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S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.

,Bhusawal

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

EXPT. NO. :- 1 DATE:- / /


TITLE: - Direct & quadrature axis sub-transient reactance.
AIM :- To determine direct axis sub-transient reactance (Xd) & quadrature axis sub-
transient reactance (Xq) by static impedance test & Daton & Comoron test.
APPARATUS:-

Sr. No. Equipment Range Type Quantity


1 3 synchronous generator
2 Wattmeter
3 Voltmeter
4 Ammeter
5 Ammeter
THEORY:-
The synchronous machine reactance can be classified into three types
namely positive sequence reactance, negative sequence reactance & zero sequence
reactance. A synchronous machine has only negative sequence reactance Xq &
only zero sequence reactance Xo. However, it has several positive sequence
reactance & these are Xd, Xq, Xd, Xq, Xd & Xq. The magnitude of different
positive sequence reactance depends upon;
i) The angular position of field structure with respect to the armature
m.m.f. wave.
ii) Whether the armature current are steady or varying.
The armature m.m.f. wave actually consists of space harmonic
components. But only the space fundamental component of armature m.m.f. wave
traveling at synchronous speed w.r.t. armature is considered.
When both the field & armature m.m.f. waves are almost stationary w.r.t.
each other then the reactance associated with armature is positive sequence
reactance.

Direct axis sub-transient reactance (Xd):-


For defining Xd, field structure is assumed to have field winding alone &
no other circuit & salient poles fitted with damper winding. The field winding is
initially unexcited & closed on itself so that field flux linkage is zero. Now
armature current is suddenly applied in such time phase that the peak of varying
armature m.m.f. wave stays in line with direct axis. Since the flux linkage with the
rotor circuit is zero, these must be remain zero just after the sudden appearance of
armature m.m.f. this is accordance with constant flux linkage theorem in order to
maintain the flux linkage, zero currents are induced in damper bars, additional
rotor circuit formed by pole bolts & the field winding.
Since, the damper bars are near the air gap, the flux lines due to varying
armature m.m.f. are forced to follow the leakage flux path mainly as shown in fig.
Only two phases of a three phase machine are connected in series & single
phase voltage is applied across them. The rotor is at standstill, the applied voltage
is adjusted to pass sufficient current into the two series connected armature
winding. Now the rotor position is adjusted by hand to get maximum deflection of
the ammeter placed in the field winding circuit.
Under this conditions d axis sub transient impedance Zd is given by,

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

V
Zd " =
2 Imax
If wattmeter records P watts;
P
cos q =
V Imax

P
sin q = 1-
V Imax

D axis sub transient reactance is given by,

Xd " = Zd " sin q


Note that the induced current in the short circuited field winding is
maximum only when field axis (i.e. polar direct axis) is along with the direction of
resultant armature m.m.f.

Quadrature axis sub-transient reactance (Xq):-


This is defined in the similar manner to Xd but here the armature current is
applied in such time that peak of the varying armature m.m.f. stays in line with the q
axis, hence the flux lines of varying armature m.m.f. stays in line with q axis,
hence the flux lines of the varying armature m.m.f. follows the leakage path as
shown in figure.
As above flux linkage with damper bars must remain zero before & after
sudden appearance of armature m.m.f. under these conditions armature flux linkage
per ampere is called q axis sub transient inductance Lq & Xq = Lq.
For measurement of Xq, the rotor shaft is rotated by hand through half
pole pitch (or 900 Elect.) then peak of resultant armature m.m.f. coincides with the q
axis. This condition is the one for which Xq has been different. Since the field
winding axis is 900 away from the resultant armature m.m.f. should record minimum
(sometimes zero) reading. In this way for measuring Xq the rotor position is
adjusted so as to get the minimum value of induced field current under these
conditions;
Xq " = Zq "
Since,
P
cos q =
V Imax
V P2
Xq " = 1- 2
Z Imin (V Imin )

In case resistances are neglected then

V V
Xd " = & Xq " =
2 Imax 2 Imin
Note:-

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

Xq is slightly higher than Xd where Imax & Imin are the armature
current corresponding to maximum & minimum induced field currents respectively.

PROCEDURE :-
Method I
1) Apply 1 supply voltage to two series connected armature winding.
2) Short circuit the field winding through 0 500 mA a.c. ammeter.
3) Connect A. C. ammeter of 0 10 A range in series with stator winding.
4) Connect a.c. voltmeter of 0 150 V across stator terminals.
5) Rotate the rotor by hand & note down the current flowing through the field
winding.
6) Take down the readings of wattmeter, voltmeter & ammeter of stator
winding circuit for,
i) The current through field winding is maximum,
ii) The current through field winding is minimum.

