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Secrets of the cosmetic industry revealed


to making your own natural skin, hair and
body care products

4th Edition
Chapter Extract eB10:

natural skin care

17 Tytler Street, Forres, Moray, IV36 1EL, Scotland

Tel: +44 (0)1309 696900 Fax: +44 (0)1309 696911
Email: info@aromantic.co.uk
Web: www.aromantic.co.uk
Copyright 2009, Aromantic


Making Face

Face Masks will contain different from the skin; and stimulate lymph
ingredients depending on the skin type circulation and thereby more efficient
and purpose for which they are used. waste handling and boosting of cell
You may have spots or bad circulation nutrients.
in the skin or your skin type may need
Different Clays for different skin types
moisturising, or a boost of vitamins
and conditions:
and minerals. You may have exposed
it to too much sun, or stress, or too Green Clay
little sleep, or you may have been ill
for normal, oily and problem skin
or have neglected your skin altogether.
Face Masks are ideal to use when your Pink Clay
skin needs that extra bit of care. A Face for dry & sensitive skin
Mask can also be applied to freshen
up the skin before going to a party or Red Clay
other event. More and more people are for normal skin
including Face Masks in their daily or
weekly beauty routine. White Clay
In this chapter we will discuss and make: for sensitive skin
Clay Face Masks Yellow Clay
Gel Face Masks for normal & oily skin
Cream Face Masks
Recipes for Clay Face Masks

Clay Face Masks These Recipes for Face Masks are based
on Clay and water, to which other
The use of Clay Face Masks goes back Active Ingredients may then be added.
to ancient times. Aromantic stock Apply the Face Mask onto clean skin.
Clays, which are sourced from caves in NB These Recipes make more than
France and then dried in the sun. Clays, 100ml/g.
in general: are rich in minerals and For a very simple Clay Face Mask:
active enzymes; contract and tone the
skin; strengthen the connective tissue; 1) Mix equal amounts of water and Clay.
stimulate blood circulation; draw toxins

2) Then add a small quantity of Essential Stimulating Clay Mask

Oil (1-10 drops per 100ml).
3) Apply to the face and wash off after Stage 1
15 minutes with warm water. 10ml Peppermint Water
Tips for simple Clay Face Mask 30ml Spring Water
Preservative (for amount, see Table 2)
If you have sensitive skin, a small 50g Clay
amount of Vegetable Oil such as Apricot
or Peach Kernel can be added to the Stage 2
Recipe, or the Face Mask can be applied 4ml D-Panthenol
to dry skin, which has been covered
with a thin layer of Oil. Wash the Face 5ml Aloe Vera Concentrate
Mask off before it is fully dry. Another 5 drops Lemon Essential Oil
alternative is to apply the Face Mask to 3 drops Peppermint Essential Oil
clean skin, which has been moistened
with water. Wash off after 15 minutes.
If you have normal or oily skin, allow Nourishing Clay Mask
the Face Mask to dry completely (when
it starts to crack) before washing off. Stage 1
Grimacing before washing off the Face 50ml Rose Water
Mask is an effective way of removing Preservative (for amount, see Table 2)
dead skin cells.
50g Clay
NB! Moisten the lips before applying the
Face Mask. Stage 2
1.5ml/g Vitamin E (undiluted)
Cleansing Clay Mask 2ml Hemp Seed Oil
5 drops Sandalwood Essential Oil
Stage 1
7ml Lavender Water
Clay Mask for Sensitive Skin
43ml Spring Water
Preservative (for amount, see Table 2) Stage 1
50g Clay powder 6ml Chamomile Water
40ml Spring Water
Stage 2
Preservative (for amount, see Table 2)
3 drops Tea Tree Essential Oil
50g Clay (White or Pink)
3 drops Lavender Essential Oil
2 drops Lemon Essential Oil Stage 2
6ml Apricot Kernel Oil
1 drop Roman Chamomile Essential
Oil (optional)

