2/ m
Additional torsional Reinforcement ( Refer 1.7.3 )
= 160.3 mm2/ m
= 434 mm2/ m
Transverse Direction
Providing Deck Slab 12 mm @ 150 mm c/c 754 mm2
Extra Bars mm @ 200 mm c/c 0 mm2
fctd = 0.7 fctm = 1.52 754 safe

51
VEdf = 0.4 df fctd
Fd/x < VEdf
118.990 < 140 N/mm2
No extra reinforcement for flexure

1.7 Design of Torsion


TEd = 29 kN.m ( Total Torsion )
A = 1250*325 + 625*250+2*0.5*150*150 325

1100
2
= 585000 mm

1500 mm
U = 1100*2+325+250*2+625+ 212.132*2
= 4074 mm
tef = A/U= 143.59 mm 0.144 m
Ak = (bw - tef) (D - tef)
= (325-144)*(870-144)

150
= 131775 mm2
Uk = 2 (D - tef) + 2 (bw - tef) 625

250
= [2*(1500-144)]+[2*(325-144)]
= 3076 mm

v = 0.6 (1-(fck/310)) = 0.540 IRC112-Pg.No:90 - Eq.No:10.6


1.7.1 Check if concrete section is adequate
TEd / TRd max + VEd / VRd max 1 IRC112-Pg.No:108 - Eq.No:10.47
TRd max = 2 v cw fcd Ak tef sin cos IRC112-Pg.No:108 - Eq.No:10.48
= 2*0.54*1*20*131775*0.15*sin 45 * cos 45
2*0.54*1*20*0.001*131775*0.144*0.707*0.707
= 204.94 kN.m
TEd / TRd max + VEd / VRd max = (29/204.94)+(240/2165.02) = 0.25 < 1

1.7.2 Required longitudinal reinforcement for torsion


Asl = TEd Uk cot / 2 Ak fyd IRC112-Pg.No:109-Eq.No:10.49
= 29*10^3*3075.63*cot 45 / 2*131775*434.79
= 778.39 mm2 0.778

z
Staad section Wizard
Running Section TEd = 29 kN.m
St
1 section
Torsional moment of inertia for Flange Ixx = 0.0216
nd
2 section
Torsional moment of inertia for Web Ixx = 0.0072
rd
3 section
Torsional moment of inertia for Bulb Ixx = 0.0070

52
= 0.0358
Section y

1st Percentage of torsional Moment = 0.603


2nd Percentage of torsional Moment = 0.201
3rd Percentage of torsional Moment = 0.196
= 0.603*29 = 17.487 kN.m IRC112-Pg.No:109-Eq.No:10.49
= 0.201*29 = 5.829 kN.m
= 0.196*29 = 5.684 kN.m
1.7.3 Required transverse reinforment for Section of Flange
Asl = TEd Uk cot / 2 Ak fyd z IRC112-Pg.No:109-Eq.No:10.49
Uk = 6905 m ( section Wizard )
Ak = 866000 m2 ( section Wizard )
y

= 17.487x10^3x6905 cot 45 /(2 x 866000 x 434.783) z


2
160.3 mm
1.7.4 Required Longitudinal reinforment for Section of Web
Asl = TEd Uk cot / 2 Ak fyd
Uk = 2320 m ( section Wizard )
2
Ak = 271400 m ( section Wizard )

= 5.829x10^3x2320 cot 45 /(2 x 271400 x 434.783) y


2
= 57.3 mm
Provide 10 mm 79 mm2 = 0.73 say 1 ( on Each Side )
1.7.5 Required Longitudinal reinforment for Section of Bulb z

Asl = TEd Uk cot / 2 Ak fyd


Uk = 1874 m ( section Wizard )
2
Ak = 227500 m ( section Wizard ) y

= 5.684x10^3x1874 cot 45 /(2 x 227500 x 434.783)


= 53.84 mm2
Provide 10 mm 79 mm2 = 0.686 say 1 ( on Each Side )
Maximum space between torsion links
= 200 < (Uk/8) = 384.45 mm IRC112-Pg.No:180- Cl:16.5.3 (4)
Maximum spacing of longitudinal bars for torsion
= 200 < 350 mm IRC112-Pg.No:180- Cl:16.5.3 (3)

Calculation of Creep Effects


Ec,eff = Ecm/( 1+(, to ) IRC :112 -2011, Page no: 132, Eq - 12.15
Ecm = 31 From table 6.5 IRC : 112-2011
to = is the age of concrete in days at time of loading (Assumed= 90 days )
Notional size ho = 2Ac/u ( in mm)

53
Ac = Cross sectional Area in mm2
u = Perimeter in contact with Atmosphere in mm
ho = 2*585000/ 3749
ho = 312.1 mm Dry atmosphere conditions
(,to) = 1.328 Creep Co-efficient
Ec,eff = 31/ ( 1 + 1.328)
13.316 kN/mm2
Calculation of Shrinkage Effects
Shrinkage Curvature
1/rcs = cs e S/I IRC :112 -2011, Page no: 132, Eq - 12.16
1/rcs = is the curvature due to shrinkage
cs = is the free shrinkage strain
S = is the first moment of area of the reinforcement about the centriod of the section
I = is the second moment of area of the section
e = is the effective modular ratio = Es / E c,eff 325
Calculate the Netural axis position

739.567 mm
consider as rectangular section
Taking area moments about the Netural axis

1500 mm
bw*X2/2 = e As ( d- x) *
2
325 *X /2 =200/15.02 * 10455*(1378 - X)
163 X2 = 191841471.88 - 139217.3 X
2
= 1X + 856.72 X- 1180562.9
X= 739.567 mm
S = As( d - x )
= 10455*( 1378 - 739.567)
= 7.0 x10^6 mm3
and from table 6.8,
Total shrinkage strain cs = cd + ca
cd = = is the drying shrinkage strain
ca = = is the autogenous shrinkage strain
ca = 35 x10^6 From table 6.6 IRC :112 -2011
cd = kh * cd
ho = 312.1 mm
kh = 0.747 From table 6.7 IRC :112 -2011
cd = 288.000 From table 6.8 IRC :112 -2011 80 % Relative Humidity )
= 288 * 0.747
= 215.1 x10^6 25 300
cs = 35*10^6+215.136*10^6 50 240
Total shrinkage strain cs = 250.1 x10^6 mm M 30 288
e = 200/13.316 = 15.02
Calculate the second moment of area of the section ( I )

54
I = bx3/3+e As ( d-x)2
= 325x739.567^3/3 +15.02x10455x(1378-739.567)^2
= 107829 x10^6 mm4
1/rcs = cs e S/I
= 250.136x10^6 x15.02x7x10^6/107829x10^6
= 0.244 x10^6
Deflection = 0.104 L2/ (1/rcs)
= 0.104 x 8000^2/ 0.244x10^6
= 27.279 mm
As per staad result for dead load deflection = -10.535 mm
As per staad result for Live load deflection = -8.568 mm
As per IRC:112-2001. Page 131, Cl.12.4.1 = = Span / 800 = 16000/800= 20.00 mm

1.8 Check for Deflection


po = sqrt(fck)/1000
= 0.005
p = As / bw d
= 523.6/(325*1378)
= 0.00117
p' = As2 / bw d
= 0 (no comp rft)
p < po
K = 1

Allowble L / d = k (11+(1.5 (fck) (0/) ) + 3.2 fck ((0/)-1)^1.5)


= 1(11+(1.5 (30)*(0.00548/0.00117)) + (3.2 30 ((0.00548/0.00117)-1)^1.5)
= 173
Actual L / d = 16000 / 1378 = 12
Allowable L / d > Actual L / d
The deflection control is satisfied

1.9 Check for Bond


Ultimate bond stress
fbd = 2.7 M 30
2
= 2.7 N/mm

1.10 Design of Anchorage Length


1.10.1 Basic anchorge length
lb = ( /4 ) ( fyd / fbd ) = k IRC112-Pg.No:150 - .Eq.No:15.1

55
= (32/4)* (434.79/2.7) = 33 X 32 =
= 1288 mm = 1056 mm
1.10.2 Design anchorge length
l b net = a l b ( As req / As prov ) > l b min IRC112-Pg.No:152 - .Eq.No:15.2
Zone = Tension
Bar position = Straight
1 = 1.0 (see table)
l b net = 889.2 mm
1.10.3 Minimum anchorge length
In tension, l b min = 0.3 l b > 10 or 100mm IRC112-Pg.No:153
= 316.8 mm < 320 mm
In compression, l b min = 0.6 l b > 10 or 100mm IRC112-Pg.No:153
= 633.6 mm > 320 mm
1.11 Lap length
1.11.1 Minimum Lap length
ls min = 0.3 1 l b or 15 or 200mm IRC112-Pg.No:155
1 = 1.4 50%
ls min = 443.52 mm
1.11.2 Design Lap length
ls = l b net 1 > ls min or 15 or 200mm IRC112-Pg.No:155 - Eq 15.3
ls = 1244.9 mm > 443.52 mm
1.12 Cracking
Minimum reinforcement for crack control
As min = kc k fct eff Act / s IRC112-Pg.No:122-Eq.No:12.1
s = fyk
fct eff = greater of 2.9MPa or fctm = 2.9 N/mm2
Act = bf * Dc eff
Dc eff is lesser of : 2.5 (D - d ) = 305 mm IRC112-Pg.No:126
D-(x/3) = 1468.3333 mm IRC112-Pg.No:126
D/2 = 750 mm IRC112-Pg.No:126
2
= 325 * 305 = 99125 mm
k = 1.00 (see table)
kc = Bending combined with axial forces
kc = 0.9 [ Fcr / (Act fct eff) ] 0.5 IRC112-Pg.No:124 - Eq 12.3
= 0.9 [ Fcr / (Act fct,eff)] > 0.5
As min = 287.46 mm2
1.13 Calculation of Crack Width
1.13.1 Calculate the stress in the tension steel
st = M / [d - (x/3)] As
= (4207*10^6) / ( (1378- (95/3) )*10455 )

56
= 298.88 N/mm2

1.13.2 Calculate the stress in the concrete


c = M*2 / ( bf * X * Z)
= (4207*10^6)*2 / (3200x739.567x1340.166)
= 2.6529 N/mm2
For various bars used
2 2
eq = ( n1 1 + n2 2 ) / ( n1 1 + n2 2 ) IRC112-Pg.No:127-Eq.No:12.9
= 32 mm
c = 40.0 mm
k1 = Deformed bars
= 0.8
k2 = Bending
= 0.5
eff = As / Ac eff IRC112-Pg.No:126-Eq.No:12.7
Ac eff = bw Dc eff
= 325*305 = 99125 mm2
eff = 4021.24 / 99125 = 0.04
1.13.3 Calculate the maximum crack spacing S r max
Sr max = ( 3.4 c + 0.425 k1 k2 ) / eff IRC112-Pg.No:127-Eq.No:12.8
Sr max = ( 3.4 c + 0.425 k1 k2 ) / eff
= [( 3.4 * 40) + (0.425 * 0.8*0.5*32)] / 0.05
= 270.1 mm
( sm - cm ) = {sc-kt ( fct eff / eff ) (1+e eff)}/Es 0.6 (sc / Es)
kt = 0.5 (as per IRC 112) IRC112-Pg.No:125-Eq.No:12.6.
e = Es / Ecm
Ecm = 22 (fcm / 12.5)0.3
= 22*( (30+10) / 12.5 )^0.3
= 31.2 Mpa
e = 200000 / 31.19 = 6.413
fct eff = Greater of 2.9 MPa or fctm = 2.90 Mpa
( sm - cm ) = {298.88- {0.5(2.9/0.05) (1+(6.42*0.05))}}/200000
= 0.00126919
1.13.4 Calculate of crack width
Wk = Sr max ( sm - cm ) IRC112-Pg.No:125-Eq.No:12.5
Wk = 270.1*0.01
= 0.343 mm

57
d' Distance - IG1 & IG2

DESIGN OF OUTER GIRDER


Effective Span 23.40m
1.400m from support d' Distance
1.1 Material Data :
Grade of Concrete fck = M 30
Grade of Steel fyk = Fe 500
Design value of concrete compressive strength, fcd = 20 Mpa
Design yield strength of reinforcement, fyd = 435 Mpa
Modulus of elasticity of steel, Es = 200000 N/mm2
Effective Length of Span, lo = 16000 mm
Partial safety factor for concrete, c = 1.50
Partial safety factor for steel, s = 1.15
1.2 Geometric Data;
Total Depth, D = 1500 mm
Depth of comp. flange, df = 230 mm
Width of Web, bw = 325 mm
Clear cover to any reinforcement = 40 mm (Moderate)
The Effective Flange Width, beff = 2800 mm
1.3 Effective width of flanged Beams
b
beff
beff1 beff2 0.0035
c 0.446 fck
x
df
D
d

``
As

st =(0.87fy/Es)+.002 0.87 fy
b1 bw b2 Strain Diagram Stress Diagram

FIGURE - I
beff = beff,i + bw < b = 325 + 1237.5 + 1237.5 = 2800 2800 mm

58
d' Distance - IG1 & IG2

IRC : 112-2011 From Table 6.5


b = 2800 Stress - Strain Relation for design of sections
2800 c = fcd (1-(1-(c/c2)))
1238 1238 c = 3.5 For 0 < c < c2
c2= 2
31 mm = 2

