3 vues

Transféré par Ajay Bhalerao

main topics related to Power system stability

- Acft Elec Power
- Effective Generator Maintenance
- eiietcrkgen
- 1.ELEC APP.doc
- ME 09 305 Electrical Technology NOV 2013
- Control of Direct Current Machine by the Change of Resistance in Armature Circuit
- 19. Describe in Detail the Method You Use to Parallel the Alternator and Share Load
- Centro de Control de Motores Siemens
- Modified Electrical q & Answer
- 27216-pdf
- mcdes_qb
- Dc Generators
- CMKN054600YP8AC_0805_1
- Generator Protection.ppt
- Model Dfig Tugod 2010
- Ppt of Maon Project
- Maintenance Schedule for C18 Generator Sets.pdf
- Em2 Manual for 2009 Batch
- Final Exam Questions- Electrical Fundamentals 2
- Leroy Somer R205

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 52

,Bhusawal

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

TITLE: - Direct & quadrature axis sub-transient reactance.

AIM :- To determine direct axis sub-transient reactance (Xd) & quadrature axis sub-

transient reactance (Xq) by static impedance test & Daton & Comoron test.

APPARATUS:-

1 3 synchronous generator

2 Wattmeter

3 Voltmeter

4 Ammeter

5 Ammeter

THEORY:-

The synchronous machine reactance can be classified into three types

namely positive sequence reactance, negative sequence reactance & zero sequence

reactance. A synchronous machine has only negative sequence reactance Xq &

only zero sequence reactance Xo. However, it has several positive sequence

reactance & these are Xd, Xq, Xd, Xq, Xd & Xq. The magnitude of different

positive sequence reactance depends upon;

i) The angular position of field structure with respect to the armature

m.m.f. wave.

ii) Whether the armature current are steady or varying.

The armature m.m.f. wave actually consists of space harmonic

components. But only the space fundamental component of armature m.m.f. wave

traveling at synchronous speed w.r.t. armature is considered.

When both the field & armature m.m.f. waves are almost stationary w.r.t.

each other then the reactance associated with armature is positive sequence

reactance.

For defining Xd, field structure is assumed to have field winding alone &

no other circuit & salient poles fitted with damper winding. The field winding is

initially unexcited & closed on itself so that field flux linkage is zero. Now

armature current is suddenly applied in such time phase that the peak of varying

armature m.m.f. wave stays in line with direct axis. Since the flux linkage with the

rotor circuit is zero, these must be remain zero just after the sudden appearance of

armature m.m.f. this is accordance with constant flux linkage theorem in order to

maintain the flux linkage, zero currents are induced in damper bars, additional

rotor circuit formed by pole bolts & the field winding.

Since, the damper bars are near the air gap, the flux lines due to varying

armature m.m.f. are forced to follow the leakage flux path mainly as shown in fig.

Only two phases of a three phase machine are connected in series & single

phase voltage is applied across them. The rotor is at standstill, the applied voltage

is adjusted to pass sufficient current into the two series connected armature

winding. Now the rotor position is adjusted by hand to get maximum deflection of

the ammeter placed in the field winding circuit.

Under this conditions d axis sub transient impedance Zd is given by,

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

V

Zd " =

2 Imax

If wattmeter records P watts;

P

cos q =

V Imax

P

sin q = 1-

V Imax

Note that the induced current in the short circuited field winding is

maximum only when field axis (i.e. polar direct axis) is along with the direction of

resultant armature m.m.f.

This is defined in the similar manner to Xd but here the armature current is

applied in such time that peak of the varying armature m.m.f. stays in line with the q

axis, hence the flux lines of varying armature m.m.f. stays in line with q axis,

hence the flux lines of the varying armature m.m.f. follows the leakage path as

shown in figure.

As above flux linkage with damper bars must remain zero before & after

sudden appearance of armature m.m.f. under these conditions armature flux linkage

per ampere is called q axis sub transient inductance Lq & Xq = Lq.