Method II
This method is called as 3 reading method or Daton Cameron method.
1) At any rotor position apply 1 voltage across two windings connected in
series (Say R & Y) & obtain the reactance X1 = V/2I
2) For the same rotor position repeat the test for Y B, B R. X 2, X3
reactance are obtained
Then
Xd = k m;
&
Xq = k + m.
Where,
K = Displacement factor,
X + X 2 + X3
= 1
3
m = connection factor
2

= ( X1 - k ) ( )
2
+ X 2 - X3
3

OBSERVATION TABLE:-
1) For If is maximum, Imax =
Sr. No. Connection V (Volts) P (Watts) I (Amp) Xd Avg Xd
1. RY
2. YB
3. B-R

2) For If is maximum, Imin =

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

Sr. No. Connection V (Volts) P (Watts) I (Amp) Xq Avg Xq


1. RY
2. YB
3. B-R

CALCULATIONS:-
i) R Y connection:-
For Imax =
V
Zd " = =
2 Imax

P
cos q = =
V Imax

2
sin q = ( 1 - cos q ) =

Xd " = Zd " sin q =

Xd " =

For Imin =

V
Zq " = =
2 Imax

P
cos q = =
V Imax

2
sin q = ( 1 - cos q ) =

Xq " = Zd " sin q =

Xq " =

RESULT :-
By method I :-

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

Direct axis sub-transient reactance, Xd =


Quadrature axis sub-transient reactance, Xq =

By method II :-
Direct axis sub-transient reactance, Xd =
Quadrature axis sub-transient reactance, Xq =

CONCLUSION:-
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DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:-
Q 1) How the reactance of synchronous machine classified?
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Q 2) What do you mean by direct axis sub-transient reactance?
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Q 3) Give the formulae to find the Xd & Xq by Daton Cameron method?


Ans.__________________________________________________________________
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Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

______________________________________________________________________
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______________________________________________________________________

Singnature of subject Incharge Grade

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

EXPT. NO. 2 DATE:- / /

AIM :- To study synchronisation of synchronous machine of infinite bus.

APPARATUS:-
1) Lamp
2) Alternator
3) Synchronising switch
4) Synchroscope

THEORY:-
A busbar which maintains constant voltage & constant frequency
irrespective of load variation on it, it is called an infinite bus.
A large no. of alternators interconnected to form a supply system may be
regarded as infinite bus.In effect or infinite bus behaves like a voltage source
having zero internal impedance infinite inertia.
The behaviour of syschronous machine connected to as infinite bus is quite
different from that when it is connected to another bus.
The object of this article is to investigate the effect of varying the field
excitation & the driving torque of alternator.
Before ON incoming alternator can be connected in parallel with
busbar.The
condition for satisfactory parallel operation of alternator:-
1) The terminal voltage of the incoming alternator must be same as the
busbar
Voltage.
2) The frequency of the incoming alternator must be same as the busbar
frequency.
2) The phase sequence of the incoming alternator must be same as the
phase
sequence of busbar.
3) The polarity of the incoming alternator terminals must be same as the
busbar terminals.

TYPES OF SYNCHRONISATION:-
1) By dark lamp method:-
This is simplest method of synchronising machine with another
alternator or busbar fig.1 illustrate the connector scheme when the lamps are
connected across the synchronising switch s.
The incoming m/c is brought upto its synchronos speed by the prime
mover & then its field circuit is energized.Now the field current is adjusted till
terminal voltage of the incoming m/c becomes equal to that of already running
alternator or busbar.In this way, first condition of equal voltages is satisfied &
switch S1 is closed.The other two conditions of synchronisation requires special
considerations.
Suppose the frequencies of the busbar & incoming m/c are F & F1
respectively. Then for equal the voltages,the voltage across the synchronising
switch S2 is,
VL = Vm cos wt Vm cos w1t
With the help of trigonometric relation,

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

x- y x+ y
cos y - cos x = 2sin sin
2 2
The above equation can be written as,
f 1- f f 1+ f
VL = 2Vm[sin{ (2Pt )}sin{ (2Pt )}]
2 2
Fig.2 oscillogram at head carrier frequency at voltage across synchroscope
f -f
switch S2 The low frequency 1 is known as the beat frequency & the high
2
f +f
frequency 1 the carrier frequency. An oscillogram, showing the beat &
2
carrier frequency of the voltage across the synchronising switch S 2 is illustrate in
fig. It is seen from this fig that voltage impressed on the lamp has a frequency
f +f
equal to the carrier frequency 1 . The equation for envelope is
2
f -f
2Vm sin 1 (2Pt )
2
Since the lamps are bright once in each half of the voltage wave shown in fig of
oscillogram, the lamps flicker ( f1 - f ) times in one second.
In fig.(a) 3-phase busbar voltage is represented by phasors OA,OB,OC
rotating at angular speed of rad/sec.The incoming machine voltage phasors are
OA1,OB1,OC1 & these are shown rotating at speed 1.The phasor VAA1,joining the
tips A & A1,gives the voltage across lamp1.Similarly VBB1 & VCC1 are the voltages
across lamps 2 & 3 respectively.When rotating tips A & A1 coincide,fig
(b)voltages VAA1,VBB1 & VCC1 are all equal to zero as indicated by the dark lamps
& this is the correct instant for closing the synchronising switch S2.however,if the
first condition of equal voltages is not fulfilled,even though phasors OA & OA1
overlap VAA1,VBB1,VCC1 would not be equal to zero.These small voltages across the
lamps 1,2,3 cannot be seen by the eye.Under these conditions,if the synchronizing
switch S2 is closed ,small voltages VAA1,VBB1,VCC1 may cause the flow of large
current & power surges.In view of this,before synchronizing switch S2 is
closed,the equality of the two source voltages should again be checked.
The frequency of the incoming machine is controlled by varying the speed
of its prime mover.Each time A1,B1,C1 coincide A,B,C; the three lamps are
dark.When A1,B1,C1 are opposite to A,B,C; the three lamps are the brightest & the
VL
voltage across each lamp is 2 , i.e. twice the phase voltage as shown in
3
fig(c).This is the reason why the lamp voltage should be suitably chosen.For
example,if the line voltage of the incoming machine or the busbar is 230V,then the
230
maximum voltage across each lamp can be 2 = 265.6V;consequently two
3
230V lamps may be connected in series. If the three lamps do not fluicker in
unison,the phase sequence will be improper.This can be rectified by interchanging
any two leads either of the incoming machine or of the busbars.Actually,the
frequyency f1 is made to differ very slightly from f, sothat the beat frequency is
considerably low & the flickering subsides,now the sychroning switch S2 is closed
when the three lamps are in the middle of their dark period.
The main advantages of the dark lamp method is
1) The equipment is quite inexpensive.
2) No phase sequence indicator is required.

