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# 8. The average speed of a bicycle, an athlete and car are 18 km/h, 7 m/s and 2 km/min.

respectively. Which of the three is the fastest and which is the slowest ?

## 2 km/min = = = 33.3 m/s

Thus the average speeds of the bicycle, the athlete and the car are 5 m/s, 7 m/s and 33.3 m/s
respectively. So the car is the fastest and the bicycle is the slowest.

9. An object is sliding down on inclined plane. The velocity changes at a constant rate from
10 cm/s to 15 cm/s in 2 seconds. What is its acceleration?
Sol. The situation is shown in figure. Let us take BA as the positive direction. The velocity at t
= 0 is u = 10 cm/s and that at t = 25 is v = 15 cm/s.

## The acceleration is positive, which means it is in the direction BA.

10. Figure shows distance-time graph of two objects A and B which object is moving with
greater speed when both are moving?

Sol. The line for object B makes a longer angle with the time -axis. Its slope is longer than the
slope of the line for object A. Thus, the speed of B is greater than that of A.

11. Figure represents the speed time graph for a particle. Find the distance covered by the
particle between t = 10 min. and t = 30 min.
Sol. We draw perpendicular lines from the 10-minute point and the 30-minute point to the
time-axis (fig.) The distance covered is equal to the area of the rectangle ABCD its value is
ABCD = (30 min._10 min.) (10 km/h)
= 20 min. 10 km/h

= h 10 km/h = km.

12. Find the distance coverd by a particle during the time interval t = 0 to t = 20 s for which
the speed-time graph is shown in figure.

Sol. The distance covered in the time interval 0 to 20 s. is equal to the area of the shaded
triangle. It is

base height.

## = (20 s) (20 m/s) = 200 m.

13. Figure shows the velocity-time graphs for two objects, A and B, moving along the same
direction. Which object has greater acceleration ?

Sol. The slope of the velocity-time graph of B is greater than that for A, Thus, the acceleration
of B is greater than that of A.
14. A particle moves through a distance of 3 m due east and then 4m due north.
(a) How much is the net distance traversed ? (b) What is the magnitude of the net
displacement?
Sol. The situation shown in figure. The particle starts from O. It moves through a distance of
3m due east to reach A and then through a distance of 4m due north to reach B.

## (a) The total distance moved is 3m 4m = 7 m,

(b) The magnitude of the net displacement is OB. In the right_angled triangle OAB,
OB 2 = OA 2 AB 2 = (3m) 2 (4m) 2 = 9m 2 16m 2 = 25m 2 OR OB = 5 m,

15. A car moves 30 km. in 30 min. and the next 30 km. in 40 min. calculate the average
speed for the entire journey.
Sol. Given, the total time taken is 30 min. 40 min. = 70 min. and the total distan ce traversed is
_
30 km 30 km = 60 km. The average speed is

## v av = km/hr = 51.4 km/h

16. A boy runs for 10 min. at a uniform speed of 9 km/h. At what speed should he run for
the next 20 min. So that the average speed comes to 12 km/h?
Sol. Total time = 10 min 20 min = 30 min.
The average speed is 12km/h. using s = vt, the distance covered in 30 min is

## 12 km/h 30min = = 6km

The distance covered in the first 10 min is _

## 9 km/h 10 min. = = 1.5 km

Thus, he has to cover 6 km _ 1.5 km = 4.5 km. in the ne xt 20 min. The speed required is

= 13.5 km/h
17. A particle was at rest from 9:00 am to 9:30 am. It moved at a uniform speed of 10 km/h
from 9:30 am to 10:00 am. Find the average speed between (a) 9:00 am and 10:00 am (b)
9:15 am and 10:00 am
Sol. (a) The distance moved by the particle between 9:30 am and 10:00 am is

s = vt = = 5 km.
This is also the distance moved between 9:00 am and 10:00 am. Thus, the average speed
during this interval is

v av = = 5 km/h
(b) The distance moved between 9:30 am and 10:00 am is 5km. This is also the distance
moved in the interval 9:15 am to 10:00 am. The average speed during this interval is _