For measurement of Xq, the rotor shaft is rotated by hand through half

pole pitch (or 900 Elect.) then peak of resultant armature m.m.f. coincides with the q

axis. This condition is the one for which Xq has been different. Since the field

winding axis is 900 away from the resultant armature m.m.f. should record minimum

(sometimes zero) reading. In this way for measuring Xq the rotor position is

adjusted so as to get the minimum value of induced field current under these

conditions;

Xq " = Zq "

Since,

P

cos q =

V Imax

V P2

Xq " = 1- 2

Z Imin (V Imin )

V V

Xd " = & Xq " =

2 Imax 2 Imin

Note:-

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

Xq is slightly higher than Xd where Imax & Imin are the armature

current corresponding to maximum & minimum induced field currents respectively.

PROCEDURE :-

Method I

1) Apply 1 supply voltage to two series connected armature winding.

2) Short circuit the field winding through 0 500 mA a.c. ammeter.

3) Connect A. C. ammeter of 0 10 A range in series with stator winding.

4) Connect a.c. voltmeter of 0 150 V across stator terminals.

5) Rotate the rotor by hand & note down the current flowing through the field

winding.

6) Take down the readings of wattmeter, voltmeter & ammeter of stator

winding circuit for,

i) The current through field winding is maximum,

ii) The current through field winding is minimum.

Method II

This method is called as 3 reading method or Daton Cameron method.

1) At any rotor position apply 1 voltage across two windings connected in

series (Say R & Y) & obtain the reactance X1 = V/2I

2) For the same rotor position repeat the test for Y B, B R. X 2, X3

reactance are obtained

Then

Xd = k m;

&

Xq = k + m.

Where,

K = Displacement factor,

X + X 2 + X3

= 1

3

m = connection factor

2

= ( X1 - k ) ( )

2

+ X 2 - X3

3

OBSERVATION TABLE:-

1) For If is maximum, Imax =

Sr. No. Connection V (Volts) P (Watts) I (Amp) Xd Avg Xd

1. RY

2. YB

3. B-R

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

1. RY

2. YB

3. B-R

CALCULATIONS:-

i) R Y connection:-

For Imax =

V

Zd " = =

2 Imax

P

cos q = =

V Imax

2

sin q = ( 1 - cos q ) =

Xd " =

For Imin =

V

Zq " = =

2 Imax

P

cos q = =

V Imax

2

sin q = ( 1 - cos q ) =

Xq " =

RESULT :-

By method I :-

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

Quadrature axis sub-transient reactance, Xq =

By method II :-

Direct axis sub-transient reactance, Xd =

Quadrature axis sub-transient reactance, Xq =

CONCLUSION:-

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:-

Q 1) How the reactance of synchronous machine classified?

Ans.__________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Q 2) What do you mean by direct axis sub-transient reactance?

Ans.__________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Ans.__________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

APPARATUS:-

1) Lamp

2) Alternator

3) Synchronising switch

4) Synchroscope

THEORY:-

A busbar which maintains constant voltage & constant frequency

irrespective of load variation on it, it is called an infinite bus.

A large no. of alternators interconnected to form a supply system may be

regarded as infinite bus.In effect or infinite bus behaves like a voltage source

having zero internal impedance infinite inertia.

The behaviour of syschronous machine connected to as infinite bus is quite

different from that when it is connected to another bus.

The object of this article is to investigate the effect of varying the field

excitation & the driving torque of alternator.

Before ON incoming alternator can be connected in parallel with

busbar.The

condition for satisfactory parallel operation of alternator:-

1) The terminal voltage of the incoming alternator must be same as the

busbar

Voltage.

2) The frequency of the incoming alternator must be same as the busbar

frequency.

2) The phase sequence of the incoming alternator must be same as the

phase

sequence of busbar.

3) The polarity of the incoming alternator terminals must be same as the

busbar terminals.