Method for Face Masks with Clay Cream Face Masks

1) Stage 1: Pour the Water into a bowl In this section we make two types of
and add the drops of Preservative. Cream Face Masks:
Sprinkle the pre-measured Clay powder
over and allow it to sink into the water Cream Face Masks
without stirring. Moisturising Cream Face Masks
2) Stage 2: Stirring can begin when the A Cream Face Mask begins with a Base
uppermost layer of Clay powder has Cream, which becomes a Face Mask with
begun to absorb the water. Add the other the addition of more active ingredients
ingredients at this point. Mix together and Essential Oils than would normally
well. be required for a Cream. Normally the
recommended dosage of Essential Oils
3) Finally, spoon into a jar or tub and
for a Cream would be 0.5ml but in a
Face Mask, this is increased to 1ml. This
Tips for making Clay Face Masks produces the curative effect that a Face
Mask can be designed to have.
If your Face Mask product becomes too The Oil and Fat content provides a matrix for
dry, just add water - especially if it has the Essential Oil so that it wont irritate the
been stored for more than 1 year. skin. Normally, if too much active ingredient
The shelf life of these products is added at Stage 3, the Cream will separate
is approximately 1.5 years. If you and the emulsification (blending) process
want to increase the shelf life, add will fail. Xanthan Gum counteracts this. It
0.5% undiluted Vitamin E Oil as an helps to bind the active ingredients together
antioxidant. and stabilises the emulsification process.
Make sure to beat the Xanthan Gum Powder
Different types of Clay absorb different vigorously into the water.
quantities of liquid so, once youve made
your product, you may need to add How to use Cream Face Masks: Apply the
varying amounts of water and Hydrolates Face Mask onto clean skin and wash off
(Herbal or Floral Waters) to it to get the after 15 minutes.
consistency right. Recipes for Cream Face Masks
Aromantic stock many different types
of Clay for different skin types. These Recipes make approximately 100ml.
By adding more water to the Recipe, Moisturising Cream Face Mask
you will create more of a Cleanser but
remember to add approximately 2 extra Fat Stage (75-80C)
drops of Preservative for every extra 10ml
5ml Castor Oil
of liquid that you add. Check Table 2 for
dosage. 4ml Macadamia Nut Oil
1g Shea Butter
1.5g Cetyl Alcohol
2.5g VE Emulsifier
contd over/

Water Stage (75-80C) 10ml Geranium Water if using Still

4g MF Emulsifier Water in Water Stage
64ml Orange Blossom Water or 5m/g Vitamin E Oil (undiluted)
Boiling Spring Water 2ml/g Vitamin A Palmitate
1g/2ml/1/2 tsp Xanthan Gum 5ml/g D-Panthenol
Third Stage (40-35C) 5ml Borage Oil or Evening Primrose
Preservative (for amount, see Table 2) Oil
5ml NFF Moisturiser Fourth Stage (35-25C)
5ml Honey Moisturiser 15 drops Mandarin Oil
5ml D-Panthenol 5 drops Ylang Ylang Oil
1ml/g Vitamin E Oil (undiluted) 5 drops Geranium Oil
Fourth Stage (35-25C)
15 drops Lavender Oil Method for making Cream Face
5 drops Geranium Oil
5 drops Clary Sage Oil 1) Fat Stage: Heat the Fat Stage
ingredients in a double boiler until all
of the ingredients have melted and the
Vitamin Cream Face Mask temperature has risen to 75-80C. There
is no need to use a whisk at this stage.
Fat Stage (75-80C) 2) Water Stage: After boiling the Spring
5ml Castor Oil Water in a Kettle, measure it according
to the Recipe and pour it over the MF
4ml Avocado Oil Emulsifier, which you have put into a
1g Cocoa Butter separate double boiler.
1.5g Cetyl Alcohol 3) Whisk the Water Stage ingredients
2.5g VE Emulsifier well together, making sure that the MF
Emulsifier powder is fully dissolved in
Water Stage (75-80C) the water and that you dont have any
4g MF Emulsifier lumps. Then allow the mixture to heat to
53ml Boiling Still Water or 63ml 75-80C.
Calendula Infusion 4) When both Fat and Water Stages are
0.5g/1ml/ /4 tsp Xanthan Gum
1 over 75C, remove both double boilers
from the hob, keeping the Water Stage
Third Stage (40-35C) mixture hot by leaving it on the top half
Preservative (for amount, see Table of the double boiler.
2, column three or four - if you are 5) Now pour the melted Fat Stage
using the Calendula infusion) into the Water Stage in a thin, steady
contd/ stream, while continuously whisking the
mixture from side to side for 5 minutes.
If necessary, use a spatula to scrape the

