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DOI:10.5545/sv-jme.2011.077 Paper accepted: 04.10.2011

FEM: a Methodology Applied to a Case Study

Croccolo, D. De Agostinis, M. Vincenzi, N.

Dario Croccolo* Massimiliano De Agostinis Nicol Vincenzi

DIEM, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bologna, Italy

This paper deals with the static structural analysis of an articulated urban bus chassis, carried

out with the Finite Elements Method. The purpose of this work is to simulate and forecast the structural

response of the chassis, in terms of stress, strain and displacement, under several loading and constraining

conditions, which aim at reflecting the actual duty cycle of the bus. A thorough interaction with the customer

company allowed the authors to adequately define the loading scheme and to constrain the structure

properly. Sensitivity analyses about FEM parameters have been run, in order to achieve an adequate

trade off between computational time and results accuracy. Obtained results have been double checked by

employing both solid (3D) and shell (2D) elements for each simulation. Eventually, the customer has been

notified of critical issues and the related suggested improvements.

2011 Journal of Mechanical Engineering. All rights reserved.

Keywords: bus, structure, frame, chassis, case study

joined each other by full welding; several added

The vehicle under investigation is an bent sheets-ribs increase the overall assembly

articulated bus characterized by a length of 18 stiffness. A structural steel with a Youngs modulus

m, realised by the joining of two chassis (Fig. E = 200 GPa, a Poissons ratio = 0.3, a yield

1), capable of carrying up to 160 passengers and stress Sy = 400 MPa and a mass density = 7,850

with a mass at full load of about 30,000 kg. Urban kg/m3 has been employed. Modern FEM analysis

buses, as most part of passenger vehicles, are built capabilities, mainly in terms of computational

around a tubular chassis that bears both the weight resources, allow the vehicle manufacturer to

of the vehicle itself and the weight of passengers fix structural issues before performing field

and luggage. tests, hence shortening the overall design and

engineering phase, as demonstrated in [1] to [4].

Despites of the noticeable size of the chassis, the

single beam used to realize the chassis is generally

no longer than 1.5 m. Moreover, the displacements

object of investigation are several orders of

magnitude smaller than the overall dimensions of

the chassis. Therefore, an accurate choice of both

the finite elements size and the contact elements

definition is necessary. The analysis is limited to

the sprung part of the vehicle: it is fundamental

to remember that when the bus is performing a

cornering manoeuvre, the centripetal acceleration-

Fig.1. Urban bus and respective chassis force given by the contact between asphalt and

tyres together with the inertia forces acting on

A good chassis shall also meets precise the body, make the suspension springs outside the

stiffness requirements in order to allow a safe curve compress, while those on the opposite side

drive under the most diverse traffic conditions. stretch. This results in a rolling movement of the

The chassis is realized by means of rectangular vehicle body, which must be taken into account

section tubular beams (Fig. 1), having external even when performing a static analysis, because

dimensions within the range of 30 to 150 mm and the gravitational and inertia forces generate

*Corr. Authors Address: DIEM - Facolt di Ingegneria,

Viale Risorgimento 2, 40136 Bologna, Italia, dario.croccolo@unibo.it

799

Strojniki vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 57(2011)11, 799-809

structure depending on its position with respect been chosen [5] with its origin into centre of

to a system of coordinates which is fixed to the the articulation system: X-axis is oriented as

ground, as suggested in [5]. Such behaviour could the driving gear, Z-axis is pointing upwards and

be well simulated by a bus model, which included Y-axis follows the right hand rule.

the whole suspensions group [6].

2 FEA SETUP

1 PRELIMINARY REMARKS

The main structural elements of steel

The top level assembly of the chassis framed structures (e.g. the bus chassis, Fig.

consists of about 1,500 parts, which belong to 1) have to be studied as the assembly of three

substructures representing, for instance, the floor, different components, namely, columns, beam and

the roof and the body sides of the chassis. Due to their joints (Fig. 2).

hardware limitations, it would be impossible to

analyze the whole structure (Fig. 1) at one time,

hence the overall assembly has been divided

into two sub assemblies, one being the front half

of the chassis and one the rear part of it: from

now on, they will be respectively referred to as

A-chassis and B-chassis. Such a large structures

would be generally analyzed by introducing

rough approximations mainly concerning the

loading and constraining hypotheses (uniform

loads distributions [7]) or by means of beam (1D)

elements [8]. Fig. 2. Example of steel framed structure: main

The A-chassis, whose two front wheels structural components (column, beam and joint)

are steering while the rear ones are fixed,

comprehends the pilots station: two passengers The capacity of steel frames to resist

doors open on the right side of this chassis. A half loads is determined more by the strength and,

part of the articulation system (the device that in particular, the stiffness of the joints than by

joins the two halves of the bus allowing them to the properties of the members themselves [9]. In

rotate respectively around the vertical axis), is practice, beam-to-column joints in conventional

installed by the rear side of the A-chassis. analysis and design of steel frameworks are usually