230
fcd = ckf / m
= 0.67 IRC : 112-2011 Cl. 6.4.2.8
1400 1400 fcd = 0.67 x 30/ 1.5 = 13.4
325 c = 13.4(1-(1-(3.5/2)2)

1414 mm

1500 mm
5.863 N/mm2
1237.5
1237.5

5630.00 mm2 64
64
68

1087.5 625 1087.5


b = 2800
FIGURE - II
Diameter of Main Bars = 32 mm
From bottom of
Spacing of Bars = 32 mm As As.y
grider (y)
1St Row = 5 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 4021.239 mm2 x 68 mm 273444.3 mm2
nd
2 Row = 2 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 1608.495 mm2 x 132 mm 212321.3 mm2
3rd Row = 0 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 0 mm2 x 196 mm 0 mm2
4th Row = 0 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 0 mm2 x 260 mm 0 mm2
Total Area of Steel = 5629.734 mm 2
485765.6 mm2
CG of bars from bottom of girder, d' = As.y / As = 86
Effective Depth, d D - d' = 1414 mm
1.4 Moment, Shear & torsion from As per Staad Output Result
Member L/C Node Shear Torsion Moment
1.4.1 PERMANENT LOADS
107 1 55 245.202 0.646 -162.064
1 56 -218.445 -0.646 347.227 at 1.40m d' Distance
1.4.2 SURFACING LOADS
107 2 55 42.918 -0.082 -27.175
2 56 -38.438 0.082 59.718 at 1.40m d' Distance

1.4.4 VARIABLE LOADS


107 962 55 323.570 32.678 -189.674
962 56 -323.570 -32.678 448.530 at 1.40m d' Distance

59
d' Distance - IG1 & IG2

1.4.5 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR FOR VERIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL STRENGTH


Impact Factored load Basic Design Loads
Loads Combi Torsi
Shear Torsion Moment nation Shear Moment
on
PERMANENT LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 245.202 0.646 347.227 1.35 331.0 1.0 469.0
b) variable
Relievingloads
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable
SURFACING loads
LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 42.918 0.082 59.718 1.75 75.0 0.0 105.0
b) variable
Relievingloads
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable
VARIABLE LOADSloads
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 323.57 32.678 448.53 1.50 485.0 49 673.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 1.15 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
II) Pedestrain live load
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 0 0 0 1.50 0.0 0.0 0.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 1.50 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total = 891.0 50 1247.0
1.4.6 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR FOR VERIFICATION OF SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE
Impact Factored load Freque Design Loads
nt
Loads Torsi
Shear Torsion Moment Combi Shear Moment
on
nation
PERMANENT LOADS
a) Dead load,Snow load if = 245.202 0.646 347.227 1.00 245.2 0.6 347.0
b) present,SIDL
Relieving including
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable loads
SURFACING LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 42.918 0.082 59.718 1.00 43.0 0.0 60.0
b) variable
Relieving loads
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable loads
VARIABLE LOADS
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 323.57 32.678 448.53 0.75 243.0 25.0 336.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 0.20 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
II) Pedestrain live load
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 0 0 0 0.75 0.0 0.0 0.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 0.20 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total = 531.2 26 743.0

60
d' Distance - IG1 & IG2

Design BM M = 1247 kN.m


Design SF VEd = 891 kN
Design Torsion TEd = 50 kN.m
1.5 Design of Torsion
TEd = 50 kN.m ( Total Torsion )
A = 1250*325 + 625*250+2*0.5*150*150 325

1100
= 585000 mm2

1500 mm
U = 1100*2+250*2+625+ 212.132*2
= 3749 mm
tef = A/U= 156.04 mm 0.156 m
Ak = (bw - tef) (D - tef)
= (325-157)*(1500-157)

150
= 227073 mm2 227.0730
Uk = 2 (D - tef) + 2 (bw - tef) 625

250
= [2*(1500-157)]+[2*(325-157)]
= 3026 mm
75.04478
v = 0.6 (1-(fck/310)) = 0.540 IRC112-Pg.No:90 - Eq.No:10.6
1.6 Check if concrete section is adequate
TEd / TRd max + VEd / VRd max 1 IRC112-Pg.No:108 - Eq.No:10.47
TRd max = 2 v cw fcd Ak tef sin cos IRC112-Pg.No:108 - Eq.No:10.48
= 2*0.54*1*20*227.073*0.156*sin 45 * cos 45
2*0.54*1*20*227.073*0.156*0.707*0.707
= 382.57 kN.m
TEd / TRd max + VEd / VRd max = (50/382.58)+(891/2264.35) = 0.525 < 1
1.7 Design of Main reinforcement
1.7.1 Determination of x/d
X/d = =1.2 - ((1.44 - (6.68Mu / fck bf d2 ))1/2
= 1.2-(1.44-(6.68*1247x10^6 )/ (30x 2800x1414^2))1/2
= 0.021 No Compression Reinforcement Required
1.7.2 Determination of Lever arm 'z'
z = d - ( 1 - 0.416 x/d )
= 1414* (1 - 0.416 x 0.021)))
= 1402 mm < 0.95d = 1343 mm
= 1402 mm
1.7.3 Depth of N.A From top of section
x = (d-z) / 0.4
= ( 1414 - 1401.65 ) / 0.4
= 31 mm < 1.25 df = 288 mm Yes
Hence the stress block does lie within the depth of top flange
1.7.4 Tension Reinforcement Required from
As = M / (0.87 fy z)
= 1247x10^6 / ( 0.87 x 500 x 1401.647 )
= 2045 mm2
Ftd = 0.5 VEd Cot IRC : 112-2011 Cl. 10.3.3.3 ( 6)
= 0.5 x 891 x Cot 33.5 = 0.5X891 x 1.511
= 673.1 kN

61
d' Distance - IG1 & IG2

As = Ftd / 0.87 x fyk


= 673.077X10^3/ (0.87 x 500)
1547 mm2
= 2045 + 1547 = 3592 mm2 =
Provide 5 nos of 32 mm = 4021 mm2 (g1-5nos)
2 nos of 32 mm = 1608 mm2 (g2-3nos)
0 nos of 32 mm = 0 mm2
0 nos of 32 mm = 0 mm2
5630 mm2 Safe
1.7.5 Check minimum reinforcement
As min = 0.26 fctm bt d / fyk
fctm = 0.259 (fck)^2/3 For fck 60MPa
= 0.259 * (30)^2/3 = 2.5
As min = (0.26*2.51*325*1414)/(500)
= 598 mm2
1.7.6 Check maximum reinforcement
As max = 0.04 Ac
= 0.04*325*1500
= 19500 mm2
1.8 Design of Shear
1.8.1 Concrete strut capacity
V Rd max = cw bw z v1 fcd / cot + tan IRC112-Pg.No:90-Eq.No:10.8
cw = 1 (No axial force)
z = 0.9 d = 1261
v1 = 0.6 < 80 Mpa
VRd max = (1*325*1261.49*0.6*20) / (cot 33.5 + tan33.5 )
= 2264 kN
VEd = 891 kN
= VRd max > Ved max
1.8.2 Vertical stirrups
The Shear Links required can be Calculate
VRds = = Asw /s z fywd cot IRC112-Pg.No:90 Eq.10.7
Asw / s = Area of Legs of links / Link spacing
z = 0.9 d = 1261
fywd = 0.8 x fyk/gm IRC112-Pg.No:86
= 0.8x500 = 400 Cot = 33
Asw / s = VEd/ z fywd cot
= 891x10^3 / (1261 x 33 x (1/Tan(D211))
891000/504400 * 1.54
Asw / s = 1.147
Additional torsional Reinforcement
Asl = TEd Uk cot / 2 Ak fyd IRC112-Pg.No:109-Eq.No:10.49
= 31.1*10^3*3025.84*cot 45 / 2*227073*434.79
= 476.58 mm2 0.477
Total Vertical stirrups = 1.62400 = 1.624
Provide 2L 12 mm @ 100 mm ( a8 )

62
d' Distance - IG1 & IG2

226 / s = 100
Dia of rod = 12 Asw / Sf prov = 226 / 100 = 2.260
Asw / Sf Req < Asw / Sf Prov
Safe
1.8.3 Minimum links
w = Asw / s x bw x sin ) IRC112-Pg.No:86 Eq 16.4
w.min = ( 0.072*((fck)) / (fyk ) IRC112-Pg.No:95 Eq 10.20
= (0.072*30 / 500)
= 0.000789
bw = 325 mm
= sin 90 = 1
Min. Asw/s = w.min * bw * sin
Min. Asw/s = 0.0007887 x 325 x sin 90
Min. Asw/s = 256.33 mm2
Provide 2L 10 mm @ 300 mm c/c 524 mm2 safe
1.8.4 Shear between web & flanges
Change in moment over distance d' Distance from zero moment is
M = 743 kN.m
Change in Longitudinal force @ the Flange-Web interface is
Fd = (M/(d-hf/2)) x ((bf-bw)/2)/bf)
= ((743*10^3 )/ (1414- (230/2)))*(((2800-625)/2) / 2800)
= 222 kN
x = 0.85xleff /2
= 6.80 m
Fd/x = 223/6.8
= 32.67 KN/m
VEdf = Fd / df x IRC112-Pg.No:97-Eq.No:10.22
2
= 142 kN/m
VRd max = vdf fcd sin cos
v= 0.6(1-(fck/250))
= 0.528
VRd max = 0.528*20*sin 45 * cos 45
= 1214 N/mm2 0.142 N/mm2
1.8.5 Transverse reinforcement
Asf / s = VEdf df / fyd cot IRC112-Pg.No:98-Eq.No:10.23
= (142.05*230) / (434.79*cot 45) = 75 mm2/ m
1.8.6 Side face reinforcement
Side face reinforcement required for both face
= 0.1 * 585000 mm2 = 585 mm2
100
Using 10 mm dia bars ,no. of bars in one face
= 585 = 5.0 or 6 bars
2* 78.5
Maximum Depth Side face = 1100 / 5 = 220 mm > 300 mm ok
Provide 10 dia bars 6 no. on each face

63
d' Distance - IG1 & IG2

1.9 Calculation of Crack Width


1.9.1 Calculate the stress in the tension steel
sc = M / [d - (x/3)] As
= (1247*10^6) / ( (1414- (31/3) )*5630 )
= 157.8 N/mm2 < 434.8 N/mm2 OK
1.9.2 Calculate the stress in the concrete
c = M*2 / ( bf * X * Z)
= (1247*10^6)*2 / (2800x609.283x1401.647)
= 1.043 N/mm2 < 20.0 N/mm2 OK
For various bars used
eq = ( n1 12 + n2 22 ) / ( n1 1 + n2 2 ) IRC112-Pg.No:127-Eq.No:12.9
= 32 mm
c = 40.0 mm
k1 = Deformed bars
= 0.8
k2 = Bending
= 0.5
eff = As / Ac eff IRC112-Pg.No:126-Eq.No:12.7
Ac eff = bw Dc eff
= 325*215 = 69875 mm2
eff = 4021.24 / 69875 = 0.06
1.9.3 Calculate the maximum crack spacing S r max
Sr max = ( 3.4 c + 0.425 k1 k2 ) / eff IRC112-Pg.No:127-Eq.No:12.8
Sr max = ( 3.4 c + 0.425 k1 k2 ) / eff
= [( 3.4 * 40) + (0.425 * 0.8*0.5*32)] / 0.06
= 230.53 mm
( sm - cm ) = {sc-kt ( fct eff / eff ) (1+e eff)}/Es 0.6 (sc / Es)
kt = 0.5 (as per IRC 112) IRC112-Pg.No:125-Eq.No:12.6.
e = Es / Ecm
Ecm = 22 (fcm / 12.5)0.3
= 22*( (30+10) / 12.5 )^0.3
= 31.2 Mpa
e = 200000 / 31.19 = 6.413
fct eff = Greater of 2.9 MPa or fctm = 2.90 Mpa
( sm - cm ) = {157.8- {0.5(2.9/0.06) (1+(6.42*0.06))}}/200000
= 0.00061650
1.9.4 Calculate of crack width
Wk = Sr max ( sm - cm ) IRC112-Pg.No:125-Eq.No:12.5
Wk = 230.53*0.01
= 0.142 mm

64
Tapper - IG1 & IG2

DESIGN OF OUTER GIRDER


Effective Span 23.40m
1.520m from support Tapper End
1.1 Material Data :
Grade of Concrete fck = M 30
Grade of Steel fyk = Fe 500
Design value of concrete compressive strength, fcd = 20 Mpa
Design yield strength of reinforcement, fyd = 435 Mpa
Modulus of elasticity of steel, Es = 200000 N/mm2
Effective Length of Span, lo = 16000 mm
Partial safety factor for concrete, c = 1.50
Partial safety factor for steel, s = 1.15
1.2 Geometric Data;
Total Depth, D = 1500 mm
Depth of comp. flange, df = 230 mm
Width of Web, bw = 325 mm
Clear cover to any reinforcement = 40 mm (Moderate)
The Effective Flange Width, beff = 2800 mm
1.3 Effective width of flanged Beams
b
beff
beff1 beff2 0.0035
c 0.446 fck
x
df
D
d

