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B.V.C.

ENGINEERIN G COLLEGE

ADVANCEMENTS IN AUTOMOBILE
TECHNOLOGY

HYBRI D VEHICLES

AUTHORS:
V.RAVINDRA,
07221A0359,
EMAIL: ravindravundavilli@gmail.com
ABSTRACT :

Fr om l ong ba ck c o ns ume r s & car makers are faci ng

troubles f r om two reason s viz., hike in oil pric es and increased tail

pipe em issions (pollution) .


To mi n i mi ze t he s e tr oubles and to give bet ter
economi c
ga in s to Auto u se r s a s p e c i al, in nov ativ e idea is evo l v e d
i. e. ,
Hybridizatio n T e chnology . In th is hybrid m e thod two kinds of

energ y sources are needed to power a car. H e re som e part of th e


wast e ener gy i s ut ili ze d to powe r the ve hi cle . The s e ve hic l e s
have
som e ad d i tion al features lik e Re generativ e brakin g,
Continuou s
Variabl e Transm ission (CVT) co mpar ed t o conventi onal car s
Hybrid vehicle s can reduce the dependenc y on gasoline.
This is a healthy sign to pr ot ect the mot h er Earth and to give
a
clean environm ent to our fut u r e ge ner a ti ons . So the hybrid
vehicle s
in sp ite of few drawb ack s can caus e a m a jo r revo lu tion in the f u
tu r e
ve hic le dei g ns .

Ultimately present pa per is r e ga rding:

Need for hybrid age


Wha t is hybrid ve hic le?
W o rking of hybrid structure.
Types of hybridization .
About hybri d per forma nc e .
Advantage s of hybrid cars.
Introduction :

Have you ever th ought of traveling in your car


which can give better m ileage and gi ve l e s s c o ntri buti ng t o the
greenho us e eff e ct? It is the hybrid car w h ic h has both of them .
An y veh i cle th at co m b ines tw o or m o re sources of
power t h at can directl y or indirectl y provid e propulsion power is a
hybrid.
Som e are nucl ear -electr i c and some are di esel-
electric. T h e g a so lin e -electric hyb rid c a r is ju st wh at it sounds like-
-a cross betw een a Gasoline powered car and an Electr ic car. Hybr id
ca r a t tem p ts s i gn if ican tly to in creas e the m i leag e an d red u ce th e
em issions of a gas-powered car wh ile overcom i ng th e shortcom ings
of an electri c car and increa sed em issions of gasoline car.

A GASOLINE-PO W E R D C AR :

A gasoline powered car has a


fuel tank, which supplies gasoline to
the engine. When the IC engine runs
it turns the wheels and the
transmission is done.
A N ELE C TRI C -P O W ER D C AR :

An electric car on the


other has a set of batterie s
t h at pr ovides el ectr i cit y to an
electric m o tor. W h en th e
m o tor ru ns it tu rn s the
wheels and the
transmissio n
is done. P O W E R TRAIN IN E LECTRIC CARS

Any car said to be has good util ity i f i t ha s ce rta i n mi ni mum


requ irem ents. T h e car sh ou ld be ab le to :
Drive at least 30 0 m iles (482.8km ph) betw een re-fueling
Be r e fuel ed quic kl y a n d ea sil y
Keep up w i th th e oth e r traffic on th e ro ad

A gaso lin e car m e ets thes e requ irem ents but produces a r e la tive ly
larg e am ount of pollut ion and generally gets a poor m i leage. An
electric car how ev er, pr oduces alm o st no pollut io n, bu t th e elec tr ic
car is very slow, in convenien t to rechar ge and also anem ic.

COMPLE X HYBRID-PO W E R D CAR S :

A gasoline-electri c car (Hyb rid car) co m b ines th es e tw o


setups into one system that leve rages both gas power and electric
power.
Hybri d St ru c tu re :

A gasoli ne-el ect ric hybri d car co ntains the follow ing parts:

Gasolin e engin e : The hybrid car has a gaso line much like the one

you w ill f i nd on m o st cars. H o wever, the IC engine in a hybrid is

relatively smaller and us es adv a n ced tech nologies to reduce


em iss i o n s and in crease efficie n cy wh en com p ared with conv en
tion al
cars .

Fue l tan k : The fuel tank in a hybrid is the en ergy storag e device

for t h e gas o l i ne engi ne .

Electri c m o t o r : The el ect ric mot o r on a hybrid car is very

sophisticated . Advanced electron ics allow it to act as a m o tor as

well as a generator . Fo r exam ple, wh en it need s to give pow er to


the
car it can dr aw energ y fr om t h e batteri es t o accel erat e the
car.
W h ile a c ting as a gen e ra to r, it c a n slow the car down and
return
ene r gy to th e b a tte r ies.
Generato r: Th e ge n e r a to r is s i m i lar to an e l e c t r i c m o to r, but it
ac ts on ly to p r o d u c e e l e c t r i c a l pow er . I t is used m o stly on
series
hybrids.

