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Chapter 1



The Philippine government has been committed to

modernize the Philippine educational system, in particular,

on basic education, in its effort to make each and every

student at par with other students in the developed economies.

This is because in todays knowledge-based global economy,

the capability to utilize and produce information and to

transform it into knowledge and vast array of goods and

services is very essential to economic growth and social

development. Along with this effort are the continuous

curricular changes and reorientation, teacher training and

investment in school facilities and infrastructure, one of

which is geared towards the vision of equipping each public

school with the modern computer and other information and

communication-related gadgets and instructional materials

(Camacho and Pintor 20).

Over the years, educational researches have investigated

many factors considered to affect students academic

performance. At the heart of this line of inquiry is the core

belief that teachers strategy in teaching makes a difference

(Teacher-Related Factors). To enhance students mathematics

academic performance, teachers should provide opportunities

to apply problem solving skills to relevant, everyday

experience through math activities and the utmost utilization

of instructional materials.

Students mathematics achievement is directly affected

by the extent of the students opportunity to learn. Learning

and understanding mathematics, at every level requires

student engagement. Students must be engaged in the learning

process through practical applications. When students are

engaged in learning Mathematics that is personal to them,

they are engaged in the learning process. Mathematics

instructional materials and activities, which are considered

as hands-on learning approach, engage students minds when

they are properly utilized by the teacher. Moreover,

Mathematics activities like competitions, games, field trips

and others are used to enhance Mathematics instruction and

application of concepts. It also develops the

strategic/critical thinking and reasoning of the students


An effective mathematics teacher whose goal is to

promote quality education uses varied instructional

materials. But this aspect poses a problem to the Philippine

Educational system. In 2003, the Department of Education

reported that one of the problems which beset education in

the Philippines is the lack of instructional materials

especially in the secondary public schools. In recent years,

the Department of Education has pursued development programs

and projects through government funding and overseas economic

cooperation both through multilateral and bilateral methods.

The strategies to improve education include the updating

instructional materials in various fields and upgrading of

equipment for both public and private institutions

(Philippines-Educational Priorities).

It was this reality that drove the us to investigate the

extent of students participation in Mathematics activities

and the degree of teachers utilization of instructional

materials and their impact to the respondents academic

performance. This information would also be very useful to

help Mathematics teachers in the selection of appropriate

activities and instructional materials that will enhance

students academic performance.

Theoretical/Conceptual Framework

This study is anchored on the theory called Dales Cone

of Experience. As cited by Anderson, this learning theory is

a model that incorporates several theories related to

instructional design and learning processes. This was

introduced by Edgar Dale in 1946 in his textbook on audio

visual methods in teaching. Dale made minor modifications of

the visual in the second edition in 1954 changing Dramatic

Participation to Dramatized Experience and adding Television.

During the 1960s, Edgar Dale theorized that learners retain

more information by what they do as opposed to what is

heard, read or observed. His research led to the

development of the Cone of Experience.

Today, this learning by doing has become known as

experiential learning or action learning. According to

Dales research, the least effective method at the top (see

Fig 1.), involves learning from information presented through

verbal symbols, i.e., listening to spoken words. The most

effective methods at the bottom, involves direct, purposeful

learning experiences, such as hands-on or field experience.

Direct purposeful experiences represent reality or the

closest to real, everyday life.

The chart rates the average retention rate for various

methods of teaching. The further ones progresses down the

cone, the greater the learning and the more information is

likely to be retained. It also suggests that when choosing an

instructional method it is important to remember that

involving students in the process strengthens knowledge

retention. It reveals that action learning techniques

result in up to 90% retention. People learn best when they

use perceptual learning styles. Perceptual learning styles

are sensory based. The more sensory channels that are possible

in interacting with a resource, the better chance that many

students can learn from it.

According to Dale, instructors should design instructional

activities that build upon more real-life experiences. Dales

cone of experience is a tool to help instructors make

decisions about resources and activities (Qtd by Anderson).

The theory fits the present research.

The main objective of this study is to investigate the

impact of the instructional materials and activities in

Mathematics on the high school respondents academic


The respondents extent of participation in Mathematics

activities that occur in school and extent of utilization of

the available instructional materials in the classroom are

the independent variables of the study. Meanwhile, the

respondents academic performance in third year high school

is the dependent variable.

The lines that connect the two variables illustrate that

there might be a relationship between the variables. It is

posited that these independent variables have an influence to

the dependent variable.