``
As

st =(0.87fy/Es)+.002 0.87 fy
b1 bw b2 Strain Diagram Stress Diagram

FIGURE - I
beff = beff,i + bw < b = 325 + 1237.5 + 1237.5 = 2800 2800 mm

65
Tapper - IG1 & IG2

IRC : 112-2011 From Table 6.5


b = 2800 Stress - Strain Relation for design of sections
2800 c = fcd (1-(1-(c/c2)))
1238 1238 c = 3.5 For 0 < c < c2
c2= 2
32 mm = 2

230
fcd = ckf / m
= 0.67 IRC : 112-2011 Cl. 6.4.2.8
1400 1400 fcd = 0.67 x 30/ 1.5 = 13.4
325 c = 13.4(1-(1-(3.5/2)2)

1414 mm

1500 mm
5.863 N/mm2
1237.5
1237.5

5630.00 mm2 64
64
68

1087.5 625 1087.5


b = 2800
FIGURE - II
Diameter of Main Bars = 32 mm
From bottom of
Spacing of Bars = 32 mm As As.y
grider (y)
1St Row = 5 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 4021.239 mm2 x 68 mm 273444.3 mm2
nd
2 Row = 2 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 1608.495 mm2 x 132 mm 212321.3 mm2
3rd Row = 0 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 0 mm2 x 196 mm 0 mm2
4th Row = 0 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 0 mm2 x 260 mm 0 mm2
Total Area of Steel = 5629.734 mm 2
485765.6 mm2
CG of bars from bottom of girder, d' = As.y / As = 86
Effective Depth, d D - d' = 1414 mm
1.4 Moment, Shear & torsion from As per Staad Output Result
Member L/C Node Shear Torsion Moment
1.4.1 PERMANENT LOADS
108 1 56 218.445 0.646 -347.227
1 57 -215.412 -0.646 368.919 at 1.52m Tapper End
1.4.2 SURFACING LOADS
108 2 56 38.438 -0.082 -59.718
2 57 -37.878 0.082 63.534 at 1.52m Tapper End

1.4.4 VARIABLE LOADS


108 962 56 323.570 32.678 -448.530
962 57 -323.570 -32.678 480.887 at 1.52m Tapper End

66
Tapper - IG1 & IG2

1.4.5 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR FOR VERIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL STRENGTH


Impact Factored load Basic Design Loads
Loads Combi Torsi
Shear Torsion Moment nation Shear Moment
on
PERMANENT LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 218.445 0.646 368.919 1.35 295.0 1.0 498.0
b) variable
Relievingloads
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable
SURFACING loads
LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 38.438 0.082 63.534 1.75 67.0 0.0 111.0
b) variable
Relievingloads
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable
VARIABLE LOADSloads
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 323.57 32.678 480.887 1.50 485.0 49 721.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 1.15 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
II) Pedestrain live load
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 0 0 0 1.50 0.0 0.0 0.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 1.50 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total = 847.0 50 1330.0
1.4.6 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR FOR VERIFICATION OF SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE
Impact Factored load Freque Design Loads
nt
Loads Torsi
Shear Torsion Moment Combi Shear Moment
on
nation
PERMANENT LOADS
a) Dead load,Snow load if = 218.445 0.646 368.919 1.00 218.4 0.6 369.0
b) present,SIDL
Relieving including
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable loads
SURFACING LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 38.438 0.082 63.534 1.00 38.0 0.0 64.0
b) variable
Relieving loads
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable loads
VARIABLE LOADS
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 323.57 32.678 480.887 0.75 243.0 25.0 361.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 0.20 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
II) Pedestrain live load
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 0 0 0 0.75 0.0 0.0 0.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 0.20 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total = 499.4 26 794.0

67
Tapper - IG1 & IG2

Design BM M = 1330 kN.m


Design SF VEd = 847 kN
Design Torsion TEd = 50 kN.m
1.5 Design of Torsion
TEd = 50 kN.m ( Total Torsion )
A = 1250*325 + 625*250+2*0.5*150*150 325

1100
= 585000 mm2

1500 mm
U = 1100*2+250*2+625+ 212.132*2
= 3749 mm
tef = A/U= 156.04 mm 0.156 m
Ak = (bw - tef) (D - tef)
= (325-157)*(1500-157)

150
= 227073 mm2 227.0730
Uk = 2 (D - tef) + 2 (bw - tef) 625

250
= [2*(1500-157)]+[2*(325-157)]
= 3026 mm
75.04478
v = 0.6 (1-(fck/310)) = 0.540 IRC112-Pg.No:90 - Eq.No:10.6
1.6 Check if concrete section is adequate
TEd / TRd max + VEd / VRd max 1 IRC112-Pg.No:108 - Eq.No:10.47
TRd max = 2 v cw fcd Ak tef sin cos IRC112-Pg.No:108 - Eq.No:10.48
= 2*0.54*1*20*227.073*0.156*sin 45 * cos 45
2*0.54*1*20*227.073*0.156*0.707*0.707
= 382.57 kN.m
TEd / TRd max + VEd / VRd max = (50/382.58)+(847/2263.4) = 0.505 < 1
1.7 Design of Main reinforcement
1.7.1 Determination of x/d
X/d = =1.2 - ((1.44 - (6.68Mu / fck bf d2 ))1/2
= 1.2-(1.44-(6.68*1330x10^6 )/ (30x 2800x1414^2))1/2
= 0.022 No Compression Reinforcement Required
1.7.2 Determination of Lever arm 'z'
z = d - ( 1 - 0.416 x/d )
= 1414* (1 - 0.416 x 0.022)))
= 1401 mm < 0.95d = 1343 mm
= 1401 mm
1.7.3 Depth of N.A From top of section
x = (d-z) / 0.4
= ( 1414 - 1401.06 ) / 0.4
= 32 mm < 1.25 df = 288 mm Yes
Hence the stress block does lie within the depth of top flange
1.7.4 Tension Reinforcement Required from
As = M / (0.87 fy z)
= 1330x10^6 / ( 0.87 x 500 x 1401.059 )
= 2182 mm2
Ftd = 0.5 VEd Cot IRC : 112-2011 Cl. 10.3.3.3 ( 6)
= 0.5 x 847 x Cot 33.5 = 0.5X847 x 1.511
= 639.8 kN

68
Tapper - IG1 & IG2

As = Ftd / 0.87 x fyk


= 639.839X10^3/ (0.87 x 500)
1471 mm2
= 2182 + 1471 = 3653 mm2 =
Provide 5 nos of 32 mm = 4021 mm2 (g1-5nos)
2 nos of 32 mm = 1608 mm2 (g2-3nos)
0 nos of 32 mm = 0 mm2
0 nos of 32 mm = 0 mm2
5630 mm2 Safe
1.7.5 Check minimum reinforcement
As min = 0.26 fctm bt d / fyk
fctm = 0.259 (fck)^2/3 For fck 60MPa
= 0.259 * (30)^2/3 = 2.5
As min = (0.26*2.51*325*1414)/(500)
= 598 mm2
1.7.6 Check maximum reinforcement
As max = 0.04 Ac
= 0.04*325*1500
= 19500 mm2
1.8 Design of Shear
1.8.1 Concrete strut capacity
V Rd max = cw bw z v1 fcd / cot + tan IRC112-Pg.No:90-Eq.No:10.8
cw = 1 (No axial force)
z = 0.9 d = 1261
v1 = 0.6 < 80 Mpa
VRd max = (1*325*1260.96*0.6*20) / (cot 33.5 + tan33.5 )
= 2263 kN
VEd = 847 kN
= VRd max > Ved max
1.8.2 Vertical stirrups
The Shear Links required can be Calculate
VRds = = Asw /s z fywd cot IRC112-Pg.No:90 Eq.10.7
Asw / s = Area of Legs of links / Link spacing
z = 0.9 d = 1261
fywd = 0.8 x fyk/gm IRC112-Pg.No:86
= 0.8x500 = 400 Cot = 33
Asw / s = VEd/ z fywd cot
= 847x10^3 / (1261 x 33 x (1/Tan(D211))
847000/504400 * 1.54
Asw / s = 1.090
Additional torsional Reinforcement
Asl = TEd Uk cot / 2 Ak fyd IRC112-Pg.No:109-Eq.No:10.49
= 31.1*10^3*3025.84*cot 45 / 2*227073*434.79
= 476.58 mm2 0.477
Total Vertical stirrups = 1.56700 = 1.567
Provide 2L 12 mm @ 100 mm ( a7 )

69
Tapper - IG1 & IG2

226 / s = 100
Dia of rod = 12 Asw / Sf prov = 226 / 100 = 2.260
Asw / Sf Req < Asw / Sf Prov
Safe
1.8.3 Minimum links
w = Asw / s x bw x sin ) IRC112-Pg.No:86 Eq 16.4
w.min = ( 0.072*((fck)) / (fyk ) IRC112-Pg.No:95 Eq 10.20
= (0.072*30 / 500)
= 0.000789
bw = 325 mm
= sin 90 = 1
Min. Asw/s = w.min * bw * sin
Min. Asw/s = 0.0007887 x 325 x sin 90
Min. Asw/s = 256.33 mm2
Provide 2L 10 mm @ 300 mm c/c 524 mm2 safe
1.8.4 Shear between web & flanges
Change in moment over distance Tapper End from zero moment is
M = 794 kN.m
Change in Longitudinal force @ the Flange-Web interface is
Fd = (M/(d-hf/2)) x ((bf-bw)/2)/bf)
= ((794*10^3 )/ (1414- (230/2)))*(((2800-625)/2) / 2800)
= 237 kN
x = 0.85xleff /2
= 6.80 m
Fd/x = 238/6.8
= 34.91 KN/m
VEdf = Fd / df x IRC112-Pg.No:97-Eq.No:10.22
2
= 151.8 kN/m
VRd max = vdf fcd sin cos
v= 0.6(1-(fck/250))
= 0.528
VRd max = 0.528*20*sin 45 * cos 45
= 1214 N/mm2 0.152 N/mm2
1.8.5 Transverse reinforcement
Asf / s = VEdf df / fyd cot IRC112-Pg.No:98-Eq.No:10.23
= (151.8*230) / (434.79*cot 45) = 80 mm2/ m
1.8.6 Side face reinforcement
Side face reinforcement required for both face
= 0.1 * 585000 mm2 = 585 mm2
100
Using 10 mm dia bars ,no. of bars in one face
= 585 = 5.0 or 6 bars
2* 78.5
Maximum Depth Side face = 1100 / 5 = 220 mm > 300 mm ok
Provide 10 dia bars 6 no. on each face

70
Tapper - IG1 & IG2

1.9 Calculation of Crack Width


1.9.1 Calculate the stress in the tension steel
sc = M / [d - (x/3)] As
= (794*10^6) / ( (1414- (32/3) )*5630 )
= 168.34 N/mm2 < 434.8 N/mm2 OK
1.9.2 Calculate the stress in the concrete
c = M*2 / ( bf * X * Z)
= (1330*10^6)*2 / (2800x609.283x1401.059)
= 1.1129 N/mm2 < 20.0 N/mm2 OK
For various bars used
eq = ( n1 12 + n2 22 ) / ( n1 1 + n2 2 ) IRC112-Pg.No:127-Eq.No:12.9
= 32 mm
c = 40.0 mm
k1 = Deformed bars
= 0.8
k2 = Bending
= 0.5
eff = As / Ac eff IRC112-Pg.No:126-Eq.No:12.7
Ac eff = bw Dc eff
= 325*215 = 69875 mm2
eff = 4021.24 / 69875 = 0.06
1.9.3 Calculate the maximum crack spacing S r max
Sr max = ( 3.4 c + 0.425 k1 k2 ) / eff IRC112-Pg.No:127-Eq.No:12.8
Sr max = ( 3.4 c + 0.425 k1 k2 ) / eff
= [( 3.4 * 40) + (0.425 * 0.8*0.5*32)] / 0.06
= 230.53 mm
( sm - cm ) = {sc-kt ( fct eff / eff ) (1+e eff)}/Es 0.6 (sc / Es)
kt = 0.5 (as per IRC 112) IRC112-Pg.No:125-Eq.No:12.6.
e = Es / Ecm
Ecm = 22 (fcm / 12.5)0.3
= 22*( (30+10) / 12.5 )^0.3
= 31.2 Mpa
e = 200000 / 31.19 = 6.413
fct eff = Greater of 2.9 MPa or fctm = 2.90 Mpa
( sm - cm ) = {168.34- {0.5(2.9/0.06) (1+(6.42*0.06))}}/200000
= 0.00066922
1.9.4 Calculate of crack width
Wk = Sr max ( sm - cm ) IRC112-Pg.No:125-Eq.No:12.5
Wk = 230.53*0.01
= 0.154 mm

71
L by 8 - 0G1 & OG2 (2)

DESIGN OF OUTER GIRDER


Effective Span 23.40m
4.000m from support L/8 span
1.1 Material Data :
Grade of Concrete fck = M 30
Grade of Steel fyk = Fe 500
Design value of concrete compressive strength, fcd = 20 Mpa
Design yield strength of reinforcement, fyd = 435 Mpa
Modulus of elasticity of steel, Es = 200000 N/mm2
Effective Length of Span, lo = 16000 mm
Partial safety factor for concrete, c = 1.50
Partial safety factor for steel, s = 1.15
1.2 Geometric Data;
Total Depth, D = 1500 mm
Depth of comp. flange, df = 230 mm
Width of Web, bw = 325 mm
Clear cover to any reinforcement = 40 mm (Moderate)
The Effective Flange Width, beff = 2800 mm
1.3 Effective width of flanged Beams
b
beff
beff1 beff2 0.0035
c 0.446 fck
x
df
D
d