## v av = = km/h 6.67 km/h.

18. A boy is running on a straight road. He runs 500 m towards north in 2.10 minutes and
then turns back and runs 200 m in 1.00 minute. Calculate :-
(a) His average speed and magnitude of average velocity during first 2.10 minutes, and
(b) His average speed and magnitude of average velocity during the whole journey.
Sol. (a) Total distance = 500 m
Total time = 2.10 minutes = 130 s
Magnitude of displacement = 500 m

## Magnitude of average velocity = = 3.85 ms _1

Note : This example shows that the average speed = average velocity if the motion is in one
direction.
(b) Total distance = 500 m 200 m = 700 m
Total time = 2.10 1.00 = 3.10 minutes = 190 s
Magnitude of total displacement = 500 m _ 200 m = 300 m

## Magnitude of average velocity = = 1.58 ms _1

Note : This example shows that average speed is greater than the magnitude of average
velocity if the direction of motion changes.
19. It is estimated that the radio signal takes 1.27 seconds to reach the earth from the
surface of the moon. Calculate the distance of the moon from the earth. Speed of radio
signal = 3 10 8 ms _1 (speed of light in air).
Sol. Here, time = 1.27 s
speed = 3 10 8 ms _1
distance = ?
Using distance = speed time, we get
distance = 3 10 8 ms _1 1.27 s = 3.81 10 8 m = 3.81 = 10 5 km

20. A wireless signal is sent to earth from a spacecraft. This signal reaches the earth in 300
seconds. Calculate the distance of the spacecraft from the earth. Given, speed of the signal
= 3 10 8 ms _1 .
Sol. Here, t = 300 s
Speed, v = 3 10 8 ms _1
Distance = ?
Using distance = speed time, we get
distance = 3 10 8 ms _1 300 s = 9 10 10 m = 9 = 10 7 km
Thus, distance of spacecraft from earth = 9 10 7 km.

21. A sound is heard 5 seconds later than the lightning is seen in the sky on a rainy day. Find
the distance of the location of lightning. Given speed of sound = 346 ms _1 .
Sol. Here, t = 5 s
Speed, v = 346 ms _1
Distance = ?
Using distance = speed time, we get
distance = 346 ms _1 5 s = 1730 m
Thus, distance of the location of lightning = 1730 m

## Work & Energy, Important Questions (with answers), Class 9, Science

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Q.1. Can any object have mechanical energy even if its momentum is zero? Explain.
Yes, mechanical energy comprises of both potential energy and kinetic energy. Zero
momentum means that velocity is zero. Hence, there it no kinetic energy but the object may
possess potential energy.

Q.2. The potential energy of a body is 39600J. How high is the body if its mass is 20kg?
The potential energy of a body = mgh
h = PE/mg = 39600j/20kg x9.8m/s 2 =198m

## Q.3. A force of 20 N displaces a body through a distance of 1 m at an angle of 60 from its

own direction. Calculate the amount of work done.
Here, force F = 20 N, displacement, s = 1 m. Angle between force and displacement 60.
Work done,W =Fscos0 =20 X 1 X cos60=20X 1 X 1/2 = 10J.
A man of 50 kg jumps up to a height of 1.2 m. What is his potential energy at the highest
point?
The potential energy of man = mgh = = 50 + 10 X 1.2 J = 600 J

Q.4. How much work is done by a force of 10 N in moving an object through a distance of 4
m in the direction of the force.
Work done Force x Displacement =F.s = (10 N) x (4 rn) = 40 joule or 40J.