TYPES OF SYNCHRONISATION:-

1) By dark lamp method:-

This is simplest method of synchronising machine with another

alternator or busbar fig.1 illustrate the connector scheme when the lamps are

connected across the synchronising switch s.

The incoming m/c is brought upto its synchronos speed by the prime

mover & then its field circuit is energized.Now the field current is adjusted till

terminal voltage of the incoming m/c becomes equal to that of already running

alternator or busbar.In this way, first condition of equal voltages is satisfied &

switch S1 is closed.The other two conditions of synchronisation requires special

considerations.

Suppose the frequencies of the busbar & incoming m/c are F & F1

respectively. Then for equal the voltages,the voltage across the synchronising

switch S2 is,

VL = Vm cos wt Vm cos w1t

With the help of trigonometric relation,

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

x- y x+ y

cos y - cos x = 2sin sin

2 2

The above equation can be written as,

f 1- f f 1+ f

VL = 2Vm[sin{ (2Pt )}sin{ (2Pt )}]

2 2

Fig.2 oscillogram at head carrier frequency at voltage across synchroscope

f -f

switch S2 The low frequency 1 is known as the beat frequency & the high

2

f +f

frequency 1 the carrier frequency. An oscillogram, showing the beat &

2

carrier frequency of the voltage across the synchronising switch S 2 is illustrate in

fig. It is seen from this fig that voltage impressed on the lamp has a frequency

f +f

equal to the carrier frequency 1 . The equation for envelope is

2

f -f

2Vm sin 1 (2Pt )

2

Since the lamps are bright once in each half of the voltage wave shown in fig of

oscillogram, the lamps flicker ( f1 - f ) times in one second.

In fig.(a) 3-phase busbar voltage is represented by phasors OA,OB,OC

rotating at angular speed of rad/sec.The incoming machine voltage phasors are

OA1,OB1,OC1 & these are shown rotating at speed 1.The phasor VAA1,joining the

tips A & A1,gives the voltage across lamp1.Similarly VBB1 & VCC1 are the voltages

across lamps 2 & 3 respectively.When rotating tips A & A1 coincide,fig

(b)voltages VAA1,VBB1 & VCC1 are all equal to zero as indicated by the dark lamps

& this is the correct instant for closing the synchronising switch S2.however,if the

first condition of equal voltages is not fulfilled,even though phasors OA & OA1

overlap VAA1,VBB1,VCC1 would not be equal to zero.These small voltages across the

lamps 1,2,3 cannot be seen by the eye.Under these conditions,if the synchronizing

switch S2 is closed ,small voltages VAA1,VBB1,VCC1 may cause the flow of large

current & power surges.In view of this,before synchronizing switch S2 is

closed,the equality of the two source voltages should again be checked.

The frequency of the incoming machine is controlled by varying the speed

of its prime mover.Each time A1,B1,C1 coincide A,B,C; the three lamps are

dark.When A1,B1,C1 are opposite to A,B,C; the three lamps are the brightest & the

VL

voltage across each lamp is 2 , i.e. twice the phase voltage as shown in

3

fig(c).This is the reason why the lamp voltage should be suitably chosen.For

example,if the line voltage of the incoming machine or the busbar is 230V,then the

230

maximum voltage across each lamp can be 2 = 265.6V;consequently two

3

230V lamps may be connected in series. If the three lamps do not fluicker in

unison,the phase sequence will be improper.This can be rectified by interchanging

any two leads either of the incoming machine or of the busbars.Actually,the

frequyency f1 is made to differ very slightly from f, sothat the beat frequency is

considerably low & the flickering subsides,now the sychroning switch S2 is closed

when the three lamps are in the middle of their dark period.

The main advantages of the dark lamp method is

1) The equipment is quite inexpensive.

2) No phase sequence indicator is required.