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

The disadvantages of the dark lamp method:-


1) The lamps become dark at about one third of their rated voltage.There is
possibility of closing the synchronizing switch even when there is a
considerable phase difference between the two source voltages.This
voltage across the synchronising switch will give rise to the flow of
large
synchronizing current & power accompanied by undersirable rotor
oscillations.
2) This method does not indicate whether the incoming machine is too fast
or
too slow.
2) By synchroscope:-
A synchroscope is an instrument fitted with a rotating pointer to indicate
the correct instant of closing the synchronising switch.If the pointer rotate
anticlockwise the incoming machine is running slow which is not
desirable.Clockwise rotation of pointer indicates that the incoming machine is
running faster which is desirable.The pointer rotates at a speed proportional to the
difference in the two frequencies.For favourable synchronisation the pointer
should rotate at a very low speed in the direction of arrow marked fast shown in
fig 4a.
When the rotating pointer reaches the verticle position at a slow speed,
the synchronising switch must at once be closed.If the difference in frequencies of
the two voltage sources is large,the pointer does not rotate but merely oscillates
about some mean position.This state of affairs can be rectified by adjusting the
speed of the incoming machine.
An elementary connection scheme of synchronising by means of a
synchroscope is as shown in fig (b).Synchroscope terminals B 1,B2 (B for
busbars)should be connected to any two busbar lines & its other terminals
M1,M2(M for machine) are connected to the correspondingly marked lines of the
incoming machine.Phase sequence of the voltages,coming from busbars & that
coming from the incoming machine,must be the same & this can be ascertained
only with the help of a phase sequence indicator,because sychroscope is a single
phase instrument.Busbar & incominf machine voltages should be equal with the
same voltmeter.
The best synchronisation is carried out if both the lamps &
synchroscope are used together.Automatic synchronising devices are also
available which perform the entire process of automatically without the help of
any shift engineer.However, the automatic synchronisation scemes are more
complicated & the time of synchronisation process may sometimes be much more
than that requires by a shift engineer.

CONCLUSION:-
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Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:-
Q 1) What are the types of synchronisation?Which method is more
adavantageous?
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Q.2) What do you mean by synchronisation?


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Q.3 What are the advantages & disadvantages of the dark lamp method?
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Q.4) Which conditions are fulfilled before synchronisation?


Ans.__________________________________________________________________
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Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

______________________________________________________________________
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______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

Singnature of subject Incharge Grade

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

EXPT.NO.:-3 DATE:- / /

AIM:- To study the effect of saturation & to determination equivalent reactance of


synchronous machine.

APPARATUS:-

Sr.No. Equipment Range Type Quantity


1 Ammeter A.C.
2 Ammeter A.C.
3 Ammeter D.C.
4 Voltmeter A.C.
5 Rheostat
6 Tachometer

THEORY:-
An unsaturated nonsalient-pole synchronous machine is represented in the
steady state by its unsaturated synchronous reactance x s,which is constant &
its excitation voltage Eq,which is constant if the field current is constant.A
saturated synchronous machine can be represented similarly by a reactance
& an e.m.f.,but these are not constant.However,if properly chosen,they may
be assumed constant during small changes in load such as are assumed to
occur in the test for steady state stability.The reactance of a saturated
machine has been variously called adjusted,equivalent, or saturated,
synchronous reactance.
The saturated & equivalent synchronous reactances are smaller than
the unsaturated reactance & the stability limit computed with saturation
neglected & the excitation voltage assumed constant is smaller than the true
stability limit with saturation present & constant field current.The values of
saturated & equivalent synchronous reactance vary with the saturation.The
value of equivalent reactance usually lies within the ranges 0.4 to 0.8 of the
unsaturated synchronous reactance.
An accurate way of representing a saturated nonsalient-pole
machine by means of a reactance & an e.m.f. was given by Putman.Both the
reactance & the e.m.f. vary with saturation,being functions of the voltage El
behind armature leakage reactance.The manner in which these quantities
vary with Ep can be deduced from the vector diagram,the following notation
is used:
I = armature current
Vt = armature terminal voltage
ra = armature resistance
xp = Potier raectance
Ep = voltage behind Potier reactance
ET = voltage that wiuld exit behind Potier reactance if there were
no
saturation & if field & armature currents were unchanged
s = ET/Ep = saturation factor
m.m. f . foriron
= 1+
m.m. f . forairgap

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

xd = unsaturated synchronous reactance


xm = xd - x p = reactance equivalent to the armature reaction if
there
were no saturartion
E f = armature voltage which would be induced by field current If
if
there were no saturartion.
It is clear from the diagram that the terminal conditions would be the same if
the saturated machine were replaced by an equivalent unsaturated machine
having an e.m.f.
E
E = f ----------------------------------------------------------------- (a)
s
and a synchronous reactance
x
xs = x p + m
s
x - xp
= xp + d -------------------------------------------------------
s
(b)
Equation a& b give the saturated values of the excitation voltage & of the
synchronous reactance respectively.

