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IPASJ International Journal of Computer Science (IIJCS)

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Volume 5, Issue 10, October 2017 ISSN 2321-5992

Critical Review and Analysis of Atomization of


Diabetic Maculopathy
Chetan P. Pattebahadur1, Dr. Ramesh R. Manza2
C/O Dr. Ramesh R. Manza Bio-Medical Image Processing Laboratory Department Of Computer Science and Information
Technology Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University Aurangabad Maharashtra 431001 India

Bio-Medical Image Processing Laboratory


Department of Computer Science and Information Technology, Aurangabad Maharashtra 431001 India
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University

ABSTRACT
Abstract: - Diabetes is chronic acute caused by the reduced production of insulin or by decreased ability to use insulin. Lengthy
diabetes may impact the tiny blood vessel of the retina called as Diabetic Retinopathy. Diabetic Maculopathy result when fluid
reach and fat and cholesterol leaks out of damaged blood vessel and amass near the center of the retina. Maculopathy can
affect the central vision and loss vision power and permanently got blindness. Thats why maculopathy detection is very
important and takes a treatment at first stage and save vision power. So many researchers have developed automatic detection
of maculopathy, retinopathy exudates, optic disc etc for that, they got 99% to 100% good result in detection and their results are
now great helps to ophthalmologist. In this paper, we can see different technique and methodology which use used by the
researcher and their satisfactory result.
Keywords: maculopathy, retinopathy, Micro aneurysms , Exudates , Haemorrhages

1. INTRODUCTION
What is diabetes?
Diabetes is a [24]chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the
body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar.
Hyperglycaemia, or raised blood sugar, is a common effect of uncontrolled diabetes and over time leads to serious
damage to many of the body's systems, like heart, kidneys and eyes etc. In 2014, 8.5% of adults aged 18 years and
older had diabetes. In 2015, diabetes was the direct cause of 1.5 million deaths and in 2012 high blood glucose was
the cause of another 2.2 million deaths.
1.1 Maculopathy
The macula [25] is the part of the eye that helps to provide us with our central vision. Diabetic maculopathy is when
the macula sustains some form of damage. One such cause of macular damage is from diabetic macular oedema
whereby blood vessels near to the macula leak fluid or protein onto the macula. Maculopathy can affect the central
vision and loss vision power and permanently got blindness. Thats why maculopathy detection is very important and
takes a treatment at first stage and save vision power. This paper reviews on Automatic Detection of Maculopathy . So
many Researchers are Developed Automated System and got good result and help to the ophthalmologist Because its
Detection process is very lengthy but if they will use like that atomization system they can easily detect and dingoes
maculopathy and saving the much time. Here we can see which method, technique and database they use and their
satisfactory result

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IPASJ International Journal of Computer Science (IIJCS)
Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJCS/IIJCS.htm
A Publisher for Research Motivation ........ Email:editoriijcs@ipasj.org
Volume 5, Issue 10, October 2017 ISSN 2321-5992

Fig. 1. Eye Anaotomy

The eye is our organ of sight.[22] The eye has a number of components which include but are not limited to
the cornea, iris, pupil, lens, retina, macula, optic nerve, choroid and vitreous.

Cornea: clear front window of the eye that transmits and focuses light into the eye.

Iris: colored part of the eye that helps regulate the amount of light that enters

Pupil: dark aperture in the iris that determines how much light is let into the eye

Lens: transparent structure inside the eye that focuses light rays onto the retina

Retina: nerve layer that lines the back of the eye, senses light, and creates electrical impulses that travel
through the optic nerve to the brain

Macula: small central area in the retina that contains special light-sensitive cells and allows us to see fine
details clearly

Optic nerve: connects the eye to the brain and carries the electrical impulses formed by the retina to the visual
cortex of the brain