``
As

st =(0.87fy/Es)+.002 0.87 fy
b1 bw b2 Strain Diagram Stress Diagram

FIGURE - I
beff = beff,i + bw < b = 325 + 1237.5 + 1237.5 = 2800 2800 mm

72
L by 8 - 0G1 & OG2 (2)

IRC : 112-2011 From Table 6.5


b = 2800 Stress - Strain Relation for design of sections
2800 c = fcd (1-(1-(c/c2)))
1238 1238 c = 3.5 For 0 < c < c2
c2= 2
42 mm = 2

230
fcd = ckf / m
= 0.67 IRC : 112-2011 Cl. 6.4.2.8
1400 1400 fcd = 0.67 x 30/ 1.5 = 13.4
325 c = 13.4(1-(1-(3.5/2)2)

1400 mm

1500 mm
5.863 N/mm2
1237.5
1237.5

8042.00 mm2 64
64
68

1087.5 625 1087.5


b = 2800
FIGURE - II
Diameter of Main Bars = 32 mm
From bottom of
Spacing of Bars = 32 mm As As.y
grider (y)
1St Row = 5 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 4021.239 mm2 x 68 mm 273444.3 mm2
nd
2 Row = 5 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 4021.239 mm2 x 132 mm 530803.5 mm2
3rd Row = 0 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 0 mm2 x 196 mm 0 mm2
4th Row = 0 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 0 mm2 x 260 mm 0 mm2
Total Area of Steel = 8042.478 mm 2
804247.8 mm2
CG of bars from bottom of girder, d' = As.y / As = 100
Effective Depth, d D - d' = 1400 mm
1.4 Moment, Shear & torsion from As per Staad Output Result
Member L/C Node Shear Torsion Moment
1.4.1 PERMANENT LOADS
109 1 57 217.595 1.242 -370.270
1 58 -183.137 -1.242 480.472 at 4.00m L/8 span
1.4.2 SURFACING LOADS
109 2 57 37.910 -0.079 -63.469
2 58 -31.860 0.079 82.656 at 4.00m L/8 span

1.4.4 VARIABLE LOADS


109 964 57 301.301 32.788 -444.832
964 58 -301.301 -32.788 610.547 at 4.00m L/8 span

73
L by 8 - 0G1 & OG2 (2)

1.4.5 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR FOR VERIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL STRENGTH


Impact Factored load Basic Design Loads
Loads Combi Torsi
Shear Torsion Moment nation Shear Moment
on
PERMANENT LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 217.595 1.242 480.472 1.35 294.0 2.0 649.0
b) variable
Relievingloads
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable
SURFACING loads
LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 37.910 0.079 82.656 1.75 66.0 0.0 145.0
b) variable
Relievingloads
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable
VARIABLE LOADSloads
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 301.301 32.788 610.547 1.50 452.0 49 916.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 1.15 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
II) Pedestrain live load
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 0 0 0 1.50 0.0 0.0 0.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 1.50 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total = 812.0 51 1710.0
1.4.6 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR FOR VERIFICATION OF SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE
Impact Factored load Freque Design Loads
nt
Loads Torsi
Shear Torsion Moment Combi Shear Moment
on
nation
PERMANENT LOADS
a) Dead load,Snow load if = 217.595 1.242 480.472 1.00 217.6 1.2 480.0
b) present,SIDL
Relieving including
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable loads
SURFACING LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 37.910 0.079 82.656 1.00 38.0 0.0 83.0
b) variable
Relieving loads
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable loads
VARIABLE LOADS
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 301.301 32.788 610.547 0.75 226.0 25.0 458.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 0.20 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
II) Pedestrain live load
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 0 0 0 0.75 0.0 0.0 0.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 0.20 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total = 481.6 26 1021.0

74
L by 8 - 0G1 & OG2 (2)

Design BM M = 1710 kN.m


Design SF VEd = 812 kN
Design Torsion TEd = 51 kN.m
1.5 Design of Torsion
TEd = 51 kN.m ( Total Torsion )
A = 1250*325 + 625*250+2*0.5*150*150 325

1100
= 585000 mm2

1500 mm
U = 1100*2+250*2+625+ 212.132*2
= 3749 mm
tef = A/U= 156.04 mm 0.156 m
Ak = (bw - tef) (D - tef)
= (325-157)*(1500-157)

150
= 227073 mm2 227.0730
Uk = 2 (D - tef) + 2 (bw - tef) 625

250
= [2*(1500-157)]+[2*(325-157)]
= 3026 mm
75.04478
v = 0.6 (1-(fck/310)) = 0.540 IRC112-Pg.No:90 - Eq.No:10.6
1.6 Check if concrete section is adequate
TEd / TRd max + VEd / VRd max 1 IRC112-Pg.No:108 - Eq.No:10.47
TRd max = 2 v cw fcd Ak tef sin cos IRC112-Pg.No:108 - Eq.No:10.48
= 2*0.54*1*20*227.073*0.156*sin 45 * cos 45
2*0.54*1*20*227.073*0.156*0.707*0.707
= 382.57 kN.m
TEd / TRd max + VEd / VRd max = (51/382.58)+(812/2234.4) = 0.497 < 1
1.7 Design of Main reinforcement
1.7.1 Determination of x/d
X/d = =1.2 - ((1.44 - (6.68Mu / fck bf d2 ))1/2
= 1.2-(1.44-(6.68*1710x10^6 )/ (30x 2800x1400^2))1/2
= 0.029 No Compression Reinforcement Required
1.7.2 Determination of Lever arm 'z'
z = d - ( 1 - 0.416 x/d )
= 1400* (1 - 0.416 x 0.029)))
= 1383 mm < 0.95d = 1330 mm
= 1383 mm
1.7.3 Depth of N.A From top of section
x = (d-z) / 0.4
= ( 1400 - 1383.11 ) / 0.4
= 42 mm < 1.25 df = 288 mm Yes
Hence the stress block does lie within the depth of top flange
1.7.4 Tension Reinforcement Required from
As = M / (0.87 fy z)
= 1710x10^6 / ( 0.87 x 500 x 1383.11 )
= 2842 mm2
Ftd = 0.5 VEd Cot IRC : 112-2011 Cl. 10.3.3.3 ( 6)
= 0.5 x 812 x Cot 33.5 = 0.5X812 x 1.511
= 613.4 kN

75
L by 8 - 0G1 & OG2 (2)

As = Ftd / 0.87 x fyk


= 613.399X10^3/ (0.87 x 500)
1410 mm2
= 2842 + 1410 = 4252 mm2 =
Provide 5 nos of 32 mm = 4021 mm2 (g1-5nos)
5 nos of 32 mm = 4021 mm2 (g2-3nos+h1-2nos)
0 nos of 32 mm = 0 mm2
0 nos of 32 mm = 0 mm2
8042 mm2 Safe
1.7.5 Check minimum reinforcement
As min = 0.26 fctm bt d / fyk
fctm = 0.259 (fck)^2/3 For fck 60MPa
= 0.259 * (30)^2/3 = 2.5
As min = (0.26*2.51*325*1400)/(500)
= 592 mm2
1.7.6 Check maximum reinforcement
As max = 0.04 Ac
= 0.04*325*1500
= 19500 mm2
1.8 Design of Shear
1.8.1 Concrete strut capacity
V Rd max = cw bw z v1 fcd / cot + tan IRC112-Pg.No:90-Eq.No:10.8
cw = 1 (No axial force)
z = 0.9 d = 1245
v1 = 0.6 < 80 Mpa
VRd max = (1*325*1244.8*0.6*20) / (cot 33.5 + tan33.5 )
= 2234 kN
VEd = 812 kN
= VRd max > Ved max
1.8.2 Vertical stirrups
The Shear Links required can be Calculate
VRds = = Asw /s z fywd cot IRC112-Pg.No:90 Eq.10.7
Asw / s = Area of Legs of links / Link spacing
z = 0.9 d = 1245
fywd = 0.8 x fyk/gm IRC112-Pg.No:86
= 0.8x500 = 400 Cot = 33
Asw / s = VEd/ z fywd cot
= 812x10^3 / (1245 x 33 x (1/Tan(D211))
812000/498000 * 1.54
Asw / s = 1.059
Additional torsional Reinforcement
Asl = TEd Uk cot / 2 Ak fyd IRC112-Pg.No:109-Eq.No:10.49
= 31.722*10^3*3025.84*cot 45 / 2*227073*434.79
= 486.11 mm2 0.486
Total Vertical stirrups = 1.54500 = 1.545
Provide 2L 12 mm @ 100 mm ( a9 )

76
L by 8 - 0G1 & OG2 (2)

226 / s = 100
Dia of rod = 12 Asw / Sf prov = 226 / 100 = 2.260
Asw / Sf Req < Asw / Sf Prov
Safe
1.8.3 Minimum links
w = Asw / s x bw x sin ) IRC112-Pg.No:86 Eq 16.4
w.min = ( 0.072*((fck)) / (fyk ) IRC112-Pg.No:95 Eq 10.20
= (0.072*30 / 500)
= 0.000789
bw = 325 mm
= sin 90 = 1
Min. Asw/s = w.min * bw * sin
Min. Asw/s = 0.0007887 x 325 x sin 90
Min. Asw/s = 256.33 mm2
Provide 2L 10 mm @ 300 mm c/c 524 mm2 safe
1.8.4 Shear between web & flanges
Change in moment over distance L/8 span from zero moment is
M = 1021 kN.m
Change in Longitudinal force @ the Flange-Web interface is
Fd = (M/(d-hf/2)) x ((bf-bw)/2)/bf)
= ((1021*10^3 )/ (1400- (230/2)))*(((2800-625)/2) / 2800)
= 309 kN
x = 0.85xleff /2
= 6.80 m
Fd/x = 309/6.8
= 45.38 KN/m
VEdf = Fd / df x IRC112-Pg.No:97-Eq.No:10.22
2
= 197.3 kN/m
VRd max = vdf fcd sin cos
v= 0.6(1-(fck/250))
= 0.528
VRd max = 0.528*20*sin 45 * cos 45
= 1214 N/mm2 0.197 N/mm2
1.8.5 Transverse reinforcement
Asf / s = VEdf df / fyd cot IRC112-Pg.No:98-Eq.No:10.23
= (197.32*230) / (434.79*cot 45) = 104 mm2/ m
1.8.6 Side face reinforcement
Side face reinforcement required for both face
= 0.1 * 585000 mm2 = 585 mm2
100
Using 10 mm dia bars ,no. of bars in one face
= 585 = 5.0 or 6 bars
2* 78.5
Maximum Depth Side face = 1100 / 5 = 220 mm > 300 mm ok
Provide 10 dia bars 6 no. on each face

77
L by 8 - 0G1 & OG2 (2)

1.9 Calculation of Crack Width


1.9.1 Calculate the stress in the tension steel
sc = M / [d - (x/3)] As
= (1710*10^6) / ( (1400- (42/3) )*8042 )
= 153.42 N/mm2 < 434.8 N/mm2 OK
1.9.2 Calculate the stress in the concrete
c = M*2 / ( bf * X * Z)
= (1710*10^6)*2 / (2800x685.971x1383.11)
= 1.2874 N/mm2 < 20.0 N/mm2 OK
For various bars used
eq = ( n1 12 + n2 22 ) / ( n1 1 + n2 2 ) IRC112-Pg.No:127-Eq.No:12.9
= 32 mm
c = 40.0 mm
k1 = Deformed bars
= 0.8
k2 = Bending
= 0.5
eff = As / Ac eff IRC112-Pg.No:126-Eq.No:12.7
Ac eff = bw Dc eff
= 325*250 = 81250 mm2
eff = 4021.24 / 81250 = 0.05
1.9.3 Calculate the maximum crack spacing S r max
Sr max = ( 3.4 c + 0.425 k1 k2 ) / eff IRC112-Pg.No:127-Eq.No:12.8
Sr max = ( 3.4 c + 0.425 k1 k2 ) / eff
= [( 3.4 * 40) + (0.425 * 0.8*0.5*32)] / 0.05
= 245.92 mm
( sm - cm ) = {sc-kt ( fct eff / eff ) (1+e eff)}/Es 0.6 (sc / Es)
kt = 0.5 (as per IRC 112) IRC112-Pg.No:125-Eq.No:12.6.
e = Es / Ecm
Ecm = 22 (fcm / 12.5)0.3
= 22*( (30+10) / 12.5 )^0.3
= 31.2 Mpa
e = 200000 / 31.19 = 6.413
fct eff = Greater of 2.9 MPa or fctm = 2.90 Mpa
( sm - cm ) = {153.42- {0.5(2.9/0.05) (1+(6.42*0.05))}}/200000
= 0.00057409
1.9.4 Calculate of crack width
Wk = Sr max ( sm - cm ) IRC112-Pg.No:125-Eq.No:12.5
Wk = 245.92*0.01
= 0.141 mm