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

1) The lamps become dark at about one third of their rated voltage.There is

possibility of closing the synchronizing switch even when there is a

considerable phase difference between the two source voltages.This

voltage across the synchronising switch will give rise to the flow of

large

synchronizing current & power accompanied by undersirable rotor

oscillations.

2) This method does not indicate whether the incoming machine is too fast

or

too slow.

2) By synchroscope:-

A synchroscope is an instrument fitted with a rotating pointer to indicate

the correct instant of closing the synchronising switch.If the pointer rotate

anticlockwise the incoming machine is running slow which is not

desirable.Clockwise rotation of pointer indicates that the incoming machine is

running faster which is desirable.The pointer rotates at a speed proportional to the

difference in the two frequencies.For favourable synchronisation the pointer

should rotate at a very low speed in the direction of arrow marked fast shown in

fig 4a.

When the rotating pointer reaches the verticle position at a slow speed,

the synchronising switch must at once be closed.If the difference in frequencies of

the two voltage sources is large,the pointer does not rotate but merely oscillates

about some mean position.This state of affairs can be rectified by adjusting the

speed of the incoming machine.

An elementary connection scheme of synchronising by means of a

synchroscope is as shown in fig (b).Synchroscope terminals B 1,B2 (B for

busbars)should be connected to any two busbar lines & its other terminals

M1,M2(M for machine) are connected to the correspondingly marked lines of the

incoming machine.Phase sequence of the voltages,coming from busbars & that

coming from the incoming machine,must be the same & this can be ascertained

only with the help of a phase sequence indicator,because sychroscope is a single

phase instrument.Busbar & incominf machine voltages should be equal with the

same voltmeter.

The best synchronisation is carried out if both the lamps &

synchroscope are used together.Automatic synchronising devices are also

available which perform the entire process of automatically without the help of

any shift engineer.However, the automatic synchronisation scemes are more

complicated & the time of synchronisation process may sometimes be much more

than that requires by a shift engineer.

CONCLUSION:-

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:-

Q 1) What are the types of synchronisation?Which method is more

adavantageous?

Ans.__________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Ans.__________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Q.3 What are the advantages & disadvantages of the dark lamp method?

Ans.__________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Ans.__________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

EXPT.NO.:-3 DATE:- / /

synchronous machine.

APPARATUS:-

1 Ammeter A.C.

2 Ammeter A.C.

3 Ammeter D.C.

4 Voltmeter A.C.

5 Rheostat

6 Tachometer

THEORY:-

An unsaturated nonsalient-pole synchronous machine is represented in the

steady state by its unsaturated synchronous reactance x s,which is constant &

its excitation voltage Eq,which is constant if the field current is constant.A

saturated synchronous machine can be represented similarly by a reactance

& an e.m.f.,but these are not constant.However,if properly chosen,they may

be assumed constant during small changes in load such as are assumed to

occur in the test for steady state stability.The reactance of a saturated

machine has been variously called adjusted,equivalent, or saturated,

synchronous reactance.

The saturated & equivalent synchronous reactances are smaller than

the unsaturated reactance & the stability limit computed with saturation

neglected & the excitation voltage assumed constant is smaller than the true

stability limit with saturation present & constant field current.The values of

saturated & equivalent synchronous reactance vary with the saturation.The

value of equivalent reactance usually lies within the ranges 0.4 to 0.8 of the

unsaturated synchronous reactance.

An accurate way of representing a saturated nonsalient-pole

machine by means of a reactance & an e.m.f. was given by Putman.Both the

reactance & the e.m.f. vary with saturation,being functions of the voltage El

behind armature leakage reactance.The manner in which these quantities

vary with Ep can be deduced from the vector diagram,the following notation

is used:

I = armature current

Vt = armature terminal voltage

ra = armature resistance

xp = Potier raectance

Ep = voltage behind Potier reactance

ET = voltage that wiuld exit behind Potier reactance if there were

no

saturation & if field & armature currents were unchanged

s = ET/Ep = saturation factor

m.m. f . foriron

= 1+

m.m. f . forairgap

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

xm = xd - x p = reactance equivalent to the armature reaction if

there

were no saturartion

E f = armature voltage which would be induced by field current If

if

there were no saturartion.