Extent of

Extent of Utilization Performance
of the
Materials in the


Statement of the Problem

The research will seek to identify the instructional

materials and activities in Mathematics and their impact on

high school respondents academic performance.

Specifically it will answer the following problems:

1. What is the extent of participation of the students in

the following Mathematics activities?

1.1 Enrichment Math

1.2 Remedial Math

1.3 Math Competitions

1.4 Math Clubs

1.5 Math Week/Month

1.6 Math Related Fieldtrip

2. What is the academic performance of the students in third

year Mathematics?

3. To what extent are the following instructional materials

have been utilized in the classroom for the teaching of

Mathematics as perceived by the respondents:

3.1 boards;

3.2 charts;

3.3 mathematical instruments;

3.4 Books;

3.5 geometric models/shapes;

3.6 audio-visual aids;

3.7 Teacher made instructional materials

4. Is there a significant relationship between the

respondents academic performance and the following?

4.1 extent of participation in Mathematics activities;


4.2 extent of utilization of the available instructional


Scope and Delimitation

The study is confined to first year up to third year

high school students coming from the Jose Rizal Memorial State

University. The study is focused on identifying the degree of

teachers utilization of instructional materials and the

extent of students participation in activities in

Mathematics and if these variables have a relation to the

respondents academic performance. The sample respondents are

chosen using the systematic sampling method.

This study is limited only to the identified 30

respondents coming from the Jose Rizal Memorial State

University. The study is also limited to selected variables

for the researcher to focus more on important factors that

influences students academic performance.

Significance of the Study

It has been observed in secondary schools that

instructional resources have been limited to the chalkboard

only such otherwise theoretical mode of teaching has only

succeeds in bringing out the robots in student. Most who quote

Edgar Dale usually ascribe a certain percentage. Often they

say that we can only remember 10% of what we read, 20% of

what we hear, 30% of what we see (picture), 50% of what we

hear and see, 70% of what we say and write and 90% of what we

and do.

Results of this study specifically will be beneficial to

the following:

Math teachers. The significant of this study to the

teacher is to make them acquainted with the use of

instructional materials and math activities in teaching

mathematics and to eradicate most areas perceive difficulties

in using instructional materials so as to make teaching and

learning mathematics effective. For effective teaching, this

study will help the teacher know the need to draw on the
students home experience with which the teacher should be


Respondents. This study will also motivate students

to learn and enhance effective learning due to the

following instructional resources such as textbooks, audio-

visual aid like projector, audio tape recorder, overhead

projector, television, computer, math activities, and the


Secondary school administrators. The findings of this

study will give the administrators a complete picture of the

activities that occur in school and how students participated

in these activities. Likewise, they will have an idea on the

instructional materials that their teachers are using and how

they were utilized. In effect, efforts for the improvement

will be focused on the aspects that need more upgrading and


The following terms are defined operationally for

facility of understanding.

Academic Performance- This refers to the rating obtained by

the students in Mathematics.

Enrichment Math- This refers to individualized or grouped

teaching for students who are advanced to a higher-level class

covering material more suited to their abilities and


Instructional Materials- This refers to the materials used in

teaching Mathematics such boards, charts, mathematical

instruments, geometric models/shapes, books, and audio-visual


Math Activities- This refers to the activities that teachers

are initiating to promote engagement in Mathematics.

Remedial Math- This refers to the individualized teaching of

students who are experiencing difficulties in mathematics.

Respondents- They refer to the selected first year up to third

year students high school students.

Chapter 2


Related Literature

According to Dale, the richer the teaching materials,

the more will be the teachers responsibility to correlate

and plan his teaching. The following general principles may

however serve as guides to the use of these (Qtd. in Kumar):

1. There are three stages in a learning process when an

educational aid is used to supplement the ordinary

teaching. (a) preparing the pupils for the learning

experience; (b) reinforcing the values while the pupils

are sharing the experience, and (c) relating the

experience with the lesson and thus stimulating further


2. The aids must be adapted to the intellectual maturity of

the pupils and to the nature and extent of their previous


3. There is no best aid which has all the advantages. Most

visual aids suffer from some psychological limitations.

The teacher should be familiar with the advantages and

limitations of the various types of sensory aids.

4. Visual instruction in the classroom should not be

confused with entertainment. The effective use of an aid

depends primarily on careful planning by the teacher.