Vitreous: clear, jelly-like substance that fills the middle of the eye

1.2 Typical fundus images

Fig. 1.2. Normal eye Fig. 1.3 Eye with Maculopathy


Micro aneurysms: [23]These are small red dots on the retinal surface, which occur due to capillary occlusion leading to
lack of oxygen and progression of the disease. They are less than the diameter of the optic vein .Accumulation of
proteins and lipids occur in the form of exudates. Vision loss occurs when they occur in the macula.
Exudates:[23] These appear as yellow or white structures in the retina. There are two types of exudates based on their
appearance and occurrence.
Hemorrhages:[23] These occur due to bleeding. Dot haemorrhages lie deep within the retina and reflect leakage of the
veins and capillaries. Dot haemorrhages are an indication of diabetic retinopathy.

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IPASJ International Journal of Computer Science (IIJCS)
Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJCS/IIJCS.htm
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2. REVIEW
Sreedevi KS et al [1] present a paper Detection of Exudative Maculopathy from Retinal Fundus Images. Author focus
on extraction of an exudative from retinal fundus image using Image Processing Technique. They have used 25 retinal
fundus images. Some image are normal and some are abnormal with maculopathy. The author uses ANN(Artificial
Neural Network )for checking exudates presence or absence, they have also use fuzzy-c means clustering algorithm for
clustering and they successfully detect exudative maculopathy.
G.S. Annie Grace Vimala et al [2] proposed a Method for Detection Of Diabetic Maculopathy In Human Retinal
Images Using Morphological Operations. The author uses Morphological operation for detection maculopathy for
classification. They have used SVM (Support Vector Machine).They have used this method to detect the severity of the
disease. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy they have obtained as 70.42%, 98.43%, and 94.67%
respectively and support vector machine classifier gives the accuracy of 94.67%, they have detectedmaculopathy
successfully.

B.Ramasubramanian et al [3] present a paper An Efficient Integrated Approach for the Detection of Exudates and
Diabetic Maculopathy in Color Fundus Images. They have used K-means clustering algorithm, feature base and color
and texture are extracted and used SVM classifier for checking exudates present or not, an author uses clinical
reference standard data with exudates, then applied the morphological operation and they have achieved 96% result
successfully.

SarniSuhaila Rahim et al [4] Present Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy and Maculopathyin Eye Fundus Images Using
Fuzzy Image Processing, author has developed a system of Image acquisition, image preprocessing with the
combination of fuzzy technique, feature extraction and image classification by using several machine learning
technique and its result is good.
R.SUKANESH et al [5] have developed Detection of diabetic maculopathy Using KNN algorithm, author has focuses
on Diabetic maculopathy identification lesion by extracting features through GLCM (Gray level Co-occurrence) in
color fundus retinal images, they have not only confirm the disease severity of this disease whether the patient is
moderately affected, severity affected but they have also got sensitivity 99.6%, specificity of 98% and accuracy of
99.03%.
Shruti Bhude et al [6] have come up with Detection and Grading of Diabetic Maculopathy Automatically in Digital
Retinal Images; author has developed automatic fundus image processing and analytic system to facilitate diagnosis of
the ophthalmologist. They have developed algorithm and algorithm detects optic disc, blood vessel, and exudates , they
have also used GLCM for feature extraction, and SVM classifier for classification and they have successfully detected
87.33%accurate results when they have tested 100 such fundus image.

MahaboobShaik et al [7] have developed An Approach For Iris Segmentation And Maculopathy Detection And
Grading Of Diabetic Retinal Images. Author did segmentation and normalization, pattern recognition, image
processing technique and used ANN feed forward classifier and got the good result like 96% specificity,96%
classification, and 100% accuracy.

FerouiAmel et al [8] have Presented a paper Improvement of the Hard Exudates Detection Method Used For
Computer- Aided Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy. Author have developed a system to allow detection with high-
level sensitivity, they have combined the K-means clustering and mathematical morphology for detection of hard
exudates, theyhave used an ophthalmologic image with variable brightness. The author used a Messidor database and
got 95.92% sensitivity, 92.28% predictive value and 99.70 accuracies respectively.