Batterie s: The batteries in a hybri d car are th e energ y s t o r age


device for the el ectri c mot o r . Unli ke th e g a s o line in th e f u el tan k ,
which can only pow er th e ga soli ne e n gine , the electri c motor on a
hybrid car can put energ y in to th e ba tte r ie s a s we ll a s d r aw ene r gy
from them.

T ransm iss io n: The tra n sm is sionin a hybrid car perform s a


cor r el ati o n bet w een ga soline pow er system
and electric pow er
system .

TYPE S O F HYBRI D CONFIGUARATIO N :

W e com b ine the two pow er sources found in a hybrid car in


differen t ways. One way known as paralle l hybrid & other as series
hybrid.

Paralle l H ybrid s :

I n a Par a lle l Hybri d ve hic l e , bohe


th et l e c tr ic m o to r and the
e n gi ne( c ombi ne d) or a n y one(a )l can power the vehicle .
one Batteries can ric
b moto r tha t ac ts a s g e ne ra to r
e recharg e d by elect
while decelerating .
Wo rk in g:

There ar e currentl y t w o mai n hybri d cars on the m a rket in the USA,


one produced by Honda; th e "I ns ight ", and the ot he r by Toyota ; t h e
"P rius ". Both v e h i c l es have a paralle l type conf iguration .
I n parall el hybri d conf iguratio n at low sp eed s the IC eng i ne w i ll
be turned off, and th e car w ill b e pow ered by the el ect ric mot o r .
Once a speed of abou t 15m ph is reached the I C e n gi ne will be
t u r n e d on. Now I C e n gi ne a l one i s s u ppl yi ng powe r t o the ve hic l e
.
After th e veh i cle cross e s a sp eed of 60 m ph the electric m o tor tu rns
on and now both the IC eng i n e an d electri c m o to r are su pp lyin g the
power. T h e engine speed will not change m o re so m o stly it i s
runni ng in i t s most effi cient rang e, pow erin g th e car an d tu rn in g a
generator , which prov ided the electric mo tor with the power it
r e qui r es. The overall out p ut speed is then cont r o ll ed by t h e constant

speed of the engine (pro viding it on) plus th e varying speed of the
electric moto r.

Gi vi ng t h e ove r al l vie w of paralle l hybrid car:

0-25m p h The car runs on El ect ric mot o r .

25-60m ph Th e car ru ns on IC engine.

>60m ph The car runs on both E l ectric m o tor and IC engine.

Serie s Hybrid s :

In a S e ries H y b r id veh i cle th e eng i n e


i n the vehi cle ne ver a c t u al ly dir ect ly
power s the ve hi cle . Instead it will run
at its m o st effic i ent l o ad and speed
with the lowest em
issions, turning a
gener a t o r , which then eit h er char ges the batterie s or pow ers th e electri c
mo t o r .

W or k i n g :

W h en th e pow er o u tp u t of the ca r is equ a l to the av erag e p o we


r
requ irem ent that th e eng i n e s i ze w a s s e le c t e d to m a tch, the en
gine
will be turning the ge nerator producing this am ount of electrical
power, w h ich w i ll then power the electri c m o to r. If the requ ired
power output of th e car is less th an th e average, th e en g i ne will stil l
be running at th e same power, still turning the generator , which will
th en bo th pow er th e m o to r, and wi th th e ex cess pow er ch arge the
battery. O n the other hand w h en the vehi cle i s acceler a ti ng har d t h e
power output is required to b e a m a xim u m . For th is bo th elec tr ic
power f r om the genera tor and the battery is used to supply the
electric m o to r, to p r odu ce p e ak pow er out put . Such vehicle s m a y be

fitte d w i th a con t ro l s y s t em , so wh en the requ ired ou tpu t p o wer is

l o w (s uc h as i n slow movi ng t r affic) an d th e ba tte r y is f u lly


charged , the engine would turn o ff as it would not be required, and
would turn on when the battery le ve l rea c h e s a po in t whe r e it
requires charging.

H y bri d technolog y :
In hybri d c a r w e use
m u sh sm aller

InternalCo m bustion
(IC)engineTha n

c o nve n ti onal I C engi ne .