The B-chassis has only two wheels on assumed to behave either ideally pinned or fully

the rear and hangs on the A-chassis by means rigid. Conversely, experimental investigations

of the other part of the articulation system. This [10] show that the true behaviour of joints lies in

chassis has no steering devices but it carries the between that of ideally compliant and fully rigid:

engine group on the rear left side: two passengers such joints are referred to as semi-rigid joints.

doors are on the right side. Each chassis has Overestimating the joint stiffness may result in

been analyzed under six different loading and underestimating the forces developed in beam and

constraining schemes (cases), which aimed column and the overall displacement of the global

at simulating the chassis behaviour under the frame structure. Neglecting the real behaviour of

following conditions: the joint may lead to unrealistic predictions of

(a) the action of gravitational acceleration; the response and reliability of steel frames [11]:

(b) the braking at the upper deceleration limit of both of these extreme assumptions are inaccurate

the vehicle; and uneconomic. When approaching the problem

(c) the both sides cornering manoeuvres at the by a numerical (FEM) standpoint the latter issues

capsizing limit; occur in formulating the contact parameters

(d) the both sides torsion due to uneven road between two or more structural members. When

surface. dealing with contacts there is a lot more to control

Strojniki vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 57(2011)11, 799-809

than the mesh size type [12] and in particular the of 12 mm occurs at the same point. Numerical

contact formulation as well as the contact stiffness results in terms of upper beam displacements as

parameters. Finite Elements Analyses have a function of the FKN parameter are reported in

been performed by means of the Ansys Code, Table 1 and shown in Fig. 4: a FKN value between

Workbench Release 12. In order to manage the 0.01 and 0.005 offers a reliable prediction of

contact formulation, the Augmented Lagrangian experimental results.

Method has been chosen as it allows, by manually

setting the contact stiffness parameters, a better Table 1. FEA displacements as a function of the

approximation of the interactions occurring within FKN parameter

the contact areas of welded structures. As a matter

Experimental displacement 12 mm [9]

of fact the Augmented Lagrangian is an iterative

FKN - Normal Stiffness FEA displacement

method working by two consequent steps: firstly, Factor [mm]

like a simple Penalty Method, locally modifying Default (1.0) 8.13

the bodies normal stiffness in the contact region 0.1 8.51

until the equilibrium is satisfied. Then, if any 0.05 8.80

interference (penetration) occurred, it proceeds 0.01 10.68

adding a convenient pressure to the mating 0.005 12.70

surfaces, until the interference is overridden. The 0.001 26.82

contact stiffness parameter (normal or tangential)

can be input as an absolute value (KN or KT) or as

a factor (FKN or FKT) to the default Hertz contact

stiffness KH, which depends on the component

geometry and material. For surface-to-surface

contact elements, Ref. [13] recommends a FKN

value in the range from 0.001 to 100 (default

value 1.0): changes in such range strongly affect

the solution in terms of stresses, strains and

displacements. FKN value shall be tuned by

means of experimental analyses. Experimental

results on a full welded T-joint, comparable in

dimensions and welding method to that used on

the bus chassis (Fig. 3), have been obtained by

Yang and Kim [10].

the T-joint specimen tested in [9] as a function of

Fig. 3. Full welded T-joint specimen tested in [9]

the contact normal stiffness factor FKN in Table 1

In particular, they established that under

the maximum force (for the linear elastic field) The evaluation of the tensile state in the

of 42.1 kN applied to the upper hinge a deflection vicinity of the weld toe (e.g. hot spot stress method

Structural Analysis of an Articulated Urban Bus Chassis via FEM: a Methodology Applied to a Case Study 801

Strojniki vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 57(2011)11, 799-809

or the peak stress method recently proposed by As suggested in [16], tubular joints have