It is clear from the diagram that the terminal conditions would be the same if

the saturated machine were replaced by an equivalent unsaturated machine

having an e.m.f.

E

E = f ----------------------------------------------------------------- (a)

s

and a synchronous reactance

x

xs = x p + m

s

x - xp

= xp + d -------------------------------------------------------

s

(b)

Equation a& b give the saturated values of the excitation voltage & of the

synchronous reactance respectively.

EXPERIMENTAL TEST:-

1) O.C. CHARACTERISTICS:-

In this test,the machine is run mechanically at synchronous speed

is to generate voltage & at rated frequency while arm terminals are o.c. the

reading of o.c. line voltage

Voc = 3E p d x

taken various values of I f .The roter field current I f may be noted that it is

representive of net mmf/pole acting in magnetic circuit.

The o.c.c.exhibit saturation phenomenon of iron in m/c.At low

I

value of f .When iron is in unsaturated state.The o.c.c. is almost linear &

mmf applied is mainly consumed established flux in air gap.The reactance of

iron path being of almost linear.

2) S.C. CHARACTERISTICS:-

The s.c. characteristics of m/c is obtained by means of s.c. test

calculated as per circuit shown.The rotor run at synchronous speed N s .

The unsaturated synchronous reactance can be obtained from

o.c.c. & s.c.c. test

Voc / 3

Xs =

I sc

Where I f is constant.

Short Circuit ratio:- The short circuit ratio of a synchronous machine is

defined as the ratio of the field current required to produce rated voltage at

rated speed & no load to the field current required to produce rated armature

current under a sustained three-phase short circuit.

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

This is conducted by loading machine as a generator with pure

inductor load 3 which is adjusted to draw rated current from machine

while the field currrent is adjusted to give various value on terminal voltage

all are needed is to point on this characteristic.

1) Run the machine at synchronous speed.

2) Rotor field is kept unexcited initially the field excitation then gradually

increase till armature current decrease about 150% of rated value.

3) Armature terminal kept shorted.

4) Measure the reading of all three ammeter & calculate mean reading.

5) Plot the scc & Iss Vs If from o.c.c. & s.c.c. Calculate the value of

following

SCR = OP/OF

Xeq =

OBSERVATION TABLE:-

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

From graph:

SCR = oa /od

=

Xeq = 1/SCR

=

Z = Voc/3/Isc

=

=

Required = 1

Xs = Zs2 Req2

=

=

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

Sr.No. If Isc

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

RESULT:-

Short circuit ratio

Xeq =

Xs =

CONCLUSION:-

_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:-

Q.1) What is SCR?

Ans._________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

Q.2) What is saturation factor?

Ans._________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

Q.3) Define synchronous reactance.

Ans._________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

EXPT.NO.:4 DATE:- / /

AIM:- To conduct retardation test on given synchronous machine & to find

moment of inertia of rotating parts & angular moments.

APPARATUS:-

1 Ammeter

2 Wattmeter

3 Rheostat

4 TPDT

5 Resistive load

THEORY:-

The kinetic energy of rotating parts of machine is speed is given from a

loss when a machine blows down to standstill when mains or armature is

switched off.It can be shown that the rate at which the kinetic energy is

equal to

= % IN dn/dt

where I is moment of inertia

N is the mean speed of the machine is switched off the mains with

the field supply still ON both the friction & windage losses are present. If

the armature is switched OFF & thrown on to a load say zero resistance

along with the friction & iron losses this load is also to be suppiled from the

stored kinetic energy of retarding machine if t1 & t2 are the time taken both

N1 & N2 in two cases then

Pf + Pi 1/t1-------------------------------------------------- (1)

Pf + P1 + Pf 1/t2 ------------------------------------------- (2)

Pf + Pi + Pi/Pf + Pi = t1/t2 ---------------------------------- (3)

Now Pt + Pi = P2 be friction & iron losses P1 loss due to load.