Q.5. A light and a heavy object have the same momentum find out the ratio of their kinetic
energies. Which one has a larger kinetic energy?
Linear momentum of 1 st object = p1=m1v1
Linear momentum of 2 nd object = p2=m2v2
Given, p1 > p2 ---------------------------------(i)
m1v1 > m2v2
But, m1<m2 (A light and a heavy object) v1 > v2 ------------(ii)
Ke = mv 2 = m vx v =1/2 pv
From (i)and (ii) p1v1 > p2v2 p1v1 > p2v2 KE1> KE2

Q.6. What is power? How do you differentiate kilowatt from ki lowatt hour?
Power is the rate of doing work. Kilowatt is the unit of power and kilowatt hour is the unit of
energy.

Q.7. A rocket is moving up with a velocity v. If the velocity of this rocket is suddenly tripled,
what will be the ratio of two kinetic energies?
Initial KE/Final KE = ( mu 2 ) /( mv 2 ) = ( mu 2 ) /{ m(3v 2 )} =1:9

Q.8. Calculate the work done in lifting 200 kg of water through a vertical height of 6 m.
Work done in lifting a body = Weight of body X vertical distance
The work done in lifting = W = mgh = 200 kg x 10m/s 2 x6 m = 1200J

Q.9. Give one example each of potential energy (i) due to position (ii) due to shape.
(i) Potential energy due to position: Water stored in dam has potential energy.
(ii) Potential energy due to shape: In a toy car, the wound spring possesses potential energy,
and as the spring is released, its potential energy changes into kinetic energy due to which
the car moves.

Q.10. What kind of energy transformation takes place when a body is dropped from a
certain height?
When a body falls, its potential energy gradually gets converted into kinetic energy. On
reaching the ground, the whole of the potential energy of the body gets converted into
kinetic energy.

## No as m ass and velocity cannot ne negative

Q.2. A freely falling object eventually stops on reaching the ground. What happens to its
kinetic energy?

A freely falling object just before hitting the ground has maximum kinetic energy. After
falling, it rolls on the rough ground and finally comes to rest. The kinetic energy of the object
is used up in doing work against friction; which finally appears as heat energy.

Q.3. Find the energy in kWh consumed in 10 hours by four devices of power 500 W each.

## Energy consumed = Power x time taken = 2000W x 10 h = 20000 Wh = 20 kWh.

Q.4. Calculate the work required to be done to stop a car of 1500 kg moving at a velocity of
60 km/h?

## The work required to be done to stop a car = ( mu2) - ( mv2)= m(u2-v2)=

1/2x1500(602-0)=2.08J

Q.5 What is the work done by the force of gravity on a satellite moving round the Earth?
Justify your answer.
The work done by the force of gravity on a satellite moving around the Earth is zero.

When a satellite moves around the Earth in a circular path, then the force of gravity acts on it
directed towards the centre. The motion of the satellite is in the horizontal plane. Therefore,
the force of gravity of Earth on the satellite and the direction of motion of satellite are
perpendicular to each other. Therefore, net work done = Fs cos 90 = 0.

Q.6. The potential energy of a freely falling object decreases progressively. Does this violate
the law of conservation of energy? Why?
During the free fall of the object, there is continuou s decrease in potential energy. This
decrease in potential energy appears as an equal amount of increase in kinetic energy. Thus,
the sum of the potential energy and kinetic energy of the object would be the same at all
points. That is, potential energy + kinetic energy = constant.

According to the law of conservation of energy, the total energy of system remains
unchanged. Thus, the given statement does not violate the law of conservation of energy.

Define 1 J of work.

## Work done = Force x Displacement

If force, F = 1 N and displacement, s = 1, m then the work done by the force will be 1 Nm or1
J. Thus, 1 J is the amount of work done on an object when a force of 1 N displaces it by 1 m
along the line of action of the force.

Q. Can any object have mechanical energy even if its momentum is zero? Explain.

Ans: Yes, mechanical energy comprises of both potential energy and kinetic energy. Zero
momentum means that velocity is zero. Hence, there it no kinetic energy but the object may
possess potential energy.