5. Visual aids should not be considered as substitutes for

oral and written methods of acquiring knowledge. They

should be used to supplement the classroom teaching.

6. In all cases, the time and effort on the use of a

particular aid in preference to others must be


Meaning of Instructional Materials

Instructional materials are in various classes, such as

audio or aural, visual or audio-visual. Thus, audio

instructional materials refer to those devices that make

use of the sense of hearing only, like radio, audio tape

recording, and television. Visual instructional materials

on the other hand, are those devices that appeal

to the sense of sight only such as the chalkboard, chart,

slide, and filmstrip. An audio-visual instructional

material however, is a combination of devices which

appeal to the sense of both hearing and seeing

such as television, motion picture and the computer.

Among the instructional materials the classroom

teacher uses, the visuals out-numbered the

combination of the audio and audio-visual (Oladejo 116).

Role of Instructional Media/Materials

As cited by Moore, the most common use of teaching aids

is to support a live teacher in the classroom. Indeed, the

use of appropriate instructional media in the classroom can

motivate, contribute to understanding, encourage

participation, help maintain interest in the lesson, and

enhance learning (317).

Instructional aids or teaching aids designed for teacher

use are often provided as supplements to textbook, one of the

most common instructional materials. They include teachers

manual, skills books or exercise books, workbooks, test

questions, transparencies, lesson guides, reinforcement

activities, bulletin board ideas, computer software, and

audio/video CDs. Moreover, textbooks also frequently provide

sources and information relative to other teaching materials

and tools (320).

Common Instructional Aids

Moore identified the following as the common

instructional aids/materials (321-332).

1. Chalkboards - are found practically in every classroom.

Teachers use chalkboards to reinforce oral explanation.

But these are sometimes misused. Indeed, learning can

cease with the simple swipe of an eraser if the

information is removed too soon. Messy writings or

writing in letters too small to read can also limit the

usefulness of the chalkboard.

2. Transparencies - are popular and widely used

instructional tool. Success with transparencies usually

depends on the quality of the content and physical

characteristics. When used creatively, transparencies

can be an exciting instructional medium for presenting


3. Films, Slides, and Opaque Projectors have largely been

replaced by televisions, video and audio CDs which are

inexpensive and offer greater instructional flexibility.

4. Real Life Objects and Models - are three-dimensional

representations of real-life thing. These can also be

used to represent an abstraction of a complex process

and provide the direct involvement often needed to

internalize the concept being taught.

5. Educational Games are activities with goals, rules and

rewards. These have been an important instructional tool

since early 19th century. Some games involve logic to

enhance critical thinking.

6. Pictures, Drawing and Charts these can be used to

stimulate creative expression, such as writing stories

or poetry; to help sharpen interpretation skills or

decoding skills.

7. Motion pictures, Videos, and Television these allow

teachers to communicate by using the two most direct

channels for learning: sight and sound. These can

provide teachers with an avenue for enriching and

supplementing instruction.

8. Videodisc a compact disc (CD) on which a tremendous

quantity of visual information is stored. This

technology can be used for distributing almost any set

of instructional material.

9. Computers these can greatly expand the types of

instruction received by students, improve on current

teaching modes, and free teachers to increase their

personal attention to students. These also represent

good motivational tools and encourage students to become

actively involved in the learning process.

10. Internet this provides a place where teachers and

students can explore and grow. It is a powerful tool

that teachers can use to give students an even greater

opportunity to explore the world around them.

Math Activities

According to Taylor, and others from the ICME 10

Proceedings in Denmark, the meaning of the word competition

has become much more general than the traditional meaning of

either a National Olympiad, or more broadly based multiple

choice question exams which have become popular in a number

of countries. The World Federation of National Mathematics

Competitions, the principal international body comprising

mathematics academics and teachers who administer

competitions, has formally defined competitions as including

enrichment courses and activities in mathematics, mathematics

clubs or circles, mathematics days, mathematics camps,

including live-in programs in which students solve open-ended

or research-style problems over a period of days, and other

similar activities.
In addition there are publications of journals for

students and teachers containing problem sections, book

reviews, review articles on historic and contemporary issues

in mathematics in addition to support for teachers who desire

and/or require extra sources in dealing with talented

students, were also important activities related to

competitions. Competitions come in a number of categories,

the elite national and international Olympiads, the broader

and popular inclusive competitions usually involving

(regretfully) multiple choice questions, and special themed

competitions, which sometimes involve teams rather than

individuals. In some cases, these teams are composed of whole

classes, giving a very different feel to the competition.