78
L by 4 - IG1 & IG2

DESIGN OF OUTER GIRDER


Effective Span 23.40m
2.000m from support L/4 Span
1.1 Material Data :
Grade of Concrete fck = M 30
Grade of Steel fyk = Fe 500
Design value of concrete compressive strength, fcd = 20 Mpa
Design yield strength of reinforcement, fyd = 435 Mpa
Modulus of elasticity of steel, Es = 200000 N/mm2
Effective Length of Span, lo = 16000 mm
Partial safety factor for concrete, c = 1.50
Partial safety factor for steel, s = 1.15
1.2 Geometric Data;
Total Depth, D = 1500 mm
Depth of comp. flange, df = 230 mm
Width of Web, bw = 325 mm
Clear cover to any reinforcement = 40 mm (Moderate)
The Effective Flange Width, beff = 2800 mm
1.3 Effective width of flanged Beams
b
beff
beff1 beff2 0.0035
c 0.446 fck
x
df
D
d

``
As

st =(0.87fy/Es)+.002 0.87 fy
b1 bw b2 Strain Diagram Stress Diagram

FIGURE - I
beff = beff,i + bw < b = 325 + 1237.5 + 1237.5 = 2800 2800 mm

79
L by 4 - IG1 & IG2

IRC : 112-2011 From Table 6.5


b = 2800 Stress - Strain Relation for design of sections
2800 c = fcd (1-(1-(c/c2)))
1238 1238 c = 3.5 For 0 < c < c2
c2= 2
69 mm = 2

230
fcd = ckf / m
= 0.67 IRC : 112-2011 Cl. 6.4.2.8
1400 1400 fcd = 0.67 x 30/ 1.5 = 13.4
325 c = 13.4(1-(1-(3.5/2)2)

1384 mm

1500 mm
5.863 N/mm2
1237.5
1237.5

9651.00 mm2 64
64
68

1087.5 625 1087.5


b = 2800
FIGURE - II
Diameter of Main Bars = 32 mm
From bottom of
Spacing of Bars = 32 mm As As.y
grider (y)
1St Row = 5 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 4021.239 mm2 x 68 mm 273444.3 mm2
nd
2 Row = 5 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 4021.239 mm2 x 132 mm 530803.5 mm2
3rd Row = 2 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 1608.495 mm2 x 196 mm 315265 mm2
4th Row = 0 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 0 mm2 x 260 mm 0 mm2
Total Area of Steel = 9650.973 mm 2
1119513 mm2
CG of bars from bottom of girder, d' = As.y / As = 116
Effective Depth, d D - d' = 1384 mm
1.4 Moment, Shear & torsion from As per Staad Output Result
Member L/C Node Shear Torsion Moment
1.4.1 PERMANENT LOADS
112 1 60 146.633 2.063 -720.385
1 61 -131.645 -2.063 789.955 at 2.00m L/4 Span
1.4.2 SURFACING LOADS
112 2 60 24.002 -0.057 -122.454
2 61 -21.202 0.057 133.755 at 2.00m L/4 Span

1.4.4 VARIABLE LOADS


112 973 60 213.158 21.415 -742.622
968 61 -155.850 -6.739 928.707 at 2.00m L/4 Span

80
L by 4 - IG1 & IG2

1.4.5 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR FOR VERIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL STRENGTH


Impact Factored load Basic Design Loads
Loads Combi Torsi
Shear Torsion Moment nation Shear Moment
on
PERMANENT LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 146.633 2.063 789.955 1.35 198.0 3.0 1066.0
b) variable
Relievingloads
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable
SURFACING loads
LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 24.002 0.057 133.755 1.75 42.0 0.0 234.0
b) variable
Relievingloads
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable
VARIABLE LOADSloads
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 155.85 6.739 928.707 1.50 234.0 10 1393.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 1.15 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
II) Pedestrain live load
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 0 0 0 1.50 0.0 0.0 0.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 1.50 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total = 474.0 13 2693.0
1.4.6 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR FOR VERIFICATION OF SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE
Impact Factored load Freque Design Loads
nt
Loads Torsi
Shear Torsion Moment Combi Shear Moment
on
nation
PERMANENT LOADS
a) Dead load,Snow load if = 146.633 2.063 789.955 1.00 146.6 2.1 790.0
b) present,SIDL
Relieving including
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable loads
SURFACING LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 24.002 0.057 133.755 1.00 24.0 0.0 134.0
b) variable
Relieving loads
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable loads
VARIABLE LOADS
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 155.85 6.739 928.707 0.75 117.0 5.0 697.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 0.20 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
II) Pedestrain live load
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 0 0 0 0.75 0.0 0.0 0.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 0.20 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total = 287.6 7 1621.0

81
L by 4 - IG1 & IG2

Design BM M = 2693 kN.m


Design SF VEd = 474 kN
Design Torsion TEd = 13 kN.m
1.5 Design of Torsion
TEd = 13 kN.m ( Total Torsion )
A = 1250*325 + 625*250+2*0.5*150*150 325

1100
= 585000 mm2

1500 mm
U = 1100*2+250*2+625+ 212.132*2
= 3749 mm
tef = A/U= 156.04 mm 0.156 m
Ak = (bw - tef) (D - tef)
= (325-157)*(1500-157)

150
= 227073 mm2 227.0730
Uk = 2 (D - tef) + 2 (bw - tef) 625

250
= [2*(1500-157)]+[2*(325-157)]
= 3026 mm
75.04478
v = 0.6 (1-(fck/310)) = 0.540 IRC112-Pg.No:90 - Eq.No:10.6
1.6 Check if concrete section is adequate
TEd / TRd max + VEd / VRd max 1 IRC112-Pg.No:108 - Eq.No:10.47
TRd max = 2 v cw fcd Ak tef sin cos IRC112-Pg.No:108 - Eq.No:10.48
= 2*0.54*1*20*227.073*0.156*sin 45 * cos 45
2*0.54*1*20*227.073*0.156*0.707*0.707
= 382.57 kN.m
TEd / TRd max + VEd / VRd max = (13/382.58)+(474/2191.19) = 0.251 < 1
1.7 Design of Main reinforcement
1.7.1 Determination of x/d
X/d = =1.2 - ((1.44 - (6.68Mu / fck bf d2 ))1/2
= 1.2-(1.44-(6.68*2693x10^6 )/ (30x 2800x1384^2))1/2
= 0.048 No Compression Reinforcement Required
1.7.2 Determination of Lever arm 'z'
z = d - ( 1 - 0.416 x/d )
= 1384* (1 - 0.416 x 0.048)))
= 1356 mm < 0.95d = 1315 mm
= 1356 mm
1.7.3 Depth of N.A From top of section
x = (d-z) / 0.4
= ( 1384 - 1356.37 ) / 0.4
= 69 mm < 1.25 df = 288 mm Yes
Hence the stress block does lie within the depth of top flange
1.7.4 Tension Reinforcement Required from
As = M / (0.87 fy z)
= 2693x10^6 / ( 0.87 x 500 x 1356.364 )
= 4564 mm2
Ftd = 0.5 VEd Cot IRC : 112-2011 Cl. 10.3.3.3 ( 6)
= 0.5 x 474 x Cot 33.5 = 0.5X474 x 1.511
= 358.1 kN

82
L by 4 - IG1 & IG2

As = Ftd / 0.87 x fyk


= 358.068X10^3/ (0.87 x 500)
823 mm2
= 4564 + 823 = 5387 mm2 =
Provide 5 nos of 32 mm = 4021 mm2 (g1-5nos)
5 nos of 32 mm = 4021 mm2 (g2-3nos+h1-2nos)
2 nos of 32 mm = 1608 mm2 (h2-3nos)
0 nos of 32 mm = 0 mm2
9651 mm2 Safe
1.7.5 Check minimum reinforcement
As min = 0.26 fctm bt d / fyk
fctm = 0.259 (fck)^2/3 For fck 60MPa
= 0.259 * (30)^2/3 = 2.5
As min = (0.26*2.51*325*1384)/(500)
= 585 mm2
1.7.6 Check maximum reinforcement
As max = 0.04 Ac
= 0.04*325*1500
= 19500 mm2
1.8 Design of Shear
1.8.1 Concrete strut capacity
V Rd max = cw bw z v1 fcd / cot + tan IRC112-Pg.No:90-Eq.No:10.8
cw = 1 (No axial force)
z = 0.9 d = 1221
v1 = 0.6 < 80 Mpa
VRd max = (1*325*1220.73*0.6*20) / (cot 33.5 + tan33.5 )
= 2191 kN
VEd = 474 kN
= VRd max > Ved max
1.8.2 Vertical stirrups
The Shear Links required can be Calculate
VRds = = Asw /s z fywd cot IRC112-Pg.No:90 Eq.10.7
Asw / s = Area of Legs of links / Link spacing
z = 0.9 d = 1221
fywd = 0.8 x fyk/gm IRC112-Pg.No:86
= 0.8x500 = 400 Cot = 33
Asw / s = VEd/ z fywd cot
= 474x10^3 / (1221 x 33 x (1/Tan(D211))
474000/488400 * 1.54
Asw / s = 0.630
Additional torsional Reinforcement
Asl = TEd Uk cot / 2 Ak fyd IRC112-Pg.No:109-Eq.No:10.49
= 8.086*10^3*3025.84*cot 45 / 2*227073*434.79
= 123.91 mm2 0.124
Total Vertical stirrups = 0.75400 = 0.754
Provide 2L 12 mm @ 125 mm ( a10 )

83
L by 4 - IG1 & IG2

226 / s = 125
Dia of rod = 12 Asw / Sf prov = 226 / 125 = 1.808
Asw / Sf Req < Asw / Sf Prov
Safe
1.8.3 Minimum links
w = Asw / s x bw x sin ) IRC112-Pg.No:86 Eq 16.4
w.min = ( 0.072*((fck)) / (fyk ) IRC112-Pg.No:95 Eq 10.20
= (0.072*30 / 500)
= 0.000789
bw = 325 mm
= sin 90 = 1
Min. Asw/s = w.min * bw * sin
Min. Asw/s = 0.0007887 x 325 x sin 90
Min. Asw/s = 256.33 mm2
Provide 2L 10 mm @ 300 mm c/c 524 mm2 safe
1.8.4 Shear between web & flanges
Change in moment over distance L/4 Span from zero moment is
M = 1621 kN.m
Change in Longitudinal force @ the Flange-Web interface is
Fd = (M/(d-hf/2)) x ((bf-bw)/2)/bf)
= ((1621*10^3 )/ (1384- (230/2)))*(((2800-625)/2) / 2800)
= 496 kN
x = 0.85xleff /2
= 6.80 m
Fd/x = 497/6.8
= 72.96 KN/m
VEdf = Fd / df x IRC112-Pg.No:97-Eq.No:10.22
2
= 317.2 kN/m
VRd max = vdf fcd sin cos
v= 0.6(1-(fck/250))
= 0.528
VRd max = 0.528*20*sin 45 * cos 45
= 1214 N/mm2 0.317 N/mm2
1.8.5 Transverse reinforcement
Asf / s = VEdf df / fyd cot IRC112-Pg.No:98-Eq.No:10.23
= (317.22*230) / (434.79*cot 45) = 168 mm2/ m
1.8.6 Side face reinforcement
Side face reinforcement required for both face
= 0.1 * 585000 mm2 = 585 mm2
100
Using 10 mm dia bars ,no. of bars in one face
= 585 = 5.0 or 6 bars
2* 78.5
Maximum Depth Side face = 1100 / 5 = 220 mm > 300 mm ok
Provide 10 dia bars 6 no. on each face

84
L by 4 - IG1 & IG2

1.9 Calculation of Crack Width


1.9.1 Calculate the stress in the tension steel
sc = M / [d - (x/3)] As
= (2693*10^6) / ( (1384- (69/3) )*9651 )
= 205.02 N/mm2 < 434.8 N/mm2 OK
1.9.2 Calculate the stress in the concrete
c = M*2 / ( bf * X * Z)
= (2693*10^6)*2 / (2800x723.002x1356.364)
= 1.9615 N/mm2 < 20.0 N/mm2 OK
For various bars used
eq = ( n1 12 + n2 22 ) / ( n1 1 + n2 2 ) IRC112-Pg.No:127-Eq.No:12.9
= 32 mm
c = 40.0 mm
k1 = Deformed bars
= 0.8
k2 = Bending
= 0.5
eff = As / Ac eff IRC112-Pg.No:126-Eq.No:12.7
Ac eff = bw Dc eff
= 325*290 = 94250 mm2
eff = 4021.24 / 94250 = 0.04
1.9.3 Calculate the maximum crack spacing S r max
Sr max = ( 3.4 c + 0.425 k1 k2 ) / eff IRC112-Pg.No:127-Eq.No:12.8
Sr max = ( 3.4 c + 0.425 k1 k2 ) / eff
= [( 3.4 * 40) + (0.425 * 0.8*0.5*32)] / 0.05
= 263.5 mm
( sm - cm ) = {sc-kt ( fct eff / eff ) (1+e eff)}/Es 0.6 (sc / Es)
kt = 0.5 (as per IRC 112) IRC112-Pg.No:125-Eq.No:12.6.
e = Es / Ecm
Ecm = 22 (fcm / 12.5)0.3
= 22*( (30+10) / 12.5 )^0.3
= 31.2 Mpa
e = 200000 / 31.19 = 6.413
fct eff = Greater of 2.9 MPa or fctm = 2.90 Mpa
( sm - cm ) = {205.03- {0.5(2.9/0.05) (1+(6.42*0.05))}}/200000
= 0.00080870
1.9.4 Calculate of crack width
Wk = Sr max ( sm - cm ) IRC112-Pg.No:125-Eq.No:12.5
Wk = 263.51*0.01
= 0.213 mm

