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Council of Europe

Levels of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR)


UNDERSTANDING UNDERSTANDING SPEAKING SPEAKING WRITING
Listening Reading Spoken Spoken Writing
interaction Production

A1 I can recognise I can understand I can interact in a I can use simple I can write a
familiar words and familiar names, simple way phrases and short, simple
very basic phrases words and very provided the other sentences to postcard,
concerning myself, simple sentences, for person is prepared describe where I for example
my family and example on notices to repeat or live and people I sending holiday
immediate concrete and posters or in rephrase things at know. greetings. I can
surroundings when catalogues. a slower rate of fill in forms with
people speak slowly speech and help personal details,
and clearly. me formulate for example
what Im trying to entering my
say. I can ask and name, nationality
answer simple and address on a
questions in areas hotel registration
of immediate need form.
or on very
familiar topics.
A2 I can understand I can read very short, I can I can use a series I can write short,
phrases and the simple texts. I can communicate in of phrases and simple notes and
highest frequency find specific, simple and routine sentences to messages relating
vocabulary related to predictable tasks requiring a describe in simple to matters in areas
areas of most information in simple simple and direct terms my family of immediate
immediate personal everyday material exchange of and other people, need. I can write a
relevance (e.g. very such as information on living conditions, very simple
basic personal and advertisements, familiar topics my educational personal letter, for
family information, prospectuses, menus and activities. I background and example thanking
shopping, local area, and timetables and I can handle very my present or someone for
employment). I can can understand short, short social most recent job. something.
catch the main point simple personal exchanges, even
in short, clear, simple letters. though I cant
messages and usually
announcements. understand
enough to keep
the conversation
going myself.

B1 I can understand the I can understand texts I can deal with I can connect I can write simple
main points of clear that consist mainly of most situations phrases in a connected text on
standard speech on high-frequency likely to arise simple way in topics which are
familiar matters everyday or job- whilst travelling order to describe familiar or of
regular-ly related language. I in an area where expe-rien-ces and personal interest. I
encountered in work, can understand the the language is events, my can write personal
school, leisure, etc. I description of events, spoken. I can dreams, hopes and letters describing
can understand the feelings and wishes enter unprepared ambitions. I can experiences and
main point of many in personal letters. into conversation briefly give impressions.
radio or TV on topics that are reasons and
programmes on familiar, of explanations for
current affairs or personal interest opinions and
topics of personal or or pertinent to plans. I can
professional interest everyday life (e.g. narrate a story or
when the delivery is family, hobbies, relate the plot of a
relatively slow and work, travel and book or film and
clear. current events). describe my
reactions.

B2 I can understand I can read articles and I can interact with I can present I can write clear,
extended speech and reports concerned a degree of clear, detailed detailed text on a
lectures and follow with contemporary fluency and descriptions on a wide range of
even complex lines of problems in which spontaneity that wide range of subjects related to
argument provided the writers adopt makes regular subjects related to my inter-ests. I
the topic is particular attitudes or interaction with my field of can write an essay
reasonably familiar. I viewpoints. I can native speakers interest. I can or report, passing
can understand most understand quite possible. I explain a on information or
TV news and current contemporary literary can take an active viewpoint on a giving reasons in
affairs programmes. I prose. part in discussion topical issue support of or
can understand the in familiar giving the against a
majority of films in contexts, advantages and particular point of
standard dialect. accounting for disadvantages of view. I can write
and sustaining my various options. letters
views. highlighting the
personal
significance of
events and
experiences.

C1 I can understand I can understand long I can express I can present I can express
extended speech even and complex factual myself fluently clear, detailed myself in clear,
when it is not clearly and literary texts, and spontaneously descriptions of well-structured
structured and when appreciating without much complex subjects text, expressing
relationships are only distinctions of style. I obvious searching integrating sub- points of view at
implied and not can understand for expressions. I themes, some length. I can
signalled explicitly. specialised articles can use language developing write about
I can understand and longer technical flexibly and particular points complex subjects
television instructions, even effectively for and rounding off in a letter, an
programmes and when they do not social and with an essay or a report,
films without too relate to my field. professional appropriate underlining what I
much effort. purposes. I can conclusion. consider to be the
formulate ideas salient issues. I
and opinions with can select style
precision and appropriate to the
relate my reader in mind.
contribution
skilfully to those
of other speakers.
C2 I have no difficulty in I can read with ease I can take part I can present a I can write clear,
understanding any virtually all forms of effortlessly in any clear, smoothly smoothly flowing
kind of spoken the written language, conversation or flowing text in an
language, whether including abstract, discussion and description or appropriate style.
live or broadcast, structurally or have a good argument in a I can write
even when delivered linguistically familiarity with style appropriate complex letters,
at fast native speed, complex texts such as idiomatic to the context and reports or articles
provided I have some manuals, specialised expressions and with an effective which present a
time to get familiar articles and literary colloquialisms. I logical structure case with an
with the accent. works. can express which helps the effective logical
myself fluently recipient to notice structure which
and convey finer and remember helps the recipient
shades of meaning significant points. to notice and
precisely. If I do remember
have a problem I significant points.
can backtrack and I can write
restructure around summaries and
the difficulty so reviews of
smoothly that professional or
other people are literary works.
hardly aware of it.