Priyanka Maria Jyothi Vas et al [9] have presented a paper An Approach for the Detection of Diabetic Maculopathy.
Authorhave used method for detection and classification of diabetic maculopathy from the retinal fundus image
proposed and classified onto exudates and number of exudates using SVM classifier, they have also used a publically
available database for that and got a good result.

Jaykumar S. Lachure et al [10] have developed technique for Automatic Diabetic Retinopathy using Morphological
Operations. The author followed the old method which followed by an ophthalmologist which is based on the regular
super vision of the retina, they did the classification on the basis of a new feature for detection of exudates in color

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IPASJ International Journal of Computer Science (IIJCS)
Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJCS/IIJCS.htm
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Volume 5, Issue 10, October 2017 ISSN 2321-5992

fundus image ,they have also used thresholding technique and got the good result for removal of optic disc and region
of interest (ROI) using morphological operation.

Maryam Mubbasharet al [11] have Proposed Automated System for Macula Detection in Digital Retinal Images. The
author have developed an automated system for localization and detection of macula, they have used STARE and
DRIVE databases for their research, they have also used edge detection and region and growing technique to detect
maculopathy successfully.
SarniSuhaila Rahim et al [12] have proposed Automatic screening and classification of diabetic retinopathy and
maculopathy using fuzzy image processing. They have developed a novel technique for detection or DR and DM using
a fuzzy image processing, author uses hospital Melaka Malaysia two different fundus image right and left eye database
and they got 90% result respectively.
Praveen.S et al [13] published a paper in a Journal entitled Retinal Image Analysis for Detection of Exudates, they
have recognized retina to normal or abnormal. The author used a mask and scale computation technique for a
segmentation of the exudates in the retinal fundus images.
B. Ramasubramanian et al [14] have come up with An Early Screening System for the Detection of Diabetic
Retinopathy using Image Processing. The author developed an automatic system to detect and localize the presence of
exudates from a color fundus image with non dialatedpupils . STARE, DRIVE database they have used and for image
segmentation they have used L*a*b color space and convert the image from RGB color space to L*a*b color space, it
helps to classify the color difference, K-nearest classifier is also used for a classification of exudates and they got
97%success rate.
Thangalapally Soujanya et al[15] have Developed Automated Exudates Detection and Grading of Diabetic
Maculopathy in Digital Retinal Images. They have presented automated computer detection technique based on
mathematical Morphology for detection of exudates in color eye fundus image and identification of clinically
significant and non-clinically significantfeatures sets using morphological technique, author have extracted feature and
one more techniques is Hough Transformation for feature extraction which finds imperfect instance of object within a
certain class of shape by a voting procedure. Feed forward neural network is used for classification; they have achieved
95% accuracy, 100% specificity, and sensitivity more than 95%.

Sanjeevani Choudhary et al [16] have developed Automated Image Processing technique to Diagnose Exudates from
Images of Retina. They have identified the existence of a diabetic retinopathy generally in patients, they have also
usedimage processing technique, and fuzzy C-means and SVM classifier. Author has proposed frame work to shows a
classification of specificity of 100% and affectability of 99.45%, they tried to demonstrate that support vector machine
can be successfully utilized for Image Classification.