85
DESIGN OF OUTER GIRDER
Effective Span 23.40m
8.000m from support Midspan
1.1 Material Data :
Grade of Concrete fck = M 30
Grade of Steel fyk = Fe 500
Design value of concrete compressive strength, fcd = 20 Mpa
Design yield strength of reinforcement, fyd = 435 Mpa
2
Modulus of elasticity of steel, Es = 200000 N/mm
Effective Length of Span, lo = 16000 mm
Partial safety factor for concrete, c = 1.50
Partial safety factor for steel, s = 1.15
1.2 Geometric Data;
Total Depth, D = 1500 mm
Depth of comp. flange, df = 230 mm
Width of Web, bw = 325 mm
Clear cover to any reinforcement = 40 mm (Moderate)
The Effective Flange Width, beff = 2800 mm
1.3 Effective width of flanged Beams
b
beff
beff1 beff2 0.0035
c 0.446 fck
x
df
D
d

``
As

st =(0.87fy/Es)+.002 0.87 fy
b1 bw b2 Strain Diagram Stress Diagram

FIGURE - I
beff = beff,i + bw < b = 325 + 1237.5 + 1237.5 = 2800 2800 mm
Stress - Strain Relation for design of sections
c = fcd (1-(1-(c/c2))) For 0 < c < c2
c = 3.5 IRC : 112-2011 From Table 6.5
c2= 2 IRC : 112-2011 From Table 6.5

86
= 2 IRC : 112-2011 From Table 6.5
fcd = ckf / m
= 0.67 IRC : 112-2011 Cl. 6.4.2.8
fcd = 0.67 x 30/ 1.5 = 13.4
c = 13.4(1-(1-(3.5/2)2)
5.86 N/mm2
b = 2800
2800
1238 1238

89 mm

230
1400 1400
325

1384 mm

1500 mm
1237.5
1237.5

9651.00 mm2 64
64
68

1087.5 625 1087.5


b = 2800

FIGURE - II
Diameter of Main Bars = 32 mm
From bottom of
Spacing of Bars = 32 mm As As.y
grider (y)
St
1 Row = 5 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 4021.239 mm2 x 68 mm 273444.3 mm2
2
2nd Row = 5 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 4021.239 mm2 x 132 mm 530803.5 mm
rd 2
3 Row = 2 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 1608.495 mm2 x 196 mm 315265 mm
th
4 Row = 0 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 0 mm
2
x 260 mm 0 mm2
5th Row = 0 Nos x PI()*32^2/4 = 0 mm2 x 324 mm 0 mm2
2
Total Area of Steel = 9650.973 mm2 1119513 mm
CG of bars from bottom of girder, d' = As.y / As = 116
Effective Depth, d D - d' = 1384 mm
1.4 Moment, Shear & torsion from As per Staad Output Result
Member L/C Node Shear Torsion Moment

1.4.1 PERMANENT LOADS

87
119 1 67 -21.517 -2.114 -1098.802

1 68 47.745 2.114 1068.499 at 8.00m Midspan

1.4.2 SURFACING LOADS

119 2 67 0.325 -0.002 -174.504

2 68 4.575 0.002 172.645 at 8.00m Midspan

1.4.4 VARIABLE LOADS

119 1591 67 148.871 25.144 -566.331

973 68 -77.906 -29.995 1153.548 at 8.00m Midspan

1.4.4 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR FOR VERIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL STRENGTH


Impact Factored load Basic Design Loads
Loads Combi Torsi
Shear Torsion Moment nation Shear Moment
on
PERMANENT LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 47.745 2.114 1098.802 1.35 64.0 3.0 1483.0
b) variable loads
Relieving to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable
SURFACING loads
LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 4.575 0.002 174.504 1.75 8.0 0.0 305.0
b) variable loads
Relieving to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable
VARIABLE LOADSloads
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 148.871 29.995 1153.548 1.50 223.0 45 1730.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 1.15 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
II) Pedestrain live load
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 0 0 0 1.50 0.0 0.0 0.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.50 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total = 295.0 48 3518.0
1.4.5 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR FOR VERIFICATION OF SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE
Impact Factored load Freque Design Loads
nt
Loads Torsi
Shear Torsion Moment Combi Shear Moment
on
nation
PERMANENT LOADS
a) Dead load,Snow load if = 47.745 2.114 1098.802 1.00 47.7 2.1 1099.0
present,SIDL including

88
b) Relieving to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable loads
SURFACING LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 4.575 0.002 174.504 1.00 5.0 0.0 175.0
b) variable
Relieving loads
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable
VARIABLE LOADS loads
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 148.871 29.995 1153.548 0.75 112.0 22.0 865.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 0.20 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
II) Pedestrain live load
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 0 0 0 0.75 0.0 0.0 0.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.20 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total = 164.7 24.1 2139.0
Design BM M = 3518 kN.m
Design SF VEd = 295 kN
Design Torsion TEd = 48 kN.m

1.5 Design of Main reinforcement


1.5.1 Determination of x/d
X/d = =1.2 - ((1.44 - (6.68Mu / fck bf d2 ))1/2
= 1.2-(1.44-(6.68*3518x10^6 )/ (30x 2800x1384^2))1/2
= 0.062 No Compression Reinforcement Required
1.5.2 Determination of Lever arm 'z'
z = d - ( 1 - 0.416 x/d )
= 1384* (1 - 0.416 x 0.062)))
= 1348 mm < 0.95 d = 1315 mm
= 1348 mm
1.5.3 Depth of N.A From top of section
x = (d-z) / 0.4
= ( 1384 - 1348.31 ) / 0.4
= 89 mm < 1.25 df = 288 mm Yes
Hence the stress block does lie within the depth of top flange
1.5.4 Tension Reinforcement Required from
As = M / (0.87 fy z)
= 3518x10^6 / ( 0.87 x 500 x 1348.304 )
= 5998 mm2
Ftd = 0.5 VEd Cot IRC : 112-2011 Cl. 10.3.3.3 ( 6)
= 0.5 x 295 x Cot 33.5

89
0.5X295 x 1.511
= 222.8 kN
As = Ftd / 0.87 x fyk
= 222.848X10^3/ (0.87 x 500)
2
512 mm
2
= 5998 + 512 = 6510 mm
Provide 5 nos of 32 mm = 4021 mm2 (g1-5nos)
2
5 nos of 32 mm = 4021 mm (g2-3nos+h1-2nos)
2
2 nos of 32 mm = 1608 mm (h2-3nos+ h3- 2nos)
2
0 nos of 32 mm = 0 mm
2
0 nos of 32 mm = 0 mm
2
9651 mm Safe
1.5.5 Check minimum reinforcement
As min = 0.26 fctm bt d / fyk
fctm = 0.259 (fck)^2/3 For fck 60MPa
= 0.259 * (30)^2/3 = 2.5
As min = (0.26*2.51*325*1384)/(500)
= 585 mm2
1.5.6 Check maximum reinforcement
As max = 0.04 Ac
= 0.04*325*1500
= 19500 mm2

1.6 Design of Shear


1.6.1 Shear capacity without shear reinforcement
VRd,c = *0.12 k (80 1 fck ) 0.33 + 0.15 cp ] bw d IRC112-Pg.No:88
3/2 1/2
v min = 0.031 k fck = 0.28 IRC112-Pg.No:88 , Eq.10.3
k = 1 + (200/d) 2 IRC112-Pg.No:88 , (Fig 10.2)
= 1.380
1 = Asl / bw d 0.02 IRC112-Pg.No:88 , (Fig 10.5)
= 0.0215
cp NEd / Ac < 0.2 fcd = 0 (No axial force)
VRd,c = ((0.12*1.39*((80*0.03*30)^(1/3)))+(0.15*0))*325*1384
= 277.1 kN < 295 kN
Shear reinforcement is needed
VRd,c (min) = (vmin + k 1 cp ) bw d
= (0.28+(0.15*0))*325*1384
= 123.8 kN
1.6.2 Concrete strut capacity
V Rd max = cw bw z v1 fcd / cot + tan IRC112-Pg.No:90-Eq.No:10.8

90
cw = 1 (No axial force)
z = 0.9 d = 1213
v1 = 0.6 < 80 Mpa
VRd max = (1*325*1213.48*0.6*20) / (cot 33.5 + tan33.5 )
= 2178 kN
VEd = 295 kN
= VRd max > Ved max
1.6.3 Vertical stirrups
The Shear Links required can be Calculate
VRds = = Asw /s z fywd cot IRC112-Pg.No:90 Eq.10.7
Asw / s = Area of Legs of links / Link spacing
z = 0.9 d = 1213
fywd = 0.8 x fyk/gm IRC112-Pg.No:86
= 0.8x500 = 400
Cot = 33.5
Asw / s = VEd/ z fywd cot
= 295x10^3 / (1213 x 400 x (1/Tan(33.5))
295000/485200 * 1.511
Asw / s = 0.402
Additional torsional Reinforcement
Asl = TEd Uk cot / 2 Ak fyd IRC112-Pg.No:109-Eq.No:10.49
= 48*10^3*3075.63*cot 45 / 2*131775*434.79
= 1288.37 mm2 1.288
Total Vertical stirrups = 0.40200 = 0.402
Provide 2L 12 mm @ 150 mm ( a10 )
226 / s = 150
Dia of rod = 12
Asw / Sf prov = 226 / 150
= 1.51
Asw / Sf Req < Asw / Sf Prov
Safe
1.6.4 Minimum links
w = Asw / s x bw x sin ) IRC112-Pg.No:86 Eq 16.4
w.min = ( 0.072*((fck)) / (fyk ) IRC112-Pg.No:95 Eq 10.20
= (0.072*30 / 500)
= 0.000789
bw = 325 mm
= sin 90 = 1
Min. Asw/s = w.min * bw * sin

91
Min. Asw/s = 0.0007887 x 325 x sin 90
Min. Asw/s = 256.33 mm2
Provide 2L 10 mm @ 300 mm c/c 524 mm2 safe
1.6.5 Maximum longitudinal spacing of links `
sl max = 0.75 d (1+cot ) IRC112-Pg.No:180-Eq.No:16.6
= 0.75 * 1384(1+cot 90)
= 1038.00 mm
1.6.6 Maximum transverse spacing of link legs
st max = 0.75 d < 600 IRC112-Pg.No:180-Eq.No:16.8
= 0.75 * 1384
= 1038.00 mm > 600 mm
1.6.7 Shear between web & flanges
Change in moment over distance Midspan from zero moment is
M = 2139 kN.m
Change in Longitudinal force @ the Flange-Web interface is
Fd = (M/(d-hf/2)) x ((bf-bw)/2)/bf)
= ((2139*10^3 )/ (1384- (230/2)))*(((2800-625)/2) / 2800)
= 655 kN
x = 0.85xleff /2
= 6.80 m
Fd/x = 655/6.8
= 96.27 KN/m
VEdf = Fd / df x IRC112-Pg.No:97-Eq.No:10.22
2
= 418.6 kN/m
VRd max = vdf fcd sin cos
v= 0.6(1-(fck/250))
= 0.528
VRd max = 0.528*20*sin 45 * cos 45
= 1214 N/mm2 0.419 N/mm2
1.6.8 Transverse reinforcement
Asf / s = VEdf df / fyd cot IRC112-Pg.No:98-Eq.No:10.23
= (418.59*230) / (434.79*cot 45)
= 221.4 mm2/ m
Additional torsional Reinforcement ( Refer 1.7.3 )
= 265.4 mm2/ m
= 486.8 mm2/ m
Transverse Direction
Providing Deck Slab 12 mm @ 150 mm c/c 754 mm2
Extra Bars mm @ 200 mm c/c 0 mm2
fctd = 0.7 fctm = 1.52 754 safe

92
VEdf = 0.4 df fctd
Fd/x < VEdf
96.270 < 140 N/mm2
No extra reinforcement for flexure

1.7 Design of Torsion


TEd = 48 kN.m ( Total Torsion )
A = 1250*325 + 625*250+2*0.5*150*150 325

1100
2
= 585000 mm

1500 mm
U = 1100*2+325+250*2+625+ 212.132*2
= 4074 mm
tef = A/U= 143.59 mm 0.144 m
Ak = (bw - tef) (D - tef)
= (325-144)*(870-144)

150
= 131775 mm2
Uk = 2 (D - tef) + 2 (bw - tef) 625

250
= [2*(1500-144)]+[2*(325-144)]
= 3076 mm

v = 0.6 (1-(fck/310)) = 0.540 IRC112-Pg.No:90 - Eq.No:10.6


1.7.1 Check if concrete section is adequate
TEd / TRd max + VEd / VRd max 1 IRC112-Pg.No:108 - Eq.No:10.47
TRd max = 2 v cw fcd Ak tef sin cos IRC112-Pg.No:108 - Eq.No:10.48
= 2*0.54*1*20*131775*0.15*sin 45 * cos 45
2*0.54*1*20*0.001*131775*0.144*0.707*0.707
= 204.94 kN.m
TEd / TRd max + VEd / VRd max = (48/204.94)+(295/2178.17) = 0.37 < 1