## Q. Can kinetic energy of a body be negative?

Ans: No, It is because mass and velocity cannot ne negative

Q. A freely falling object eventually stops on reaching the ground. What happens to its
kinetic energy?
Ans: A freely falling object just before hitting the ground has maximum kinetic energy. After
falling, it rolls on the rough ground and finally comes to rest. The kinetic energy of the object
is used up in doing work against friction; which finally appears as heat energy.

Q. A light and a heavy object have the same momentum find out the ratio of their kinetic
energies.Which one has a larger kinetic energy?

## But, m1<m2 (A light and a heavy object) v1 > v2 ------------(ii)

Ke = mv 2 = m vx v =1/2 pv
From (i)and (ii) p1v1 > p2v2 p1v1 > p2v2 KE1> KE2

Q. A rocket is moving up with a velocity v. If the velocity of this rocket is suddenly tripled,
what will be the ratio of two kinetic energies?

## Ans: Initial KE/Final KE = ( mu 2 ) /( mv 2 ) = ( mu 2 ) /{ m(3v 2 )} =1:9

Q. Give one example each of potential energy (I) due to position (ii) due to shape.

Ans: (i) Potential energy due to position: Water stored in dam has potential energy.

(ii) Potential energy due to shape: In a toy car, the wound spring possesses potential energy,
and as the spring is released, its potential energy changes into kinetic energy due to which
the car moves.

Q. What kind of energy transformation takes place when a body is dropped from a certain
height?

Ans: When a body falls, its potential energy gradually gets converted into kinetic energy. On
reaching the ground, the whole of the potential energy of the body gets converted into
kinetic energy.

Q. A man drops a stone of 200g from a height of 5m. What is its kinetic energy when it
reaches the ground? What is its speed before it hits the ground?

## Ans: Using the equation of motion,

u =0m/s ; v = ? s = 5m

V2=u2 + 2as

## Kinetic energy of the body before hitting the ground is,

m = 200g = 0.2kg
KE = mv 2 = x 0.2 x9.9x9.9 =9.8j

Q. Two bodies have same momentum. Which will have greater kinetic energy- heavier body
or lighter body?

Let mass of light body be 'm1 ' & heavy body be 'm2 '

## Hence light body has greater kinetic energy

Q. An electric bulb of 60w is used for 6h per day .Calculate the units of energy consumed in
one day by the bulb.

## E = wt = 60w x 6h = 60w x 6 x 3600 sec = 1.3 x 10 6 J

Q. A boy of mass 50kg runs up to a stair case of 45 steps in 9s. If the height of a step
is 15cm, find his power. (g= 10m/s2)

Ans: h will be the net height attained by him once he puts all the steps i.e. (45 x 0.15) = 6.75
/m

## Power = w/t =PE/t = mgh/t = = (50x10x6.75)/9 = 375 J/s

Q. Two particles of masses 1g and 2g have equal momentum. Find the ratio between their
kinetic energies?

## Momentum of first body, p 1 = m 1 v 1

Momentum of second body, p 2 = m 2 v 2
As given: m 1 /m 2 = and p 1 = p 2
v 1 /v 2 = m 2 /m 1 = 2
Now kinetic energy, k = 1/2mv 2
Ratio of kinetic energy, k 1 /k 2 = m 1 v 1 2 /m 2 v 2 2
= 2/1

Q. If the K.E. of a object increased by 300% ,Find the % increased in momentum of the
body .

Ans: E = mv 2 = p2/2m

2mE=p

New E = E + 300%of E = 4E

## = (2 2mE - 2mE)/ 2mE x 100% =100%

Q. A 400gm bag is lifted from ground and kept on the table at a height of 2 m .The time
taken to do so is 4s. (Assume g=10m/s)

## = mgh 400/1000gm x 10 x 2 = 8 J Now, Power =w/t = 8/4= 2 J/sec

Q.Two bodies I and II have the same kinetic energy. Their velocities v1/ v2 are in the ratio of
1:2.

Since Two bodies I and II have the same kinetic energy: comparing the KE of both the bodies

K1 = K2

m1v1 2 = m2v22