EXPERIMENTAL TEST:-
1) O.C. CHARACTERISTICS:-
In this test,the machine is run mechanically at synchronous speed
is to generate voltage & at rated frequency while arm terminals are o.c. the
reading of o.c. line voltage
Voc = 3E p d x

taken various values of I f .The roter field current I f may be noted that it is
representive of net mmf/pole acting in magnetic circuit.
The o.c.c.exhibit saturation phenomenon of iron in m/c.At low
I
value of f .When iron is in unsaturated state.The o.c.c. is almost linear &
mmf applied is mainly consumed established flux in air gap.The reactance of
iron path being of almost linear.

2) S.C. CHARACTERISTICS:-
The s.c. characteristics of m/c is obtained by means of s.c. test
calculated as per circuit shown.The rotor run at synchronous speed N s .
The unsaturated synchronous reactance can be obtained from
o.c.c. & s.c.c. test
Voc / 3
Xs =
I sc
Where I f is constant.
Short Circuit ratio:- The short circuit ratio of a synchronous machine is
defined as the ratio of the field current required to produce rated voltage at
rated speed & no load to the field current required to produce rated armature
current under a sustained three-phase short circuit.

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

3) ZERO POWER FACTOR CHARACTERISTIC:-


This is conducted by loading machine as a generator with pure
inductor load 3 which is adjusted to draw rated current from machine
while the field currrent is adjusted to give various value on terminal voltage
all are needed is to point on this characteristic.

SHORT CIRCUIT TEST:-


1) Run the machine at synchronous speed.
2) Rotor field is kept unexcited initially the field excitation then gradually
increase till armature current decrease about 150% of rated value.
3) Armature terminal kept shorted.
4) Measure the reading of all three ammeter & calculate mean reading.
5) Plot the scc & Iss Vs If from o.c.c. & s.c.c. Calculate the value of
following
SCR = OP/OF
Xeq =

OBSERVATION TABLE:-

OPEN CIRCUIT TEST:

Sr.No. Open circuit voltage Excitation current


1
2
3
4
5
6
7

From graph:
SCR = oa /od
=
Xeq = 1/SCR
=
Z = Voc/3/Isc
=
=
Required = 1
Xs = Zs2 Req2
=
=

SHORT CIRCUIT TEST:

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

Sr.No. If Isc
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

RESULT:-
Short circuit ratio
Xeq =
Xs =

CONCLUSION:-
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DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:-
Q.1) What is SCR?
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Q.2) What is saturation factor?
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Q.3) Define synchronous reactance.
Ans._________________________________________________________
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Singnature of subject Incharge Grade

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

EXPT.NO.:4 DATE:- / /
AIM:- To conduct retardation test on given synchronous machine & to find
moment of inertia of rotating parts & angular moments.

APPARATUS:-

Sr.No. Equipments Range Type Quantity


1 Ammeter
2 Wattmeter
3 Rheostat
4 TPDT
5 Resistive load

THEORY:-
The kinetic energy of rotating parts of machine is speed is given from a
loss when a machine blows down to standstill when mains or armature is
switched off.It can be shown that the rate at which the kinetic energy is
equal to
= % IN dn/dt
where I is moment of inertia
N is the mean speed of the machine is switched off the mains with
the field supply still ON both the friction & windage losses are present. If
the armature is switched OFF & thrown on to a load say zero resistance
along with the friction & iron losses this load is also to be suppiled from the
stored kinetic energy of retarding machine if t1 & t2 are the time taken both
N1 & N2 in two cases then
Pf + Pi 1/t1-------------------------------------------------- (1)
Pf + P1 + Pf 1/t2 ------------------------------------------- (2)
Pf + Pi + Pi/Pf + Pi = t1/t2 ---------------------------------- (3)
Now Pt + Pi = P2 be friction & iron losses P1 loss due to load.
Total loss PL = P1 + P2/2
Equation (3)
PL/(Pf + Pi) = t1/t2
Pt + Pi = PLt2/t1------------------------------------------------ (4)
Where t1 is time required for Pf + Pi also load loss time is (t1 t2) also
We have,
Pf + P1 = 0.0109 IN dn/dt------------------------------------- (5)
= 0.0109 IN(N1- N2/t)
I = P1t2/(t1 t2)t1/0.0109N(N1 N2)
Where N is the mean speed =N1 + N2/2
Angular momentum N = Is

PROCEDURE:-
STEP -I
1) Make the connection as per circuit diagram.
The synchronous machine(motor) is standard & run at rated voltage.
A.C.supply to the arm is cut off.
The machine starts flowing down from N1 to N2 is found where N2 is
zero &
N1 is rated speed.

STEP -II

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

1) The machine is again started & run at synchronus speed or rated speed.
2) At this time arm is cut off from the mains & thrown to a load with the
help of TPPT.
3) Time T2 taken for machine to flow down the same speed N1 to N2 is
rated down along with the value of power fed into the load at N1 as well
N2.