mixture from the sides of the saucepan

Rose Gel Mask
(or bowl).
6) Allow the mixture to cool, stirring A soothing, calming Mask with Rose
all the time. You can speed up by the petal fragrance.
cooling process by replacing the hot
water in the double boiler with very Stage 1
COLD water. In the process of cooling 98ml Rose Water
down, the mixture becomes a Cream and 1g/2ml/1/2 tsp Xanthan Gum
will reach its thickest consistency when it
Preservative (for amount, see Table 2)
is has cooled down to room temperature.
7) Third Stage: Stir in the Third Stage Stage 2
ingredients when the mixture has cooled 7 drops Rosewood Essential Oil
to under 40C. 7drops Palmarosa Essential Oil
8) Fourth Stage: Continue stirring until 5 drops Geranium Essential Oil
the mixture has cooled to under 35C,
1drops Rose de Mai Absolute
then thoroughly mix in the Essential
9) Pour the Cream into one big jar or
smaller jars and label.
Lavender Gel Mask
Gel Face Masks A cooling, stimulating Mask, good for
soothing sunburnt skin.
Xanthan Gum and water are what form
the Base for Gel Face Masks. Xanthan Stage 1
Gum is a gelling agent which is easy to 74ml Spring Water
use. Xanthan Gum powder is stirred into 1g/2ml/1/2 tsp Xanthan Gum
water, while beating briskly all the time
(Stage 1). To this mixture are then added Stage 2
different Active Ingredients, depending 10ml Lavender Water
on the skin type and purpose for which
10ml Aloe Vera Concentrate
the Gel Face Mask is being used (Stage
2). See the Recipes section, Gels for 2ml St. Johns Wort Oil
more information. Preservative (for amount, see Table 2)
Recipes for Gel Face Masks 2ml NFF Moisturiser
10 drops Lavender Essential Oil
How to use the Gel Face Masks: Apply 1 drop Roman Chamomile Essential
the Face Mask onto clean skin and wash Oil
off after 15 minutes.

Method for making Gel Face Masks orange or Sea Buckthorn CO2 Extract
for an orange colour. To use Pearlescent
1) Stage 1: Measure the water in a jug Colours, add 1 teaspoon (tsp) of the
and pour into a bowl. Colour little by little to 1-2 tablespoons
(tbsps) of Glycerine, until you have the
2) Weigh 1g or measure a level 2ml
Colour you desire. Add to the Gel at
Measuring spoon with Xanthan Gum
Stage 2. Remember to match the Colour
you add to the Gel with the Essential
3) Sprinkle the Xanthan Gum Powder Oils that youve used in the product.
over the water little by little, whisking
vigorously. If your Gel gets lumpy, blend
until smooth with an electric blender.
4) When there are no more lumps, stop
whisking or blending. Add the Vegetable
Oil in the end.
5) Stage 2: Add all of the other pre-
measured ingredients and mix well in
to the Gel. Spoon into a jar or tub and

Tips for making Gel Face Masks

If you prefer your Gel to have a thicker

consistency, sprinkle more Xanthan
Gum, little by little, into the finished
product until you get the consistency
you want. Remember to make the Gel
of a pourable consistency if you want to
bottle it.
If you want to increase the quantities
in the Recipes x10, simply use 10g of
Xanthan Gum. Otherwise use a 2ml
Measuring spoon (ten times).
Dont beat the Xanthan Gum and water
so much that the mixture becomes white.
Only beat to remove the lumps.
If you use the Gels every day, they
may become dry on the skin. Add 1-3 %
Vegetable Oil to the already made Gel to
counter this.
If you want to change the colour of the
Gel Face Mask, at Stage 2 add Marigold
or Carrot CO2 Extract to make it yellow-
The following are pages which are
referred to in the preceding text.