Special note was made of project, or research based

activities, in which students have a longer time frame to

solve problems than normally permitted in an exam-based

environment. In addition to purely mathematical competitions

there also exist competitions focusing on mathematical

modeling. These activities all have in common the values of

creativity, enrichment beyond the normal syllabus,

opportunities for students to experience problem solving

situations and provision of challenge for the student.

Competitions give students the opportunity to be drawn by

their own interest to experience some mathematics beyond

their normal classroom experience (495 496)

Competitions contribute positively to the teaching and

learning process in a way that it provides , for example, a

focus on problem solving, sometimes giving students an

opportunity to be associated with a cutting edge area of

mathematics in which new methods may evolve and old methods

be revived. Competitions provide opportunity for creativity

and independent thinking, as students often solve problems in

unexpected and innovative ways. The success of competitions

over the years, particularly the resurgence in the last 50

years, indicates that these are events in which students enjoy

mathematics. Different students derive different experiences,

and it is exciting for students when they see how a problem

can reach the same solution by two quite different techniques.

Because competitions give students an opportunity to discover

a latent talent, they provide a stimulus for improving

learning (496).

The importance of mathematics competitions has been

widely recognized for three reasons: they help to develop

imaginative capacity and thinking skills whose value far

transcends mathematics; they constitute the most effective

way of discovering and nurturing mathematical talent; and

they provide a means to combat the prevalent false image of

mathematics held by high school students, as either a

fearsomely difficult or a dull and uncreative subject

(Zawaira and Hitchcock).

Remedial activities, on the other hand, may benefit

learning according to McDaniel. A remedial activity is one

that is meant to improve a learning skill or rectify a problem

area. Remedial instruction involves using individualized

teaching of students who are experiencing difficulties in

specific subject areas. Remedial instruction might be taught

individually or in groups and targets academic weaknesses

that may hinder learning. Remedial activities teach basic

skills that are the foundation for learning a subject in

greater detail, and such skills must be learned before

students can develop a detailed understanding of the topic of


The purpose for remedial and enrichment activities are

known to include the following: a. to help learners overcome

gaps & errors; b. to make learners notice their mistakes or

errors and discover for themselves what is wrong and right;

c. to reactivate, consolidate and clarify

previously presented concepts; d. to monitor leaner's errors,

mistakes or slips; and to distinguish between general

problems and those of individual learners (Purpose for


According to Thompson, in her action research project,

math club had a positive impact on student attitudes. She

also noted a gain in students mathematical ability. She saw

gains with the students in their ability to problem solve.

The survey found that the students liked these activities and

that students were pleased to have class periods that were

not teacher lecture (28).

Related Studies

Studies which have bearing to this research are included

in this study.

Foreign Studies

In the study of Dahar and Faize entitled Effect of the

Availability and the Use of Instructional Material on

Academic Performance of Students in Punjab Pakistan, they

identified that there is a great deficiency in the

availability and the use of instructional material. The study

concluded that the less availability, misallocation and the

deficiency in the use of instructional material lead to the

wastage of resources, the less effectiveness of instructional

material and lower academic performance. The policy

implications of the study are that instructional material can

have an enormous effect if is properly allocated, equalized

per student and efficiently used with the standard quantity

and quality.

Yara in his research entitled Teaching/Learning

Resources and Academic Performance in Mathematics in

Secondary Schools in Bondo District of Kenya he posited that

out of the eight independent variables, only four were

significant and could be used to predict academic performance

in mathematics which are classroom, laboratories,

stationeries and teaching aids. These findings are in

consonance with the findings of Yadarin 2007 and the report

by UNESCO in 2008 which opined that teaching/ learning

materials such as textbooks, class rooms, teaching aids

(chalk, board, ruler and protractor), stationeries and

laboratories affect academic performance of the learners.

Also the result of the findings agreed with that of Mutai in

2006 who asserted that learning is strengthened when there is

enough reference materials such as textbooks, exercise books,

teaching aids and class rooms while He further asserted that

academic achievement illustrates per excellence the correct

use of these materials (Qtd. in Yara).