CALCULATION:-
dN = (N1 N2)
N = N1 + N2/2
PL = P1 + P2/2
I = (PL)(t1)(t2)/(t1 t2)[0.0109N(N1 N2)]
Angular momentum N == Is

RESULT:-
The angular momentum of given synchronous machine is to be
N= sec MJ/electrical degree.

CONCLUSION :-
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DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:-
Q.1) Define moment of inertia.
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Q.2) What is the angular momentum?Give its unit.
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Q.3) What is kinetic energy?Give its unit.


Ans.__________________________________________________________________
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Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

______________________________________________________________________
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______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

Singnature of subject Incharge Grade

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

EXPT. NO.:-5 DATE:- / /

AIM :- To obtain power angle charateristics of lossy & lossless line.

APPARATUS:-

Sr.No. Equipment Range Type Quantity


1 Ammeter A.C.
2 Voltmeter A.C.
3 Wattmeter
4 Phase shifting transformer
5 Connecting wires

THEORY:-
In case of two machine system their stability can be studied by use of
different methods.In the case of disturbance if we assume sending end power
is equal to receiving end power,the steady state stability limit occures at 90 0
but there are losses taking place in transmission line which is mainly due to
resistance of the line angle at which SSSL occurs is difference than 90 0 .This
experiment gives an idea of finding that angle & stability limit form power
angle cahracteristics.
The variation of sending end power & receiving end power with respect
to torque angle characteristic.First plotted varing from 0 0 to 1800 for a losses
line the sending end & receiving end power are equal & they are propotional
to sin PS & PR reach maximum at = 900 & this first SSSL for lossy line M 1
at which PS reaches a maximum more than 900 & M2 at which PR reaches a
maximum first less than 900 for linewith negative ratio resistance the reverse
will be case that is M1<900 & M2 >900.
SSSL can be calculated with the help of power angle equation for
losses line
SSSL = VSVR/X
Where X = series reactance of transmission line parameter.
PR max = VSVR/B
= AVR2/B cos (B - )
PS max = P/B VS2 cos (B - ) + VSVR/B
Where A,B,C,D are transmission line parameters.The above result
can be varied by graphical method & also by drawing the relevant clarke
diagram.

RESULT:-
The phase angle between sending end & receiving end is varied with the
help of phase shifting transformer from 0 to 1800 & corresponding sending
end & receiving end power are measured the experiment is carried out for both
lossy & lossless line.

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

CONCLUSION:-
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Q.1) What is power angle?
Ans.__________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Q.2) What is loosy line?
Ans.__________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

Singnature of subject Incharge Grade

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

EXPT.NO.:-6 DATE:- / /

AIM:- To study of steady state stability by point by point method.

THEORY:- The point by point method is used to determine the critical fault clearing
time Associated with this angle.A swing curve ( vs t) is plotted for each
machine to know its tendency to remain stable.We illustrate a general
method for one machine connected to an infinite bus.However it can be
applied to every machine of a multimachine system.The following
assumptions are made in the solution of swing equation by point by point
method:-
1) The accelerating power Pa & angular acceleration are constant from
the middle of the preceding interval to the middle of the present
interval considered.Both of these values are calculated at the beginning
of this interval.
2) The angular velocity ,computed at the middle of an interval,remains
constant from the begging to the end of the interval considered.
These assumptions are not strictly correct,since is changing
continuously & both Pa & depend upon .However if time increment t
is made smaller,the computed curve approximates the actual curve.
The accelerating at t = (n-1) is n-1.Over the region of constant
acceleration n-1 there is an increment of angular velocity from n-3/2 to
n-1/2,
w - wn -3/ 2
a n -1 = n -1/ 2 ---------------------------------------- (1)
Dt
P
a n -1 = a ( n -1) --------------------------------------------------(2)
M
P
wn -1/ 2 - wn -3/ 2 = a ( n -1) (Dt ) --------------------------------- (3)
M
Again the angular velocity wn -1/ 2 remains constant from t = n-1 to
t = n. The displacement angle increases from d n -1 to d n during the time
interval Dt .
From the velocity curve [fig.b]
d -d
wn -1/ 2 = n n -1
Dt
d n - d n -1 = wn -1/ 2 (Dt ) ------------------------------------- (4)
similarly,
1
wn -3/ 2 = (d n -1 - d n -2 )
Dt
d n -1 - d n - 2 = wn -3/ 2 (Dt ) ---------------------------------- (5)
the change in over any interval = (value of for that interval)(time of
interval)
But the change in over nth interval,that is from t = n to t = n-1 is given
by
(Dd ) n = d n - d n -1 = wn -1/ 2 (Dt ) -------------------------- (6)