The e n gine effi ci e n c y
c a n be i m pr oved by usi n g Sm a ller IC
smaller, lighte r parts, engine

by reducing the num b er of


cylinder s and by
opera ti ng t h e e n gi ne Cl os er
to it s ma xi muml oa d
Ther e are sever a l reasons why small e r engines are m o re efficien t th an
bigger ones:

The big engine is heav ie r th an th e sm all eng i ne, so the car uses
ex tra en ergy every tim e it acce lerates or drives up a hill.
The pis t ons and other int e r n a l c o mponents ar e heavi e r , r e
qui ring
m o re energ y each tim e they g o up and down in t h e cyli nder .
The d i s placem en t of the cylin ders is larger so more fuel i s requi r
ed
by each cylinder .
An electri c m otor can wo rk as g e n e rator as there are s i m i lar
in
construction . T hus elec tric m o tor draws elect rical energ y from

ba tte r ie s to p r op e l th e cart & generator produ ces electrical en


ergy
to r ec h a r g e th e b a tte r ie s.
A hybr id c a r r uns on s t raight el ect ri c motor up to
0-
15m ph (25-kph) thus free f r om pollu ti on. Be yond t h a t tr ansmi s s
ion
shu t s of f the m o to r & tu rn s o n the m o tor. So 15-60 m ph car
runs on
straight gasoline power .If you go sti l l hei g hts &deep accelera t ions

transm ission shuts on m otor too. Th us in higher ac celeration both

power drives are needed .In id le s t ate i.e. s t op &g o traffi c


transm ission autom a ticall y shuts off the engine saving fuel
burning.

Advance d feature s :
1) Regenerativ e br a k i n g :

Here com e s th e q ues tion :


How th e ba tte r ie s a r e ge tti ng r ec h ar ged?
T h e answer is in conv entional cars its ki neticenerg y will be

con v e r te d to h ea t whil e b r a k in g. Bu t in hy br id s som e of th e


ca r s
kineti c energ y w ill be reca ptured while deceleratin g

P r inciple :

W h ile decele rating shaf t of m o tor rota tes in opposite that


of
accelerating , thus working as generator . Gene rator captures
breaking energ y turns it to electric energ y and stores it into
ba tte r ie s.
2) C o ntinuou s v a riabl e t ra n sm iss io n :( CVT)
I n t h is c o nti n uousl y va ria b l e tr a n s m i s si on CONES
re pl ac e
GEARS. The eng i n e sh aft tu rn s a st rive pulley that pushes a
belt.
The belt turns a driven pu lle y th a t s p ins th e sh af t to an ax le. In
e ac h
pulley, a hydraulic actu at or us er c o mput er c o ntrol m oves the f r
ee
c o ne cl ose r or fart he r fr om t h e fi xed c o ne . For hi gh t o r q ue

e q ui val ent t o low ge ar t h e dri v e con e s wid e n an d the belt


slide s
down, while the driven
Cones t ighte n a n d be lt sl ides up; for low t o rq ue and high speed,
the
opposite m ovem e nts occu r. In between a cont inuous, or
infinite ,
num ber of gears ar e possi b le.

3) Sometime s sh ut of f th e engin e :

A hybrid car does not need to rely on the g a s olin e eng i ne all of

t h e ti me because it has an alt e r n ate p ower sou r ce -- th e


electric
motor and batteries . So th e h ybrid car can s om e tim e s tu rn off
the
gasoline engine, for ex am ple when the veh i cle is stopped at a red

light
4) A d vance d aerodyna mi c s t o
r ed uc e d ra g:

U s ing better aerial f r ont view


can red u ce air drag force.
Reducing distur bances ar ound
objects that stic k out from t h e car
or e lim in a t ing th em alto g e the r c a n
also help to im prov e the aerodynam i cs.

5) U s e low-rollin g r e s is tanc e tire s:

The tires on m o st cars are optim ized to give a sm ooth ride,


m i nim i ze noise, and prov ide good tractio n in a variety of weather
c o nditi ons

6) U s e lightweigh t m at e ria ls :

Re duci ng t h e ove r all weight of a car is one easy wa y to in cr e a s e


th e m i leag e .

Hybri d pe r f o r m a n c e :
Hybr ids ha ve bett er fue l ec onom y i.e.upto 25kph ru ns on fr ee of
cos t & th a t to f r e e o f pollu tio n. In congested city traffi c or stop-go
traffi c it gains more be n e fits to users. Here are s o m e analys es abou t
fue l ec onomy.

MPG figu res are th e averag e o f reported city and highway


num bers. Fuel cost com p arison is based on th e av erag ed M P G an d
assum e d norm s of 12,000
C o nclusion :
F i nally, hybrid run s ap pro x i m a te ly up to
25kph on free of em issions and fre e of cost, thus announced as
Eco- f ri endl y car .Thus leads to bet t er mi leage an d we can save
our m o the r e a r th f r o m pollu tio n up to som e extent .Com ing to price
of hybrids nearly equal to co s t of con v entio n al cars . M a in tenan c es
& warranties on hybrid com ponent s of Honda & T oyota are up to
eigh ty -y ear/ 100,000 m iles

B ibl io gr ap hy :
1 ) www.hows t u ffwor ks .com
2) www.hybridcarguide.com
3 ) a u t o m o bile engg- by kirpal singh
4 ) M e c h a n i c a l E ngg.Jornal