1.7.2 Required longitudinal reinforcement for torsion


Asl = TEd Uk cot / 2 Ak fyd IRC112-Pg.No:109-Eq.No:10.49
= 48*10^3*3075.63*cot 45 / 2*131775*434.79
= 1288.37 mm2 1.288

z
Staad section Wizard
Running Section TEd = 48 kN.m
St
1 section
Torsional moment of inertia for Flange Ixx = 0.0216
nd
2 section
Torsional moment of inertia for Web Ixx = 0.0072
rd
3 section
Torsional moment of inertia for Bulb Ixx = 0.0070

93
= 0.0358
Section y

1st Percentage of torsional Moment = 0.603


2nd Percentage of torsional Moment = 0.201
3rd Percentage of torsional Moment = 0.196
= 0.603*48 = 28.944 kN.m IRC112-Pg.No:109-Eq.No:10.49
= 0.201*48 = 9.648 kN.m
= 0.196*48 = 9.408 kN.m
1.7.3 Required transverse reinforment for Section of Flange
Asl = TEd Uk cot / 2 Ak fyd z IRC112-Pg.No:109-Eq.No:10.49
Uk = 6905 m ( section Wizard )
Ak = 866000 m2 ( section Wizard )
y

= 28.944x10^3x6905 cot 45 /(2 x 866000 x 434.783) z


2
265.4 mm
1.7.4 Required Longitudinal reinforment for Section of Web
Asl = TEd Uk cot / 2 Ak fyd
Uk = 2320 m ( section Wizard )
2
Ak = 271400 m ( section Wizard )

= 9.648x10^3x2320 cot 45 /(2 x 271400 x 434.783) y


2
= 94.84 mm
Provide 10 mm 79 mm2 = 1.208 say 1 ( on Each Side )
1.7.5 Required Longitudinal reinforment for Section of Bulb z

Asl = TEd Uk cot / 2 Ak fyd


Uk = 1874 m ( section Wizard )
2
Ak = 227500 m ( section Wizard ) y

= 9.408x10^3x1874 cot 45 /(2 x 227500 x 434.783)


= 89.12 mm2
Provide 10 mm 79 mm2 = 1.135 say 1 ( on Each Side )
Maximum space between torsion links
= 200 < (Uk/8) = 384.45 mm IRC112-Pg.No:180- Cl:16.5.3 (4)
Maximum spacing of longitudinal bars for torsion
= 200 < 350 mm IRC112-Pg.No:180- Cl:16.5.3 (3)

Calculation of Creep Effects


Ec,eff = Ecm/( 1+(, to ) IRC :112 -2011, Page no: 132, Eq - 12.15
Ecm = 31 From table 6.5 IRC : 112-2011
to = is the age of concrete in days at time of loading (Assumed= 90 days )
Notional size ho = 2Ac/u ( in mm)

94
Ac = Cross sectional Area in mm2
u = Perimeter in contact with Atmosphere in mm
ho = 2*585000/ 3749
ho = 312.1 mm Dry atmosphere conditions
(,to) = 1.328 Creep Co-efficient
Ec,eff = 31/ ( 1 + 1.328)
13.316 kN/mm2
Calculation of Shrinkage Effects
Shrinkage Curvature
1/rcs = cs e S/I IRC :112 -2011, Page no: 132, Eq - 12.16
1/rcs = is the curvature due to shrinkage
cs = is the free shrinkage strain
S = is the first moment of area of the reinforcement about the centriod of the section
I = is the second moment of area of the section
e = is the effective modular ratio = Es / E c,eff 325
Calculate the Netural axis position

723.002 mm
consider as rectangular section
Taking area moments about the Netural axis

1500 mm
bw*X2/2 = e As ( d- x) *
2
325 *X /2 =200/15.02 * 9651*(1384 - X)
163 X2 = 177855481.12 - 128508.3 X
2
= 1X + 790.82 X- 1094495.3
X= 723.002 mm
S = As( d - x )
= 9651*( 1384 - 723.002)
= 6.0 x10^6 mm3
and from table 6.8,
Total shrinkage strain cs = cd + ca
cd = = is the drying shrinkage strain
ca = = is the autogenous shrinkage strain
ca = 35 x10^6 From table 6.6 IRC :112 -2011
cd = kh * cd
ho = 312.1 mm
kh = 0.747 From table 6.7 IRC :112 -2011
cd = 288.000 From table 6.8 IRC :112 -2011 80 % Relative Humidity )
= 288 * 0.747
= 215.1 x10^6 25 300
cs = 35*10^6+215.136*10^6 50 240
Total shrinkage strain cs = 250.1 x10^6 mm M 30 288
e = 200/13.316 = 15.02
Calculate the second moment of area of the section ( I )

95
I = bx3/3+e As ( d-x)2
= 325x723.002^3/3 +15.02x9651x(1384-723.002)^2
= 104278 x10^6 mm4
1/rcs = cs e S/I
= 250.136x10^6 x15.02x6x10^6/104278x10^6
= 0.216 x10^6
Deflection = 0.104 L2/ (1/rcs)
= 0.104 x 8000^2/ 0.216x10^6
= 30.815 mm
As per staad result for dead load deflection = -10.535 mm
As per staad result for Live load deflection = -8.568 mm
As per IRC:112-2001. Page 131, Cl.12.4.1 = = Span / 800 = 16000/800= 20.00 mm

1.8 Check for Deflection


po = sqrt(fck)/1000
= 0.005
p = As / bw d
= 523.6/(325*1384)
= 0.00116
p' = As2 / bw d
= 0 (no comp rft)
p < po
K = 1

Allowble L / d = k (11+(1.5 (fck) (0/) ) + 3.2 fck ((0/)-1)^1.5)


= 1(11+(1.5 (30)*(0.00548/0.00117)) + (3.2 30 ((0.00548/0.00117)-1)^1.5)
= 175
Actual L / d = 16000 / 1384 = 12
Allowable L / d > Actual L / d
The deflection control is satisfied

1.9 Check for Bond


Ultimate bond stress
fbd = 2.7 M 30
2
= 2.7 N/mm

1.10 Design of Anchorage Length


1.10.1 Basic anchorge length
lb = ( /4 ) ( fyd / fbd ) = k IRC112-Pg.No:150 - .Eq.No:15.1

96
= (32/4)* (434.79/2.7) = 33 X 32 =
= 1288 mm = 1056 mm
1.10.2 Design anchorge length
l b net = a l b ( As req / As prov ) > l b min IRC112-Pg.No:152 - .Eq.No:15.2
Zone = Tension
Bar position = Straight
1 = 1.0 (see table)
l b net = 800.65 mm
1.10.3 Minimum anchorge length
In tension, l b min = 0.3 l b > 10 or 100mm IRC112-Pg.No:153
= 316.8 mm < 320 mm
In compression, l b min = 0.6 l b > 10 or 100mm IRC112-Pg.No:153
= 633.6 mm > 320 mm
1.11 Lap length
1.11.1 Minimum Lap length
ls min = 0.3 1 l b or 15 or 200mm IRC112-Pg.No:155
1 = 1.4 50%
ls min = 443.52 mm
1.11.2 Design Lap length
ls = l b net 1 > ls min or 15 or 200mm IRC112-Pg.No:155 - Eq 15.3
ls = 1120.9 mm > 443.52 mm
1.12 Cracking
Minimum reinforcement for crack control
As min = kc k fct eff Act / s IRC112-Pg.No:122-Eq.No:12.1
s = fyk
fct eff = greater of 2.9MPa or fctm = 2.9 N/mm2
Act = bf * Dc eff
Dc eff is lesser of : 2.5 (D - d ) = 290 mm IRC112-Pg.No:126
D-(x/3) = 1470.3333 mm IRC112-Pg.No:126
D/2 = 750 mm IRC112-Pg.No:126
2
= 325 * 290 = 94250 mm
k = 1.00 (see table)
kc = Bending combined with axial forces
kc = 0.9 [ Fcr / (Act fct eff) ] 0.5 IRC112-Pg.No:124 - Eq 12.3
= 0.9 [ Fcr / (Act fct,eff)] > 0.5
As min = 273.33 mm2
1.13 Calculation of Crack Width
1.13.1 Calculate the stress in the tension steel
st = M / [d - (x/3)] As
= (3518*10^6) / ( (1384- (89/3) )*9651 )

97
= 269.15 N/mm2

1.13.2 Calculate the stress in the concrete


c = M*2 / ( bf * X * Z)
= (3518*10^6)*2 / (2800x723.002x1348.304)
= 2.5777 N/mm2
For various bars used
2 2
eq = ( n1 1 + n2 2 ) / ( n1 1 + n2 2 ) IRC112-Pg.No:127-Eq.No:12.9
= 32 mm
c = 40.0 mm
k1 = Deformed bars
= 0.8
k2 = Bending
= 0.5
eff = As / Ac eff IRC112-Pg.No:126-Eq.No:12.7
Ac eff = bw Dc eff
= 325*290 = 94250 mm2
eff = 4021.24 / 94250 = 0.04
1.13.3 Calculate the maximum crack spacing S r max
Sr max = ( 3.4 c + 0.425 k1 k2 ) / eff IRC112-Pg.No:127-Eq.No:12.8
Sr max = ( 3.4 c + 0.425 k1 k2 ) / eff
= [( 3.4 * 40) + (0.425 * 0.8*0.5*32)] / 0.05
= 263.5 mm
( sm - cm ) = {sc-kt ( fct eff / eff ) (1+e eff)}/Es 0.6 (sc / Es)
kt = 0.5 (as per IRC 112) IRC112-Pg.No:125-Eq.No:12.6.
e = Es / Ecm
Ecm = 22 (fcm / 12.5)0.3
= 22*( (30+10) / 12.5 )^0.3
= 31.2 Mpa
e = 200000 / 31.19 = 6.413
fct eff = Greater of 2.9 MPa or fctm = 2.90 Mpa
( sm - cm ) = {269.16- {0.5(2.9/0.05) (1+(6.42*0.05))}}/200000
= 0.00112934
1.13.4 Calculate of crack width
Wk = Sr max ( sm - cm ) IRC112-Pg.No:125-Eq.No:12.5
Wk = 263.51*0.01
= 0.298 mm

98
Design of Corbel (End Cross Girder)
1.1 Material Data :
Grade of Concrete fck = M 30
Grade of Steel fy = Fe 500
Design value of concrete compressive strength, fcd = 20 Mpa
Design yield strength of reinforcement, fyd = 435 Mpa
Modulus of elasticity of steel, Es = 200000 N/mm2
Effective Length of Span, lo = 2650 mm
Partial safety factor for concrete, c = 1.50
Partial safety factor for steel, s = 1.15
1.2 Geometric Data;
Total Depth, D = 1500 mm
Width of Web, bw = 300 mm
Clear cover to any reinforcement = 40 mm Moderate
Bearing Depth = 96 mm
Assume Dia of Main Bar = 32 mm
1500 mm

1411 mm
1900

d
z

Fsd
aH

Hsd

550 ``
aC Jack Position
a'
1.3 Stress - Strain Relation for design of sections
c = fcd (1-(1-(c/c2))) For 0 < c < c2
c = 3.5 IRC : 112-2011 From Table 6.5
c2 = 2.0 IRC : 112-2011 From Table 6.5
= 2 IRC : 112-2011 From Table 6.5
fcd = ckf / m
= 0.67 IRC : 112-2011 Cl. 6.4.2.8
fcd = 0.67 x 30/ 1.5 = 13.4
c = 13.4(1-(1-(3.5/2)2)
= 5.863 N/mm2
Diameter of Main Bars = 32 mm
Spacing of Bars = 32 mm As From bottom of As.y
1St Row = 3 Nos x PI()*25^2/4 = 1472.622 mm 2
x 65 mm 94984.1 mm2
nd 2
2 Row = 3 Nos x PI()*25^2/4 = 1472.622 mm x 115 mm 168615.219 mm2
3rd Row = 0 Nos x PI()*20^2/4 = 0 mm2 x 157 mm 0 mm2
th 2
4 Row = 0 Nos x PI()*25^2/4 = 0 mm x 205 mm 0 mm2
Total Area of Steel = 2945.244 mm2 263599.319 mm2
CG of bars from bottom of girder, d' = As.y / As = 89 mm

99
Effective Depth, d D - d' = 1411 mm

Factored Torsion
Un Factored Factor Factored load Untorsion
kN.m
Load From Super Structure Load (KN) (KN) kN.m
Permanent Load = 443 1.35 598.05 5 6.75
Surface Load = 51 1.75 89.25 1 1.75
Total 687 Total 9.0
Fsd = 687 KN
Hsd = 137.4 KN
Torsion = 9.0 KN
Effective Depth d = 1411 mm
aH = 552 mm
ac = 550 mm
d / ac = 1411 / 550
Tan = 2.57
1.4 Concrete Strut Capacity :

Vrd max = cw bw z v1 fcd / cot + tan


cw = 1
fcd = 20 N/mm2
z = 0.9 x 1411
= 1269.9 mm
v1 = 0.6 < 80 mpa
fsd/fcd d bw = (687 x 1000) / (20 x 1411 x 300 )
= 0.081
a' = (ac -0.2ah)
= (550 - 0.2x 552)
= 439.600 mm
a' /d = 439.6 / 1411
= 0.312