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

The change in over (n-1)tyh interval,that is from t= (n-1) to t= (n-2)is


given by
(Dd ) n -1 = d n-1 - d n- 2 = wn-3/ 2 (Dt ) ------------------------------(7)
(Dd ) n - (Dd )n -1 = wn -1/ 2 (Dt ) - wn -3/ 2 (Dt )
Pa ( n -1)
= ( Dt )2
M
Pa ( n -1)
(Dd ) n = (Dd )n -1 + (Dt ) 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - (8)
M
Equation 8 shows that the change in torque angle during a given interval is
equal to the change in torque angle during the preceding interval plus the
accelerating power at the beginning of the interval times (t)2/M.This
equation forms the basis of the numerical solution by point by point
method.The accelerating power is calculated at the beginning of each new
interval.the subsequent steps are written in a similar manner & the points
are obtained for plotting a curve between & t. More accurate results are
obtained by decreasing t & the assumed curve approaches the actual
swing curve.However the amount of labour required in calculations goes
on increasing by making t smaller.If the continues to increase the
system is unstable & if decreases after attaining a maximum value,the
system is stable.
The occurrence or removal of a fault,or a switching operation causes
a discontinuity in the accelerating power Pa.If a discontinuity occures at
the beginning of an interval,then the average of Pa just before & just after
the disturbance is taken as the accerating power.
Thus for calculating the increment in occuring during the first
interval after a fault is applied at t = 0 Eq. 8 becomes
P (Dt ) 2
(Dd )1 = a 0 +
2 M
Where Pa0+ is the accelerating power immediately after the accurrence of
the fault.Immediately before the occurrence of the fault,the system is in
steady state sothat Pa0- = 0 & 0 is known. If the fault is cleared at the
1
begginning of the mth interval, the value [ Pa ( m -1) - + Pa ( m -1) + ] should be
2
used instead of Pa(m-1)- where Pa(m-1)+ is the accerating power
immediately before clearing the fault & Pa(m-1)+ is the accerating power
immediately after the fault.If a discontinuity occurs at the middle of an
interval there is no need of special procedure.

CONCLUSION:-
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:-
Q.1) What is the assumptions are made in the solution of swing equation by point
by point method?
Ans.__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
________________________
Q.2) Which equation forms the basis of the numerical solution by point by point
method?Give meaning of each term .
Ans.__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Q.3) What is swing equation?
Ans.__________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

Singnature of subject Incharge Grade

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

EXPT. NO. 7 DATE:- / /

AIM:- Study of clarke diagram.

THORY:-
The procedure can be used for calculating stability of problem.
1) Draw a horizontal vector I , the Ix drops are drawn vertically .The
several voltage vectors radiating from point O differ by the appropriate
Ix drops.In order to represent conditions at the steady state stability
limit,the diagram must be drawn sothat V 1 & V2 have their assigned
values & sothat E1 & E2 are 900 apart.
2) Lay off segments Ix1,Ixe & Ix2 along a staaight line, making them
proportional to the given of x1, xe,& x2 respectively, to any conveneint
scale.
3) With I(x1+ xe + x2)=Ix as diameter,construct a semicircle.Any point O
lying on this semicircle meets the requirement that E1 leads E2 by 900.
4) Construct locus of constant ratio V1/V2. If V1=V2 this locus is the
perpendicular bisector of Ixe. If V1 is not equal to V2 the locus can be
proved to be a circle whose center is on the vertical line of Ix drops or an
extension thereof. Suppose constant ratio 1:1
V1/V2=1.1/1=2.2/2=3.3/3
5) Intersection of this locus with semicircle is operating point O.Vectors
E1,V1,V2 &E2 may be drawn.
6) The scale of the diagram is set by the specified values of V1 & V2.
7) Measure V1 & V2 & calculate voltage scale if V1=5cm from graph &
given
V1=1 p.u. The voltage scale become 1 cm=0.2p.u.
8) Measure E1 & E2 multiply by voltage scale.
9) The scale having been found ,the poweer can be calculated.Two ways of
caculating it are the
a) Measure the lenghts of vectors E1 & E2 then
E1 E2
Pm=
x1 + xe + x2
EE
= 1 2 -------------------------------------------------- (a)
x
b) Measure Em,the perpendicular from O to Ix.It represents the in-
phase components of each of the four voltages.It also represents
the lowest voltage at any point on the line between machines, at
which point the power factor is unity.Also measure the diameter
of the circle,Ix = I(x1+ xe + x2) & divide it by the total reactance
x in order to find the current I.Then
Pm = EmI
For values of V1/V2 differing greatly from 1.00 the locus of constant
V1/V2 will not intersect the semicircle.The lack of an intersection
indicate that no power can be transmitted stably with the assumed values
of terminal voltage.
PROBLEM:-
Find the steady state stability limit of a system consisting of a generator
of reactance 0.60 unit connected to an infinite bus through a series

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

reactance of 1.00 unit.The terminal voltage of the generator is held at 1.10


units & the voltage of the infinite bus, at 1.00 unit.

SOLUTION:-
By graphical method:-
Lay off AB = Ix1= 0.60 unit & BF = Ix2 = 1.00 unit. With the midpoint C
of line AF(0.80 unit from each end) as center, draw a semicircle AOF of radius
0.80 unit.Construct the locus DGHOK by locating points G,H,K by intersections
of arcs having centers at B & F. For point K, the radii are 1.10 from B & 1.00
from F; for point H,they are 0.83 & 0.75;for point G,0.55 & 0.50.The
intersection of this locus with semicicle ia point O.Draw OA,OB &
OF.,representing E1,V1 & V2 = E2 respectivly.Measure OF.It is 0.83 unit of length
& represents 1.00 unit of voltage. Therefore,the scale is 1 unit of length = 1.21
units of voltage Measure OA.It is 1.38 units of length & therefore, represents a
voltage of (1.38)(1.21)=1.67 units.
The steady state stability limit is therefore
Pm= (1.67)(1.00)/1.6
= 1.04 units
By Analytical method:-
Refer to the vector diagram. From the relation between the sides of a
right triangle,the in-phase component Em of the severral voltage vectors can be
written in the following four ways,using successively triangles Oac,Obc,Odc &
Oec:
Em = E12 - C2 ------------------------------------------------- (1)
= V12 - ( C Ix1) 2 ----------------------------------------- (2)
= V22 - ( B Ix2) 2 --------- ---- ------------------------- (3)
= E22 - B2 ------------------------------------------ (4)
From equations 1 & 2,
V12 = E12 - C2 + ( C Ix1) 2
= E12 - C2 + C2 - 2C Ix1 + I2 x12
= E12 - 2C Ix1 + I2 x12 ----------------------------------- (5)
Similarly from equation 3 & 4,
V22 = E22 2BIx2 + I2x22 --------------------------------- (6)
Now BI,CI & I2 in equation 5 & 6 must be expressed in terms of
voltages & reactances.From right triangle Oae,
E12 + E22 = I2x2
= (C + B)(C+B) ---------------------------------------- (7)
From equation 1 & 4,