The result of Afolabis. Sunday and Adeleke Joshuas

research entitled Assessment of Resources and Instructional

Materials Status in the teaching of Mathematics in

Southwestern Nigeria has revealed that instructional

resources and materials are the crucial determinants of

methods used in Mathematics teaching. Therefore, should be

provided through the following ways: (i) the government, (ii)

improvisation by school teachers and students, (iii) request

from lovers of Mathematics and (iv) philanthropists, (v)

school P.T.A, (vi) setting up a department in NMC to take up

the commitment of providing standard instructional materials

for the whole nation. Training and re-training of Mathematics

teachers on the use of instructional materials. (vii) Teacher

education programmers should have at least a course whereby

students are taught the construction and improvisation of

instructional materials for all courses and their uses.

Teachers should be made to be aware of the importance of

instructional material.

Likewise, in the study conducted by Adeogun and

Osifilaon Relationship Between Educational Resources and

Students Academic Performance in Lagos State Nigeria they

investigated the relationship between educational resources

and students academic performance in Lagos State public

secondary schools. The study found that there were not enough

educational resources in the selected schools. Physical,

materials, financial and human resources were found to be

significantly related to students academic performance.

Lastly, in the study of Andile Mjiand Moses Makgato on

Factors Associated with High School Learners' Poor

Performance: A Spotlight on Mathematics and Physical

Science, they identified that teaching strategies, content

knowledge, motivation, laboratory use, and non-completion of

the syllabus in a year are the factors that have a direct

influence related to the learners performance.

Local Studies

In the study conducted by Villegas on Effectiveness and

Applicability of Negros Oriental State University Faculty

Performance, findings revealed that teaching aids and other

high tech materials like projector should be provided,

additional books should be added and comfortable classrooms

are needed.

In the light of the findings obtained from the results

of the study of Morallo on A Validated Workbook in

Mathematics for Grade Six Pupils, she strongly recommended

that Mathematics teachers should be continuously trained in

making remediation and in preparing instructional or learning

materials like workbook and module to reinforce the students

mathematics knowledge and skills as well as the teachers


In the study of Futalan on Solutions Manual in Selected

Topics in Differential Calculus: Its Effect on Students

Achievement, she developed an instructional material and

results showed that the mean achievement of the whole group

of sampled students in the lessons taught with the solutions

manual was significantly higher than the mean achievement in

lessons taught without the solutions manual. Her study simply

indicates that the instructional material had contributed to

the performance of the students.

One of the noble recommendations given resulting from

the study of Lazalita on Error Patterns on Operations with

Signed Numbers and Laws of Exponents of Fourth Year High

School Students in the Diocesan Catholic Schools of Negros

Oriental was that students who are low achievers in

mathematics should be required to take up the remedial course.

She also recommended that more teachers be trained in

diagnosis and remediation, in the preparation of

instructional materials to reinforce students learning; as

the workbook is expected to do.

The study of Caduyac on Workbook for College Algebra,

Mathematics 101 102 has a main objective of answering

students difficulties in understanding Mathematics in both

concepts and application. She said that one of the ways to

address the problem is through the use of learning materials

like the workbook to meet the needs of the learner.

Chapter 3

Research Methodology

Method Used

The method used in this study is quantitative method

using the descriptive design.

Research Environment

This study will be conducted in the Junior High School

Department, Jose Rizal Memorial State University, Katipunan


Research Instrument

Questionnaires will be used to answer the objectives of

the study.

Research Respondents

The respondents for this study will be the selected first

year to third year students of Jose Rizal Memorial State

University of this current year. There will be 30 respondents

in our study, they will be interviewed for more information.

Data Collection Procedures

The survey is descriptive and correlational in nature.

It is descriptive since it focuses at the present condition

and the purpose is to find new truth. It is also correlational

since it is able to determine the relationship of the two

variables (Calmorin 26-29).

The activities in Mathematics that occur in school and

respondents extent of participation on these activities are

surveyed. The extent of teachers utilization of the

instructional materials is also identified. Their extent of

participation in the activities and perceived utilization of

the materials are correlated to their academic performance.

The research instrument is tested to 10 students to

further assess if all questions posted in this study are

answered. We will then request permission from the

Administrator of the school to undertake the study.

Permission was likewise asked from the department

head/principal to allow us to float the questionnaire to the

identified first year up to third year respondents and to

have access on their official records. During the

distribution of the questionnaire, we will explain to the

respondents that they will be evaluating the activities that

occurred and the instructional materials that are utilized

since first year until third year. The academic performances

of the respondents that are considered are the mathematics

final grades in third year.