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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

PART 1: QUANTITATIVE VS. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE
Quantitative research is an approach for Qualitative research is an approach for
testing objective theories by examining the exploring and understanding the meaning
relationship among variables. individuals or groups ascribe to a social or
human problem.

These variables, in turn, can be measured, The process of research involves emerging
typically on instruments, so that numbered questions and procedures, data typically
data can be analysed using statistical collected in the participants setting, data
procedures. analysis inductively building from
particulars to general themes, and the
researcher making interpretations of the
meaning of the
data.

The final written report has a set structure The final written report has a flexible
consisting of introduction, literature and structure. Those who engage in this form of
theory, methods, results, and discussion. inquiry support a way of looking at research
Like qualitative researchers, those who that honours an inductive style, a focus on
engage in this form of inquiry have individual meaning, and the importance of
assumptions about testing theories rendering the complexity of a situation.
deductively, building in protections against (Creswell, 2014, p.32)
bias, controlling for alternative explanations,
and being able to generalize and replicate the
findings. (Creswell, 2014, p.32)

No QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE
1 A large sample is used Few participants

2 Numerical data are collected Data in form of words

3 Statistical methods of data analysis Non-statistical , interpretive methods of


data analysis
4 The commonalities that exist in the data Individual stories

5 Questionnaires and tests are common Observations and open-ended interview


data collection methods are data collection methods
PART 2: RESEARCH PROBLEMS
ISSUES EXPLANATIONS
A problem, issue, or controversy that a researcher wants to study
1 WHAT?
Assist policy makers with making informed decisions
Help stakeholders solve practical problems
2 WHY?
Provide researchers with insight into educational issues

From a researchers own life experiences and working practices


Phenomena a researcher is interested in
Conditions a researcher want to improve
Difficulties a researcher want to eliminate
Questions a researcher want to seek an answer for
3
WHERE?
From research literature
Aspects that have not been studied in previous research
Drawbacks of previous research
Recommendations from other researchers

5 PROCESS

1. Research topic: broad subject matter


2. Research problem: general issue, controversy, concern
3. Research purpose: major intent or objective of the study
4. Research questions: specific questions that the searcher wants to
answer

Can a problem be researched?


Access to research sites
CAN?
Time, resources, skills

6 Should a problem be researched? Yes, if your study


fill a gap or void in the existing literature.
SHOULD? replicates a past study but examines different participants and
different research sites.
extends past research or examines the topic more thoroughly.
informs practice.

QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE
Measure variables Learn about the views of individuals

Assess the impact of these Access a process over time


variables on an outcome
7 PROBLEMS Test theories or broad Generate theories based on participant
explanations perspectives

Apply results to a large Obtain detailed information about a few


number of people people or research sites

PART 3: RESEARCH PROBLEMS (Cont)


NO STRUCTURE OF STATEMENT PROBLEM

1. topic
2. research problem
3. a justification of the importance of the problem as found in the past research
and in practice
4. deficiencies in our existing knowledge about the problem
5. the audiences that will benefit from a study of the problem
First sentence of the section
Purpose: get readers attention, generate their interest in the
study.
Narrative hook: a convincing narrative hook might include
one or more of the following types of information:
+ Statistical data (e.g., More than 50% of the adult
population experiences depression today)
1 Topic + A provocative question (e.g., Why are school policies that
ban smoking in high-school no being enforced?)
+ A clear need for research (e.g., School suspension is
drawing increased attention among scholars in teacher
education)
+ The intent or purpose of the study (e.g., the intent of the
study is to examine how client construe the therapist-
client)

Practical research problem:


+ come from issues or concerns found in schools or other
educational settings
Research-based research problem:
2 Problem + based on a need for further research because a gap exists or
we need to extend the research into other areas
Both types of research problem
Several paragraphs
Presenting reasons for the importance of studying the issue /
the need to study the problem
3 Justification Three types of evidence:
+ Other researchers and experts as reported in the literature
+ Experiences in the workplace
+Personal experiences
4 Deficiencies in our existing knowledge
5 Audiences that will benefit from a study of the problem

PART 3: LITERATURE REVIEWS

1 What
2 Why
3 Steps
4 Types
5 Primary vs.
secondary
6 Writing Study-by-study review of the literature
What to include in a literature review
Critiquing previous research
Questions to consider when summarizing and critiquing previous
research