Meneghetti et al. [14]) is not the object of this been meshed by using shell (2D) elements that

work. No welds are, accordingly, modelled in the represent the mid-surfaces of the joint member

chassis geometry; the connection between beam walls. As shown previously and as accurately

and column is managed by the contact stiffness demonstrated in [17], the results are perfectly

parameters, as shown in [8]. In order to check the comparable with the ones obtained by means of a

numerical structural stress state of the beam and solid (3D) mesh: the second technique is still ten

column (far from the weld toe), a comparison with times more demanding than the first in terms of

the data evaluated via strain gages in a square-to- disk space.

square hollow section T-joint [14] and [15], has

been performed. Both solid (3D) mesh and shell

3 FEA LOADING CASES

(2D) mesh have been compared to the results

obtained in the reference geometry reported in

Each load applied to the A-chassis as

Fig. 5 [14] and [15].

The applied loads are reported in Fig. 5, well as to the B-chassis has been introduced as a

while the stress results (in terms of maximum lumped mass. These masses undergo acceleration

principal stress as suggested by the peak stress components imposed by the conditions described

method [14]) in Fig. 6. An attentive examination in Section 1, and are attached to one or more

of the results shows that at a distance almost equal surfaces belonging to one or more chassis

to the cross section dimensions (dashed lines) the components. Using lumped masses rather than

stresses evaluated both via 3D mesh and via 2D remote forces results in a speed up of the workflow

mesh (without modeling the weld) converged to when the boundary conditions have to be changed.

the reference one [14] and [15]. For example, the gravitational acceleration can

Fig. 5. The square-to-square hollow section T-joint specimen tested in [13] and [14]

a) b) c)

Fig. 6. Comparison in stress distributions (deformed shape 50x magnification) far from the joint between

beam and column (dashed lines); a) reference geometry [13] and [14] with the welded joint modelled, b)

solid mesh without the weld, c) shell mesh without the weld; mesh size: 1 mm

Strojniki vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 57(2011)11, 799-809

be quickly changed into the forward or lateral line formed by a single edge, can be considered

accelerations acting on the system. equivalent to an ideal hinge that locks rotational

For remote boundaries conditions, such motions around X-axis and Z-axis and translation

as the lumped masses defined, Ansys allows the along each axis. Then, the standard gravitational

control of the specific geometry behaviour, which acceleration g (9.81 m/s2) has been applied to the

can be defined as either rigid or deformable. A whole mass system.

deformable behaviour has been chosen here by

the authors, as it represents the actual response

of the structure well: in fact, on the other hand,

the masses application areas would result in being

unreasonably undeformable.

Since the B-chassis is attached to the

A-chassis by means of an articulation device, the

analyses on the B-chassis were carried out first,

assuming the constraints between the B-chassis

and the A-chassis to be of the hinge type, and to

be applied on the edges of the articulation device. Fig. 7. B-chassis: example of distributed masses

Accordingly, when performing the corresponding related to the main body structure

analysis the reaction forces of the same magnitude

evaluated on the articulation device were applied,

but opposite in direction to the A-chassis.

The results in terms of total displacement

and Von Mises equivalent stress distribution have

been computed and analyzed for each condition.

Constraint reactions in magnitude and

direction have been checked to be equal to the

imposed loads in magnitude and direction as an

overall verification of the simulation process.

3.1 B-Chassis

spheres) have been applied to the chassis. In Fig.

7, for instance, 2,950 kg of distributed masses Fig. 8. B-chassis loads and constraints loading

belonging to coatings and body panels are shown: case 3.1.2

each sphere has the same color of its target parts. 3.1.2 B-Chassis, Gravitational Acceleration and

Masses related to onboard systems, windows Braking Deceleration

and doors (1,046 kg) and those belonging to

passengers mass (4,931 kg) have been, instead, In order to simulate the effects of a severe

represented in Fig. 8. The 1,500 kg engine mass brake, a 0.75g acceleration [5] and [18] has

has been subdivided into three lumped masses: been added along the positive X direction. The

each of them has been applied to the relevant gravitational acceleration still acts on the system.

engine mount on the chassis. The B-chassis self Moreover, the rear axle edges constraints have

weight is 1,658 kg. been redefined according to Fig. 8, allowing them

to translate only along X-axis (Z-axis and Y-axis

3.1.1 B-Chassis, Gravitational Acceleration displacements are still equal to zero). At the same

time, braking forces F (Eq. (1)) have been applied

Fixed supports have been applied both to to the lower edges of the rear axle (see Fig. 8, flag

the rear axle edges and to the articulation device D and E), by imposing the Coulomb friction law

edges: this type of constraints, since applied to a [18] to [20]:

Structural Analysis of an Articulated Urban Bus Chassis via FEM: a Methodology Applied to a Case Study 803

Strojniki vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 57(2011)11, 799-809

rear constraints must have positive reactions along

This hypothesis considers the rear wheels

Z-axis.

subjected to the braking force F, while the front

articulation edges hold up the remaining X-axis

3.1.4 B-Chassis, Torsion

force Rx given by Eq. (2) (Fig. 8a):

Rx = mB-chassis0.75g F . (2) The chassis could be subjected to torsion

when, for example, the bus should run on an

Such a constraint scheme produces the uneven asphalt mat. In order to recreate such a

highest stresses and displacements on the structure condition, two analyses have been performed,

because the whole B-chassis is subjected to both

suppressing two of the total four constraints at a

the bending moment and the compression force

time and applying the sole standard gravitational

generated by the inertial loads. Conversely, in

acceleration. The supports to be suppressed

the two remaining schemes (Figs. 8b and c) loads

have been chosen as follows: (i) left articulation

and moments are partially supported by the rear

constraint and right rear axle constraint; (ii) right

constraint and, therefore, they are not affecting the

articulation constraint and left rear axle constraint.

central section of the frame.

In this way, the chassis could twist around

Since FZr,B changes during the brake

depending on the load transfer from the rear axle the axis that joints the remaining supports.

to the front support [21] and [22], the correct

FZr,B value has been determined by some iterative 3.2 A-Chassis

analyses: firstly, the vertical constraint reaction

on the rear axle are determined from the static Lumped masses were applied to this chassis

equilibrium (FZr,B_1) and the simulation has been and for the B-chassis: 2901 kg of distributed

run using F = FZr,B_1, then the actual vertical masses belonging to coatings and body panels,

constraint reactions on the rear axle (FZr,B_2) has 494 kg related to windows and doors, 5822 kg

been calculated. A new simulation has been run belonging to passengers and the driver and 1540

again assuming F = FZr,B_2 and calculating the kg related to relevant systems have beenw applied

actual vertical constraint reactions on the rear to the chassis. The A-chassis self weight is 2252

axle (FZr,B_3). The same procedure of assuming kg.

F = FZr,B_i and calculating the actual vertical

constraint reactions (FZr,B_i+1) lasted until no

significant discrepancy has been found between

two subsequent values of FZr,B (FZr,B_i FZr,B_i+1).

Cornering

Fig. 9. A-chassis loads and constraints loading

Since the chassis is not symmetric about case 3.2.1

XZ-plane (see Fig. 7), two simulations have been

run in order to evaluate the effects of both right

and left cornering manoeuvres performed on a

plain ground. Since the standard gravitational

acceleration is always present, an acceleration

vector having a magnitude of 0.75g and directed

along Y-axis, (positive or negative depending

on the turning direction) has been added to the Fig. 10. A-chassis loads and constraints loading

system. The constraints remain the same used for case 3.2.2

the brake simulation. It is important to verify that

the rear axle reactions provided by the analysis As mentioned before, the reactions on the

exclude any capsizing tendency of the vehicle articulation device edges have beencarried over

Strojniki vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 57(2011)11, 799-809

(opposite in direction), as shown in Figs. 9 and 10.

Two torsion analyses have been performed

3.2.1 A-Chassis, Gravitational Acceleration also on the A-chassis by suppressing two of the

four supports at a time and applying the standard

Fixed supports have been applied both to gravitational acceleration. The supports to be

the rear and to the front axle edges: this type of suppressed have been chosen as follows:

constraints is equivalent to an ideal hinge locking (i) Left front axle constraint and right rear axle

rotational motions around X-axis and Z-axis constraint;

and translation along each axis. The standard (ii) Right front axle constraint and left rear axle

gravitational acceleration g (9.81 m/s2) has been constraint.

applied to the system. In this way, the chassis can twist around

the axis that joints the remaining supports.