Total loss PL = P1 + P2/2

Equation (3)

PL/(Pf + Pi) = t1/t2

Pt + Pi = PLt2/t1------------------------------------------------ (4)

Where t1 is time required for Pf + Pi also load loss time is (t1 t2) also

We have,

Pf + P1 = 0.0109 IN dn/dt------------------------------------- (5)

= 0.0109 IN(N1- N2/t)

I = P1t2/(t1 t2)t1/0.0109N(N1 N2)

Where N is the mean speed =N1 + N2/2

Angular momentum N = Is

PROCEDURE:-

STEP -I

1) Make the connection as per circuit diagram.

The synchronous machine(motor) is standard & run at rated voltage.

A.C.supply to the arm is cut off.

The machine starts flowing down from N1 to N2 is found where N2 is

zero &

N1 is rated speed.

STEP -II

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

1) The machine is again started & run at synchronus speed or rated speed.

2) At this time arm is cut off from the mains & thrown to a load with the

help of TPPT.

3) Time T2 taken for machine to flow down the same speed N1 to N2 is

rated down along with the value of power fed into the load at N1 as well

N2.

CALCULATION:-

dN = (N1 N2)

N = N1 + N2/2

PL = P1 + P2/2

I = (PL)(t1)(t2)/(t1 t2)[0.0109N(N1 N2)]

Angular momentum N == Is

RESULT:-

The angular momentum of given synchronous machine is to be

N= sec MJ/electrical degree.

CONCLUSION :-

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:-

Q.1) Define moment of inertia.

Ans.__________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Q.2) What is the angular momentum?Give its unit.

Ans.__________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Ans.__________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

APPARATUS:-

1 Ammeter A.C.

2 Voltmeter A.C.

3 Wattmeter

4 Phase shifting transformer

5 Connecting wires

THEORY:-

In case of two machine system their stability can be studied by use of

different methods.In the case of disturbance if we assume sending end power

is equal to receiving end power,the steady state stability limit occures at 90 0

but there are losses taking place in transmission line which is mainly due to

resistance of the line angle at which SSSL occurs is difference than 90 0 .This

experiment gives an idea of finding that angle & stability limit form power

angle cahracteristics.

The variation of sending end power & receiving end power with respect

to torque angle characteristic.First plotted varing from 0 0 to 1800 for a losses

line the sending end & receiving end power are equal & they are propotional

to sin PS & PR reach maximum at = 900 & this first SSSL for lossy line M 1

at which PS reaches a maximum more than 900 & M2 at which PR reaches a

maximum first less than 900 for linewith negative ratio resistance the reverse

will be case that is M1<900 & M2 >900.

SSSL can be calculated with the help of power angle equation for

losses line

SSSL = VSVR/X

Where X = series reactance of transmission line parameter.

PR max = VSVR/B

= AVR2/B cos (B - )

PS max = P/B VS2 cos (B - ) + VSVR/B

Where A,B,C,D are transmission line parameters.The above result

can be varied by graphical method & also by drawing the relevant clarke

diagram.

RESULT:-

The phase angle between sending end & receiving end is varied with the

help of phase shifting transformer from 0 to 1800 & corresponding sending

end & receiving end power are measured the experiment is carried out for both

lossy & lossless line.

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

CONCLUSION:-

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Q.1) What is power angle?

Ans.__________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Q.2) What is loosy line?