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

E12 - E22 = C2 - B2
= (C + B)(C - B) --------------------------------------- (8)

Add equations 7 & 8 & divide by 2,obtaining


E12 = C(C + B)
= CIx ---------------------------------------- (9)
Subtract equation 8 from equation 7 & divide by 2,obtaining
E22 = B(C + B)
= BIx ------------------------------------- (10)
From eq. 9,
E2
CI = 1 -------------------------------------- (11)
x
From eq. 10,
E2
BI = 2 --------------------------- --------- (12)
x
From eq. 7,
I2 = E12 + E22 / x2 --------------------------------------- (13)
Substitution of eqs. 11,12, & 13 into eq. 5 gives:
V12 = E12 - 2E12 x1/x + E12 (x1/x) 2 + E22(x1/x) 2
= E12[1 - (x1/x) ] 2 + E22(x1/x) 2
V12x2 = E12(x -x1)2 + E22x12
= E12(xe + x2)2 + E22x12 ----------------- (14)
A similar substitution into eq. 6 gives,
V22x2 = E12x22 + E22(xe+ x1)2 ------------------ (15)
Simultaneous solution of eqs.16 & 17 yields:
[V12 ( xe + x1 )2 - V22 x12 ]x 2
( x + x ) 2 ( xe + x2 ) 2 - x12 x2 2
E12 = e 1 ----------- ----------- (16)
[V2 ( xe + x2 ) - V1 x2 ]x
2 2 2 2 2

( x + x ) 2 ( xe + x2 ) 2 - x12 x2 2
E22 = e 1 ----------- ----------- (17)
Hence

V12V22 [( xe + x1 )2 ( xe + x2 )2 + x12 x2 2 ]
E1E 2x 2 -V14 x2 2 ( xe + x1 )2 - V24 x12 ( xe + x2 )2
= ( xe + x1 )2 ( xe + x2 ) 2 - x12 x2 2 ----------- (18)
Substitution of eq. 18 into eq.a gives:

E1E 2
Pm =
x
V12V22 [( xe + x1 )2 ( xe + x2 )2 + x12 x22 ]
-V14 x2 2 ( xe + x1 )2 - V24 x12 ( xe + x2 )2
=x ( xe + x1 )2 ( xe + x2 )2 - x12 x2 2 ------------ (19)
The denominator for may be rewritten as,
[( xe + x1 )( xe + x2 ) + x1 x2 ][( xe + x1 )( xe + x2 ) - x1 x2 ]

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

= [x e 2 + x1 x e + x 2 x e + 2 x1x 2 ][x e 2 + x1x e + x 2 x e ]


= [x e (x e + x1 +x 2 ) + 2x1x 2 ][ x e (x e + x1 +x 2 )]
= (x e x + 2x1x 2 ) x e x

Giving
V12V22 [( xe + x1 ) 2 ( xe + x2 )2 + x12 x2 2 ]
-V14 x2 2 ( xe + x1 )2 - V24 x12 ( xe + x2 ) 2
Pm = (x e x + 2x1x 2 ) x e ------------- -------- (20)
This is desired eq.Some values of V 1 & V2 which differ too greatly make
the radicand zero or negative,showing that no power can be transmitted
stably at such voltages.
Considerable simplification results if the voltages are equal.
Putting V1 = V2 = V & simplifying,we get,
V 2 ( xe + 2 x1 )( xe + 2 x2 )
Pm = ------------------------------------- (21)
xe x + 2 x1 x2
Given data in the above problem:-
V1= 1.10 V2= 1.00
x1 = 0.60 . x2 = 0
xe = 1.00
Use eq. 20
V12V22 = 1.21 V14 = 1.46 V24 = 1.00
xe+ x1= 1.60 xe+ x2 = 1.00
2 2 2 2
(x e + x1 ) (x e + x 2 ) + x1 x 2 = (1.60)2 (1.00)2 0 = 2.56
x 2 2 (x e + x1 ) 2 = 0
x12 (x e + x 2 ) 2 = (0.60)2(1.00)2 = 0.36
x = x1 + xe + x2 = 1.60
xe ( xe x + 2 x1 x2 ) = 1.00[(1.00)(1.60)+0]
= 1.60
(1.21)(2.56) - (1.46)(0) - (1.00)(0.36)
Pm =
1.60
3.10 - 0.36
=
1.60
Pm = 1.04 per unit

CONCLUSION:-
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:
Q.1) What is steady state stability limit?
Ans.__________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Q.2) What is equation of Pm?Give meaning of each term.
Ans.__________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Q.3) What is advantages of Clarke diagram?
Ans.__________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

Singnature of subject Incharge Grade

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

EXPT. NO. 8 DATE:- / /

AIM:- Study of different types of automatic voltage regulator.