3.2.2 A-Chassis, Gravitational Acceleration and

Braking Deceleration 4 FEA RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In order to simulate the effects of a severe The sum of the external loads applied

brake, a 0.75g acceleration has been added to the structure and the sum of the constraints

along the positive X direction. The gravitational reactions have been compared for each analysis

acceleration still acts on the system. Moreover, in order to evaluate the overall equilibrium of

braking forces have been applied to the lower the chassis and, therefore, exclude macroscopic

edges of the rear axle, which have been allowed to errors affecting the results. The resume of such

translate along X-axis, while the front axle edges verification is reported in the Appendix at the

have been locked towards the three components of end of the manuscript: the results are subdivided

translation. As for the B-chassis, such constraining into four kinds of loading cases (vertical, braking,

hypotheses make the chassis working under the cornering, torsion) respectively, for the A-chassis

worst condition of free deflection length. Braking and B-chassis in terms of constraints or external

forces intensity defined by iteration, as was loads direction and magnitude. As shown in the

formerly done for the B-chassis. Appendix, discrepancies are always lower than

0.3%. A stress limit equal to Sl = 150 MPa (safety

3.2.3 A-Chassis, Gravitational Acceleration and factor of 2.6 with respect to the yield limit), has

Cornering been chosen in accordance with the customer: the

multiaxial stress states have been compared with

Since the chassis is not symmetric about the uniaxial material properties by means of the

XZ-plane (the passenger doors are located on Von-Mises yield criterion. Even if static analyses

the right side), two simulations have been run have been performed, Meznar and Lazovic

in order to evaluate the effects of both right and [23], Lan et al. [24] and Kim et al. [25] have

left cornering manoeuvres performed on a plain demonstrated the importance of these preliminary

ground. The standard gravitational acceleration FEA results for further experimental analyses

still acts on the system, together with an (e.g. strain gauges as deep demonstrated in [23])

acceleration vector directed along Y-axis with a performed on typical duty cycles.

0.75g magnitude (positive or negative depending

on the turning direction). 4.1 A-Chassis

The constraints are still the same used

for the brake simulation. The rear axle reactions The A-chassis has a good overall response

provided by the analysis exclude any capsizing to every imposed loading condition, since no

tendency of the vehicle when subjected to this significant area of it exceeded the established

loading case: in fact both of the rear constraints equivalent stress limit Sl. Braking and cornering

have positive reactions along Z-axis. conditions, according to [23], are the most severe

because stresses show up close to Sl, interesting

Structural Analysis of an Articulated Urban Bus Chassis via FEM: a Methodology Applied to a Case Study 805

Strojniki vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 57(2011)11, 799-809

a) b)

Fig. 11. Stress distributions in A (a) and B (b) chassis in most severe (cornering) loading condition

Some chassis portions underneath the floor and

close to the articulation device are impacted by Left-cornering loading case (Fig. 11b)

the effects of braking with Von-Mises stress mean is the most severe condition for the B-chassis

values of about 100 MPa (Fig. 11a), essentially as well, causing wide areas of the tubular beam

due to forces transmitted by the B-chassis via the shown in Fig. 16a, which appreciably exceed the

articulation device itself. The right side pillars and equivalent stress limit Sl, as Von-Mises stresses on

the J-shaped tubular beams, which connect the such component assume values close to 190 MPa.

roof to the right body side, have stress values of Indeed, such a beam had been noticed to be a

about 130 MPa when the left-cornering loading critical component for all the loading cases since it

case is applied. It is worth mentioning that stresses has the highest stress values in the whole structure.

recorded in the right-cornering loading case Therefore, the original 3 mm thick beam has been

are much lower than those of the left-cornering replaced with a 5 mm thick one, and a new left-

cornering simulation has been performed in order

loading case only due to the left-side being stiffer

to validate the change. During the cornering

than the right-side, as a consequence of a lack of

manoeuvres the stress value on the body-side

door holes on the right.

pillars results of about 140 MPa, as reported in

The rooftop area has demonstrated to

Fig. 16b, which is now an adequate value: hence,

always have the greatest displacement values

the stress decrease for the proposed solution is

, differentiated as a function of the loading

equal to 26%. Elsewhere, the B-chassis shows

conditions: a magnitude of about 6 and 12 mm is a fair behaviour, since stress and displacement

reached when gravity and braking loading cases remain beneath the established limits.

are applied, respectively. The peak values of about The maximum displacement values are

24 and 18 mm are reached for cornering and for located on the front left engine support ( = 9

torsion respectively. The deformed shapes of the mm) when braking loads are applied (Fig. 13) and

structure, due to the applied loads, are reported on the rooftop ( = 11 mm) when gravity loads are

in Figs. 12 to 15, with an appropriate scale applied (Fig. 12). Eventually, during the cornering

factor (20 magnification). As the performances to the left (Fig. 14) a peak value of about 27 mm is

in terms of stresses and displacements of the reached on the rooftop, which becomes about 33

A-chassis have been judged to be compliant with mm when torsion occurs (Fig. 15). As mentioned

the specifications, no structural improvement has before some images of the deformed structure due

been suggested to the customer. to the different loading cases, are reported in Figs.