Hussain F. Jaafar et al [17] have done Automated Detection of Exudates in Retinal Images Using a Split and Merge
Algorithm. The fine segmentation is based on an adaptive thresholding technique and new SPLIT-MERGE technique.
They have used 89 images from DIRETD1 database of resolution 1500 x 1152 and got sensitivity 89.7% specificity
99.31 and accuracy 99.4% respectively.
Hussain F. Jaafar et al[18] have Presented a paper on Automated Detection And Grading Of Hard Exudates From
Retinal Fundus Images. The author uses Top down image segmentation technical and thresholding by a combination of
edge detection and region growing. They have used 130 DIARETDB0 images, 17 Messidar image, 89 DIARETB1,
means total 236 images they have used for this system and they got a good result sensitivity of 93.2%, Specificity
99.2% and accuracy of 99.4% respectively.
M. A. Jayaram et al [19] have come up with an novel idea based on Damage Assessment of Diabetic Maculopathy
using Retinal Images. Author has used DRIVE, STARE, DIRETB0, DIRETB open standard database and many
techniques uses to detect damage assessment, and they have also used five methods based on automatic constraints
technique and achieved 87% good result
AlirezaOsareh et al [20] have Developed Automatic Recognition of Exudative Maculopathy using Fuzzy C-Means
Clustering and Neural Networks. Author have come up with an automatic method for the detection of exudative region
introduced comprising image color normalization, enhancing the contrast between the object and background
segmentation of the color retinal image into homogeneous region using Fuzzy C-means clustering and classifying the
region into exudates and non-exudates patches using neural network, experimental result indicates that they are able to
achieve 92% sensitivity and 82% specificity.

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Priyanka Jaware et al [21] have design Detection of Haemorrhage from Retinal Fundus Image using A Mathematical
Morphological Approach. Author paper have followed an novel approach for lesion detection. They have proposed
early Microaneurysms detection method using processing filtering thresholding and FP reduction. This system
achieves 83% sensitivity, 89% specificity, and accuracy 86%, they use DIARETDB1 database for that.

3. Comparative Analysis of Review


Sr. No AUTHORS Technique / Algorithm Result

1. Sreedevi KS et al. Image Processing Technique, Successfully detect exudative


fuzzy-c means clustering algorithm, maculopathy.[1]
Artificial Neural Network.

2. G.S. Annie Grace Vimala et al. Morphological operation ,Support Sensitivity 70.42%,
Vector Machine specificity98.43, and accuracy
94.67%[2]

3. B.Ramasubramanian et al. K-means clustering algorithm, 96% result successfully [3]


SVM classifier, morphological
operation

4. Sarni Suhaila Rahim et al. Fuzzy Image Processing Good[4]

5. R.Sukanesh et al. KNN algorithm, Gray level Co- sensitivity 99.6%, specificity of
occurrence 98% and accuracy of 99.03%.[5]

6. Shruti Bhude et al. GLCM for feature extraction, and 87.33%accurate results. [6]
SVM classifier for classification

7. MahaboobShaik et al. pattern recognition, image Specificity 96% classification


processing technique and used 96%, and 100% accuracy.[7]
ANN feed forward classifier.

8. Feroui Amel et al. combined the K-means clustering sensitivity95.92%, predictive


and mathematical morphology 92.28%value and 99.70
accuracies respectively[8]

9. Priyanka Maria Jyothi Vas et SVM classifier Good[9]


al.

10. Jaykumar S. Lachure et al. Morphological Operations, ---------------------------[10]


Thresholding technique and Region
of Interest (ROI)

11. Maryam Mubbasharet al. Edge detection and Region and ----------------------[11]
Growing Technique.

12. SarniSuhaila Rahim et al Fuzzy Image Processing. 90%[12]

13. Praveen.S et al Mask and Scale Computation --------------- [13]


Technique

14. B. Ramasubramanian et al. K-nearest classifier, image 97%[14]


segmentation

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IPASJ International Journal of Computer Science (IIJCS)
Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJCS/IIJCS.htm
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15. Thangalapally Soujanya et al. Automated computer detection Accuracy 95%, Specificity 100%,
technique, morphological and Sensitivity more than
technique, Hough Transformation, 95%.[15]
Feed forward neural network is
used for classification.