About Double Boilers/Bain- supermarkets and never tap water,

except for shampoos/liquid soaps as the
maries detergent helps to preserve the products
as well. Here it is always a good idea to
When we refer to a double boiler, or a boil the water for at least 10 minutes
bain-marie, we are referring to a cooking beforehand.
vessel consisting of two nested pans,
designed to allow slow, even cooking Other challenges
or heating of ingredients in the upper
pan, without scorching or denaturing, by Other challenges to the preservative
the action of water boiling in the lower effect in products the German producers
pan. It is very important that the water of Preservative 12 have told us about
in the lower half of the double boiler is is when you use food products in your
actually boiling this will ensure that cosmetics e.g. ground almonds in an
the ingredients in the upper pan or bowl exfoliating cream, etc.
will melt successfully. You can improvise
Too many Ingredients can spoil the
a double boiler, if you dont already have
Preservative Effect
one with two saucepans or a saucepan
at the bottom and an ovenproof or
The more active ingredients one has in
stainless steel bowl at the top. It is not
a product, the more challenging it is to
essential to buy specialist equipment if
preserve it. Having said that, the Anti-
you are making products for your own
Wrinkle Cream we make on Courses
has a maximum amount of actives in
it and we have used a dosage of 0.6%
Preservatives Preservative 12 without any problems.

Taking responsibility
Weve expanded this section on
Preservatives to help you use them in At the end of the day, you, as a producer,
your products more effectively. We also need to take responsibility for how much
have a handy table on what dosages to preservative you choose to put into your
use for the different Preservatives and products. I would recommend doing
whether you are using herbs in your basic stability testing for anyone selling
products or not. products to the general public and so
Using the Right Kind of Water that they get an idea of their shelf life.
The basic standard industry method is
to put into a glass jar at 45C in an oven
What weve seen from feedback from
for 3 months, check it every 2 weeks,
two of our customers whose creams
note their observations including colour,
went off using Preservative 12 is that
smell, texture and skin feel.
they used normal tap water, which is an
unnecessary challenge to the product. If it survives 3 months with no changes
Other customers have used osmosis then it is deemed to be probably stable
water, and that too can be a challenge. for 12 months at room temperature.
More elaborate industry methods involve
I have always recommended using
putting the product through temperature
reputable bottled spring water from
cycles of cooling and heating.

The minimum that you should do is to products is to weigh them on a very good
put samples in clear glass jars on sunny scale that weighs down to 0.1 grams. If
window sills and test them as above. The you still decide to continue using drops
longer you have seen it stay stable, the to measure our Preservatives, we now
longer the shelf life you can write on the recommend using different quantities
label. depending on which of our Preservatives
you are using in your products. In
At least make sure it is stable for 1
our recipes that you may have from
month in this way before you start
old Newsletters, our books and recipe
selling to the general public. If possible,
brochures, youll often find that we dont
you should also store and observe
say which preservative to use, we simply
samples in the airing cupboard. But
say x number of drops of Preservative
ideally, it would be good to invest in a
in the recipe. As I mentioned before,
45C oven.
you need to decide how much of a
The best weigh to measure Preservative you will put into your own
Preservatives! products, but shown in Table 2 are
my new recommendations. For more
The best method for measuring the information on each of the preservatives
Preservatives when adding to your see Tables 2&3.

Table 2: Recommended dosage for Aromantics Preservatives

New recommended
amounts per
suggested New recommended
100ml/g of product
amounts per amounts per 100ml/g
containing herbal
100ml/g of of product
infusions or

22 drops using
20 drops using small
Preservative Eco - small 0.7mm
0.7mm dropper/1g/1%

20-25 drops using large 25 drops using large

Preservative 12 12 drops 2mm dropper/0.8- 2mm dropper/0.9ml/
1g/0.8-1% 1g/1%

12-15 drops using large 25 drops using large

Preservative K 12 drops 2mm dropper/0.5- 2mm dropper/0.9ml/
0.6g/0.5-0.6% 1g/1%

Still 12 drops using 20 drops using large

12 drops large 2mm dropper/ 2mm dropper/0.72ml/
(Aromantic Blend)
0.5g/0.5% 0.8g/0.8%

Table 3: Conversion Table for Aromantics Preservatives

1 gram of Aromantic Approximate no. of Density/Specific Gravity (grams

Preservative drops* per cubic centimetre)

approx. 20 drops using

Preservative Eco 1.018-1.118g/cm3 at 21Celsius
small 0.7mm dropper

approx. 25 drops using

Preservative 12 1.09g/cm3 at 20Celsius
large 2mm dropper

approx. 25 drops using

Preservative K 1.105g/cm3 at 20Celsius
large 2mm dropper

Parabens approx. 25 drops using

1.125g/cm3 at 25Celsius
(Aromantic Blend) large 2mm dropper

NB Drops refers to drops from Aromantics bottles with dropper lids we supply our
Preservatives in.