THEORY:-
To occure rapid action modern regulator employs the overshoot principle
of the busbar voltage changes, the regulator changes the excitation to secure
more than compensating rise before the voltage has rises appreciably above
normal however the regular acts to reduce it again.If a sudden voltage changes
takes place the regulator is prepared to restore normal voltage more quickly.
The automatic voltage regulator work on the error detection. The alternator
three phase output voltage obtained through a potential transformer is
rectified,filtered & compared with a reference.the difference between the
actual & reference voltage is the voltage error. The voltage error is amplified
through an amplifier(rotating,magnetic or static) & fed to the field cicuit of
main exciter or pilot exciter.Thus the amplified signal controls the excitation
of the main exciter or pilot exciter through a buck or boost action.

a) DIRECT ACTING REGULATOR:-


In direct acting type ,the voltage sensitive element of the regulator controls
the rheostat through a direct mechanical connection.Special type of rheostats
must be used,sothat only a small motion & small amount of energy are
required to vary the resistance from one extreme to the other.In this rolling
sector the exciter field rheostat is connected across a series of controls over
which sector roll when drives by a few rows disc energised from voltage to be
regulated against spring of the movement is damped by disc rotating by
quadrant in between poles of permanent magnet.The use of the direct acting
regulators is confined to small & medium sized a.c. generators having self
exciters.

b)PULSE REGULATOR:-
The pulse regulator is rotated about 8 rps by 1 induction motor fed from
the voltage input.It causes contact to engage with a except so far as it upward
movement is limited by a voltage which is located by a sensitive
electromagnet & demand by a spring loaded dashpot contacts across the
exciter field rehostate are closed by a spring except when coil d is
energised.In normal opration contacts d & b make & break & so cutting the
field rheostate in & out The avarage field current depends on the relative make
and control armature to pull & contact a & b held open for a largest interval.

c) QUIESCENT REGULATOR:-
This is basically a pulse type regulator but with relay control of a motor
drives rheostate control.It swifs bast load generator stator for which voltage
changes are slow.

d) SERVO TYPE REGULATOR:-


The idagram giving the main features of a servo type regulator using
amplidyne. The system consists of a direct driven constant voltage main
exciter & amotor driven auxiliary exciter whose field is controlled by
amplidyne. Both the auxiliary exciter & amplidyne are driven by a d.c. motor
fed from main exciter.

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

The main exciter is designed with a magnetic circuit such thht change of
flux with speed is small & its output voltage is roughly constant. The
armatures of main & auxiliary exciters are connected in series & this series
combination excites the field winding of the alternator.Thus the auxiliary
exciter controls the excitation current of alternator by a buck-boost action.
The potential transformer provided a signal proportional to alternator
voltage .this signal is compared with a reference 7 the error is amplified by a
semi-conductor amplifier. The current transformer provided the load current
compounding signal. The amplifier output feeds the amplidyne control field.
The amplidyne output alters the auxiliary exciter field.
Any change in alternator voltage creates an error signal which is ampified
& fed to the amplidyne control field. The amplidyne further amplifies this
signal & feeds it to the field of auxiliary exciter. This caues a change in the
output voltage of auxiliary exciter A change in auxiliary exciter output causes
a change in the alternator field current.
The several time lags in the circuit necessitate negative feed back for
stabilization of the system response. The feedback signals are taken from the
outputs of amplidyne & the auxiliary exciter & fed to the semi-conductor
amplifier.

e) ELECTRO-MECHANICAL REGULATOR
A rolling sector rheostatic regulator is a typical example of electro-mechanical
regulators. The measuring device of a rolling sector regulator is a Ferraris
motor fed from potential trasformer connected across main alternator
terminals The motor field is produced by either a split phase or a two phase
winding depending on arrangedment of potential transformer. The motor
exerts a rotating totrque on drum M.Aspring provides the restraining torque.
The drum controls the movement of pivots P1 & P2 .Two rolling sectors S1 &
S2 are arranged so that the movements of their pivots P1 & P2 cause each of
them to roll over a bank of contacts. The contacts are connected to resistance
elements which are, in turn,connected in series with the exciter field circuit A
clockwise motion of rolling sectors increaes the resistance in the field circuit
& an anticlockwise motion reduces the field circuit resistance. Whenever the
alternator voltage increaes the motor causes a clockwise motion of sectors.
The resulting increase in reduction in alternator voltage.A reverse action take
place when alternator voltage drops. Damping is provided by the eddy
currents. Current compounding can also be introduced.
The response of this regulator is quite slow. This regulator is still being used
on old, small & medium sized machines. It is not used in modern machines.

CONCLUSION:-
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:-
Q.1) What is AVR?
Ans.___________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
Q.2) What is the main function of AVR?
Ans.___________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
Q.3) On which principle the servo type regulator works?
Ans.___________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
Q.4) Which regulator is called as pulse regulator?Why?
Ans.___________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

Singnature of subject Incharge Grade

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.


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Power System Stability Department Of Electrical Engg.