16. SanjeevaniChoudhary et al. Image Processing technique, Fuzzy Classification of specificity of


C-means and SVM classifier 100%, Affectability of
99.45%[16]

17. Hussain F. Jaafar et al. Adaptive Thresholding Technique, Sensitivity 89.7% specificity
SPLIT-MERGE technique. 99.31 and accuracy 99.4%
respectively.[17]

18 Hussain F. Jaafar et al. Combination of Edge Detection and Sensitivity of 93.2%, Specificity
Region Growing. 99.2% and accuracy of 99.4%
respectively.[18]

Automatic constraints technique. 87% good result[19]


19. M. A. Jayaram et al.

20. Alireza Osareh et al. Fuzzy C-Means Clustering and 92% sensitivity and 82%
Neural Networks, specificity

Microaneurysms detection method 83% sensitivity, 89% specificity,


using processing filtering and accuracy 86%
21. PriyankaJaware et al. thresholdingand FP reduction

4. Conclusion:
Maculopathy is one of the most important eye disease. Which can also cause the loss of eye site for the diabetic patient.
In this paper we have tried to do the critical review of the work carried out by researcher in different part of the world.
We have learn about their databases used for the experiments, use of various techniques for prominent features
extraction, the well-known and worldwide popular classification techniques to group and grading of the maculopathy
patient.
References
[1] Sreedevi K S And Hema P Menon, Detection Of Exudative Maculopathy From Retinal Fundus Images,
International Journal Of Computer Applications (0975 8887) Volume 97 No.18, July 2014.
[2] G.S. Annie Grace Vimalaand S. Kajamohideen, Detection Of Diabetic Maculopathy In Human Retinal Images
Using Morphological Operations, Online Journal Of Biological Sciences 14 (3): 175-180, 2014 Issn: 1608-4217
2014.
[3] B.Ramasubramanian And G.Mahendran, An Efficient Integrated Approach For The Detection Of Exudates
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[4] Sarnisuhaila Rahim, Vasile Palade, Chrisina Jayne, Andreas Holzinger, And James Shuttleworth, Detection Of
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[5] R.Sukanesh,S.Murugeswari, Detection Of Diabetic Maculopathy Using Knn Algorithm, Applied Mechanics
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/Amm.573.791 2014 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland
[6] Shrutibhude, Komalgade, Pragatikamthe, , Prof. Dr.S.R.Patil, Detection And Grading Of Diabetic Maculopathy
Automatically In Digital Retinal Images, International Journal Of Recent Research In Electrical And

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Volume 5, Issue 10, October 2017 ISSN 2321-5992

Electronics Engineering (Ijrreee) Vol. 2, Issue 2, Pp: (68-71), Month: April 2015 - June 2015, Available At:
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[7] Mahaboobshaik, An Approach For Iris Segmentation And Maculopathy Detection And Grading Of Diabetic
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[15] Thangalapallysoujanya, K.Gopal, M.E(Dse), Automated Exudates Detection And Grading Of
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[19] M. A. Jayaram1, H. S. Vijaya Kumar And D. P. Chaithanya, Damage Assessment Of Diabetic Maculopathy
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[23] Http://Www.Who.Int/Mediacentre/Factsheets/Fs312/En/
[24] Http://Www.Diabetes.Co.Uk/Diabetes-Complications/Diabetic-Maculopathy.Html

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IPASJ International Journal of Computer Science (IIJCS)
Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJCS/IIJCS.htm
A Publisher for Research Motivation ........ Email:editoriijcs@ipasj.org
Volume 5, Issue 10, October 2017 ISSN 2321-5992

AUTHOR

Chetan P. Pattebahadur is Graduate from Milind College of science Aurangabad. Post Graduate
from Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University Aurangabad. And presently working as
Research Scholar in Dept of CS & IT, Dr. BAM University , Aurangabad Maharashtra India .

Dr. Ramesh R. Manza M.Sc., Ph.D., SET, NET, FIETE, IAEng, CSTA, IACSIT, ISSS, Senior
Member IEEE, ISCA, IUPRAI .Associate Professor, Bio-Medical Image Processing Laboratory
Department of Computer Science and Information Technology, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar
Marathwada University, Aurangabad Maharashtra India.

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