100
Value Taken From the Table
36.00 (22 and 45)
Vrd max = (1 x 300 x 1269.9 x 20 x 0.6) / cot 36 + tan 36)
= 2173.94 KN
687 < 2173.94
vrdmax Check is Satisfied
1.5 Main Tension Steel :

f 'td = f sd (cot + 0.2)


= 687 x ( cot 36 + 0.2)
= 1083 KN
As,main = f 'td/0.87 x fyk
= (1083x 10^3)/(0.87 x 500)
Req Steel = 2489.66 mm2
Provide 3 nos 25 1473 mm2 (g1) & (g4)
Provide 3 nos 25 1473 mm2 (g2) & (g5)
2
Provide 0 nos 20 0 mm (g3) & (g6)
Provide 0 nos 25 0 mm2
2946 mm2
Safe
1.6 Horizontal Links
In Corbels With ac < 0.5hc Closed Horizontal or Inclined links With area As.link Shall be Provided in
Addition to the main tension reinforcement
ac < 0.5hc (IRC 112-2011 Cl:16.7.1.3)
550 < 750 Horizontal stirrups only
As.link < 0.25* As.main = 736.5 mm2
< =

Required in Nos 2L 12 226 mm2 = 3.256


2
Provide 5 nos 2L 12 1131 mm (e1)
Safe
1.7 Vertical Links
In Corbels With ac >hc and Fsd > Vrd.c Closed Vertical Stirrups With area As.stirrup Shall be Provided in
Addition to the main tension reinforcement
As.stirrup > 0.5 As.main (IRC 112-2011 Cl:16.7.1.4)
As.stirrup > 0.023
Required = 1473 mm2
Required in Nos 2L 12 226 mm2 = 154
2
Provide 2 L 12 100 mm c/c 2261.95 mm
Safe
1.7.1 Vertical stirrups
The Shear Links required can be Calculate
VRds = = Asw /s z fywd cot IRC112-Pg.No:90 Eq.10.7
Asw / s = Area of Legs of links / Link spacing
z = 0.9 d = 1270
fywd = 0.8 x fyk/gm IRC112-Pg.No:86
= 0.8x500 = 400
Cot = 33.5

101
Asw / s = VEd/ z fywd cot
= 687x10^3 / (1270 x 400 x (1/Tan(33.5))
687000/508000 * 1.511
Asw / s = 0.895
Additional torsional Reinforcement
Asl = TEd Uk cot / 2 Ak fyd IRC112-Pg.No:109-Eq.No:10.49
= 9*10^3*3100*cot 45 / 2*240625*434.79
= 133.34 mm2 0.133
Total Vertical stirrups = 0.895+0.133+ = 1.03
Provide 2L 12 mm @ 100 mm (l1)
226 / s = 100
Dia of rod = 12
Asw / Sf prov = 226 / 100
= 2.26
Asw / Sf Req < Asw / Sf Prov
Safe
1.7.2 Minimum links
w = Asw / s x b x sin ) IRC112-Pg.No:86 Eq 16.4
w.min = ( 0.072*((fck)) / (fyk ) IRC112-Pg.No:95 Eq 10.20
= (0.072*30 / 500)
= 0.000789
b = 300 mm
= sin 90 = 1
Min. Asw/s = w.min * bw * sin
Min. Asw/s = 0.0007887 x 300 x sin 90
Min. Asw/s = 236.61 mm2
Provide 2 L 10 mm @ 300 mm c/c 524 mm2 safe
1.8 Design of Torsion
TEd = 9.00 kN.m ( Total Torsion ) 300
A = 1500*300
1500 mm

= 450000 mm2
U = 1500*2+300*2
= 3600 mm
tef = A/U= 125.00 mm 0.125 m
Ak = (bw - tef) (D - tef) Uk = 2 (D - tef) + 2 (bw - tef)
= (300-125)*(1500-125) = [2*(1500-125)]+[2*(300-125)]
= 240625 mm2 = 3100 mm
v = 0.6 (1-(fck/310)) = 0.540 IRC112-Pg.No:90 - Eq.No:10.6

102
DESIGN OF MIDDLE CROSS GIRDER
1.1 Material Data :
Grade of Concrete fck = M 30
Grade of Steel fyk = Fe 500
Design value of concrete compressive strength, fcd = 20 Mpa
Design yield strength of reinforcement, fyd = 435 Mpa
Modulus of elasticity of steel, Es = 200000 N/mm2
Effective Length of Span, lo = 2650 mm
Partial safety factor for concrete, c = 1.50
Partial safety factor for steel, s = 1.15
1.2 Geometric Data;
Total Depth, D = 1500 mm
Width of Web, bw = 300 mm
Clear cover to any reinforcement = 40 mm (Moderate)
0.0035
c 0.446 fck
x
D
d

As

`` st =(0.87fy/Es)+.002 0.87 fy
b Strain Diagram Stress Diagram

FIGURE - I
beff = beff,i + bw < b = 300 + + = 300 300 mm
Stress - Strain Relation for design of sections
c = fcd (1-(1-(c/c2))) For 0 < c < c2
c = 3.5 IRC : 112-2011 From Table 6.5
c2= 2 IRC : 112-2011 From Table 6.5
= 2 IRC : 112-2011 From Table 6.5
fcd = ckf / m
= 0.67 IRC : 112-2011 Cl. 6.4.2.8
fcd = 0.67 x 30/ 1.5 = 13.4
c = 13.4(1-(1-(3.5/2)2)
5.863 N/mm2

103
b = 300
300
116 mm

1411 mm

1500 mm
300

2945.00 mm2 64
64
65

b = 300
FIGURE - II
Diameter of Main Bars = 32 mm
From bottom of
Spacing of Bars = 32 mm As As.y
grider (y)
St
1 Row = 3 Nos x PI()*25^2/4 = 1472.622 mm2 x 65 mm 94984.1 mm2
nd
2 Row = 3 Nos x PI()*25^2/4 = 1472.622 mm2 x 115 mm 168615.2 mm2
rd
3 Row = 0 Nos x PI()*25^2/4 = 0 mm
2
x 179 mm 0 mm2
th
4 Row = 0 Nos x PI()*25^2/4 = 0 mm
2
x 243 mm 0 mm2
2
Total Area of Steel = 2945.244 mm2 263599.3 mm
CG of bars from bottom of girder, d' = As.y / As = 89
Effective Depth, d D - d' = 1411 mm
1.4 Moment, Shear & torsion from As per Staad Output Result
Member L/C Node Shear Torsion Moment

1.4.1 PERMANENT LOADS- hogging

144 1 67 10.934 0.060 75.36

1 92 12.166 -0.060 -77.09

1.4.2 SURFACING LOADS - hogging

144 2 67 -0.168 0.011 -2.83

2 92 0.168 -0.011 2.36

1.4.3 VARIABLE LOADS - Sagging

104
144 1270 67 107.421 0.011 -228.287

1273 92 -4.165 -0.102 315.122 at .00m 0

1.4.4 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR FOR VERIFICATION OF STRUCTURAL STRENGTH


Impact Factored load Basic Design Loads
Loads Combin Torsio
Shear Torsion Moment ation Shear Moment
n
PERMANENT LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 77.09 -0.060 12.166 1.35 104.0 0.0 16.0
b) variable loads
Relieving to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable
SURFACING loads
LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = -0.168 -0.011 2.36 1.75 0.0 0.0 4.0
b) variable loads
Relieving to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable
VARIABLE LOADSloads
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 107.421 0.102 315.122 1.50 161.0 0 473.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 1.15 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
II) Pedestrain live load
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 0.000 0.000 0.00 1.50 0.0 0.0 0.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 1.15 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total = 265.0 1 493.0
1.4.5 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR FOR VERIFICATION OF SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE
Impact Factored load Frequen Design Loads
t
Loads Torsio
Shear Torsion Moment Combin Shear Moment
ation n

PERMANENT LOADS
a) Dead load,Snow load if = 76.921 -0.071 14.523 1.0 76.9 -0.1 15.0
b) present,SIDL
Relieving to theincluding
effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable loads
SURFACING LOADS
a) Addind to the effect of = 0 0 1.5 1.00 0.0 0.0 2.0
b) variable
Relieving loads
to the effect of = 0 0 0 1.00 0.0 0.0 0.0
variable loads
VARIABLE LOADS
I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 107.421 0.102 315.122 0.75 81.0 0.0 236.0
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 0.20 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0

II) Pedestrain live load


I) Carriage way Live load and associated loads
a) Leading Load = 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.75 0.0 0.0 0.0

105
b) Accompanying Load = 0 0 0 0.20 0.0 0.0 0.0
c) Construction = 0 0 0 1.35 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total = 157.9 -0.1 253.0
Sagging
Design BM M = 493 kN.m
Design SF VEd = 265 kN
Design Torsion TEd = 1 kN.m
1.5 Design of Main reinforcement
1.5.1 Determination of x/d
X/d = =1.2 - ((1.44 - (6.68Mu / fck b d2 ))1/2
= 1.2-(1.44-(6.68*493x10^6 )/ (30x 300x1411^2))1/2
= 0.079
1.5.2 Determination of Lever arm 'z'
z = d - ( 1 - 0.416 x/d )
= 1411* (1 - 0.416 x 0.079)))
= 1365 mm < 0.95 d = 1340 mm
= 1365 mm
1.5.3 Depth of N.A From top of section
x = (d-z) / 0.4
= ( 1411 - 1364.63 ) / 0.4
= 116 mm
Hence the stress block does lie within the Web.
1.5.4 Tension Reinforcement Required from
As = M / (0.87 fy z)
= 493x10^6 / ( 0.87 x 500 x 1364.629 )
= 831 mm2
Ftd = 0.5 VEd Cot IRC : 112-2011 Cl. 10.3.3.3 ( 6)
= 0.5 x 265 x Cot 33.5
0.5X265 x 1.511
= 200.2 kN
As = Ftd / 0.87 x fyk
= 200.186X10^3/ (0.87 x 500)
460 mm2
= 831 + 460 = 1291 mm2
Provide 3 nos of 25 mm = 1473 mm2 (k1) & (k4)
2
3 nos of 25 mm = 1473 mm (k2) & (k5)
0 nos of 25 mm = 0 mm2 (k3) & (k6)
2
0 nos of 25 mm = 0 mm
2945 mm2 Safe
Check minimum reinforcement
As min = 0.26 fctm bt d / fyk
fctm = 0.259 (fck)^2/3 For fck 60MPa
= 0.259 * (30)^2/3 = 2.5
As min = (0.26*2.51*300*1411)/(500)
= 550 mm2

106
1.5.6 Check maximum reinforcement
As max = 0.04 Ac
= 0.04*300*1500
= 18000 mm2

1.6 Design of Shear


1.6.1 Shear capacity without shear reinforcement
0.33
VRd,c = *0.12 k (80 1 fck ) + 0.15 cp ] b d IRC112-Pg.No:88
3/2 1/2
v min = 0.031 k fck = 0.27 IRC112-Pg.No:88 , Eq.10.3
k = 1 + (200/d) 2 IRC112-Pg.No:88 , (Fig 10.2)
= 1.376
1 = Asl / bw d 0.02 IRC112-Pg.No:88 , (Fig 10.5)
= 0.0070
cp NEd / Ac < 0.2 fcd = 0 (No axial force)
VRd,c = ((0.12*1.38*((80*0.01*30)^(1/3)))+(0.15*0))*300*1411
= 178.7 kN < 265 kN
Shear reinforcement is needed
VRd,c (min) = (vmin + k 1 cp ) b d
= (0.28+(0.15*0))*300*1411
= 116.1 kN
1.6.2 Concrete strut capacity
V Rd max = cw b z v1 fcd / cot + tan IRC112-Pg.No:90-Eq.No:10.8
cw = 1 (No axial force)
z = 0.9 d = 1228
v1 = 0.6 < 80 Mpa
VRd max = (1*300*1228.17*0.6*20) / (cot 33.5 + tan33.5 )
= 2035 kN
VEd = 265 kN
= VRd max > Ved max
1.6.3 Vertical stirrups
The Shear Links required can be Calculate
VRds = = Asw /s z fywd cot IRC112-Pg.No:90 Eq.10.7
Asw / s = Area of Legs of links / Link spacing
z = 0.9 d = 1228
fywd = 0.8 x fyk/gm IRC112-Pg.No:86
= 0.8x500 = 400
Cot = 33.5
Asw / s = VEd/ z fywd cot
= 265x10^3 / (1228 x 400 x (1/Tan(33.5))
265000/491200 * 1.511
Asw / s = 0.357

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Additional torsional Reinforcement
Asl = TEd Uk cot / 2 Ak fyd IRC112-Pg.No:109-Eq.No:10.49
= 1*10^3*3600*cot 45 / 2*450000*434.79
2
= 9.20 mm 0.009
Total Vertical stirrups = 0.357+0.009 = 0.366
Provide 2L 12 mm @ 100 mm (l2)
226 / s = 100
Dia of rod = 12
Asw / Sf prov = 226 / 100
= 2.26
Asw / Sf Req < Asw / Sf Prov
Safe

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