12 to15.

Strojniki vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 57(2011)11, 799-809

5 CONCLUSIONS

articulated urban bus chassis, with a total length

of 18 m, has been performed via Finite Elements

Method. The frame behaviour towards four

different loading conditions, representative of its

typical duty cycle, has been analysed: the action of

gravitational acceleration, the braking at the upper

Fig. 15. Total displacements Torsion loading deceleration limit of the vehicle, the cornering

case (scale factor 20) manoeuvres and the torsion due to uneven road

a) b)

Fig. 16. Von-Mises equivalent stress values on the critical beam; a) original beam, b) modified beam

Structural Analysis of an Articulated Urban Bus Chassis via FEM: a Methodology Applied to a Case Study 807

Strojniki vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 57(2011)11, 799-809

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APPENDIX

Here below the comparison between constraints reactions and applied external loads is reported:

results are subdivided into the four kinds of loading cases, respectively for the A-chassis and B-chassis.

A-chassis B-chassis

3.2.1 GRAVITY ONLY 3.1.1 GRAVITY ONLY

CONSTRAINT NAME UNIT DIRECTION CONSTRAINT NAME UNIT DIRECTION

X Y Z X Y Z

LEFT FRONT N 1,554 -6,554 31,199 REAR AXLE N -25,796 1,185 103,090

RIGHT FRONT N 1,860 6,541 28,781 ARTICULATION N 25,796 -1,185 15,413

LEFT REAR N 11,363 -18,517 42,098

RIGHT REAR N 11,018 18,530 40,907

TOTAL REACTION N 25,795 0 142,985 TOTAL REACTION N 0 0 118,503

EXTERNAL LOAD N 25,796 0 142,987 EXTERNAL LOAD N 0 0 118,513

ERROR % 0.004 0.000 0.001 ERROR % 0.000 0.000 0.008

3.2.2 BRAKE 3.1.2 BRAKE

CONSTRAINT NAME UNIT DIRECTION CONSTRAINT NAME UNIT DIRECTION

X Y Z X Y Z

LEFT FRONT N -32,659 -12,976 41,133 REAR AXLE N 0 103 84,308

RIGHT FRONT N -32,098 12,976 38,219 ARTICULATION N -31,726 -103 34,193

LEFT REAR N 0 0 41,543

RIGHT REAR N 0 0 40,850

TOTAL REACTION N -64,757 0 161,745 TOTAL REACTION N -31,726 0 118,501

EXTERNAL LOAD N -64,764 0 161,767 EXTERNAL LOAD N -31,735 0 118,513

ERROR % 0.011 0.000 0.014 ERROR % 0.028 0.000 0.010

3.2.3 CORNERING 3.1.3 CORNERING

CONSTRAINT NAME UNIT DIRECTION CONSTRAINT NAME UNIT DIRECTION

X Y Z X Y Z

LEFT FRONT N 0 16,010 11,504 RHS REAR AXLE N 0 65,934 81,846

RIGHT FRONT N 0 30,689 49,680 LHS REAR AXLE N 0 5,542 21,292

LEFT REAR N 0 17,343 8123 ARTICULATION N 0 19,155 15,363

RIGHT REAR N 0 52,678 73,627

TOTAL REACTION N 0 116,720 142,934 TOTAL REACTION N 0 90,631 118,501

EXTERNAL LOAD N 0 116,723 142,937 EXTERNAL LOAD N 0 90,638 118,513

ERROR % 0.000 0.000 0.002 ERROR % 0.000 0.008 0.010

3.2.4 TORSION 3.1.4 TORSION

CONSTRAINT NAME UNIT DIRECTION CONSTRAINT NAME UNIT DIRECTION

X Y Z X Y Z

LEFT FRONT N 1,394 -3,575 59,909 REAR AXLE N -14,424 5,516 102,050

RIGHT REAR N 24,424 2,387 83,076 ARTICULATION N 14,424 -5,516 16,451

TOTAL REACTION N 25,818 -1,188 142,985 TOTAL REACTION N 0 0 118,501

EXTERNAL LOAD N 25,796 -1,185 142,987 EXTERNAL LOAD N 0 0 118,513

ERROR % 0.085 0.253 0.001 ERROR % 0.000 0.000 0.010

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