Ans.__________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

EXPT.NO.:-6 DATE:- / /

THEORY:- The point by point method is used to determine the critical fault clearing

time Associated with this angle.A swing curve ( vs t) is plotted for each

machine to know its tendency to remain stable.We illustrate a general

method for one machine connected to an infinite bus.However it can be

applied to every machine of a multimachine system.The following

assumptions are made in the solution of swing equation by point by point

method:-

1) The accelerating power Pa & angular acceleration are constant from

the middle of the preceding interval to the middle of the present

interval considered.Both of these values are calculated at the beginning

of this interval.

2) The angular velocity ,computed at the middle of an interval,remains

constant from the begging to the end of the interval considered.

These assumptions are not strictly correct,since is changing

continuously & both Pa & depend upon .However if time increment t

is made smaller,the computed curve approximates the actual curve.

The accelerating at t = (n-1) is n-1.Over the region of constant

acceleration n-1 there is an increment of angular velocity from n-3/2 to

n-1/2,

w - wn -3/ 2

a n -1 = n -1/ 2 ---------------------------------------- (1)

Dt

P

a n -1 = a ( n -1) --------------------------------------------------(2)

M

P

wn -1/ 2 - wn -3/ 2 = a ( n -1) (Dt ) --------------------------------- (3)

M

Again the angular velocity wn -1/ 2 remains constant from t = n-1 to

t = n. The displacement angle increases from d n -1 to d n during the time

interval Dt .

From the velocity curve [fig.b]

d -d

wn -1/ 2 = n n -1

Dt

d n - d n -1 = wn -1/ 2 (Dt ) ------------------------------------- (4)

similarly,

1

wn -3/ 2 = (d n -1 - d n -2 )

Dt

d n -1 - d n - 2 = wn -3/ 2 (Dt ) ---------------------------------- (5)

the change in over any interval = (value of for that interval)(time of

interval)

But the change in over nth interval,that is from t = n to t = n-1 is given

by

(Dd ) n = d n - d n -1 = wn -1/ 2 (Dt ) -------------------------- (6)

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

given by

(Dd ) n -1 = d n-1 - d n- 2 = wn-3/ 2 (Dt ) ------------------------------(7)

(Dd ) n - (Dd )n -1 = wn -1/ 2 (Dt ) - wn -3/ 2 (Dt )

Pa ( n -1)

= ( Dt )2

M

Pa ( n -1)

(Dd ) n = (Dd )n -1 + (Dt ) 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - (8)

M

Equation 8 shows that the change in torque angle during a given interval is

equal to the change in torque angle during the preceding interval plus the

accelerating power at the beginning of the interval times (t)2/M.This

equation forms the basis of the numerical solution by point by point

method.The accelerating power is calculated at the beginning of each new

interval.the subsequent steps are written in a similar manner & the points

are obtained for plotting a curve between & t. More accurate results are

obtained by decreasing t & the assumed curve approaches the actual

swing curve.However the amount of labour required in calculations goes

on increasing by making t smaller.If the continues to increase the

system is unstable & if decreases after attaining a maximum value,the

system is stable.

The occurrence or removal of a fault,or a switching operation causes

a discontinuity in the accelerating power Pa.If a discontinuity occures at

the beginning of an interval,then the average of Pa just before & just after

the disturbance is taken as the accerating power.

Thus for calculating the increment in occuring during the first

interval after a fault is applied at t = 0 Eq. 8 becomes

P (Dt ) 2

(Dd )1 = a 0 +

2 M

Where Pa0+ is the accelerating power immediately after the accurrence of

the fault.Immediately before the occurrence of the fault,the system is in

steady state sothat Pa0- = 0 & 0 is known. If the fault is cleared at the

1

begginning of the mth interval, the value [ Pa ( m -1) - + Pa ( m -1) + ] should be

2

used instead of Pa(m-1)- where Pa(m-1)+ is the accerating power

immediately before clearing the fault & Pa(m-1)+ is the accerating power

immediately after the fault.If a discontinuity occurs at the middle of an

interval there is no need of special procedure.

CONCLUSION:-

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:-

Q.1) What is the assumptions are made in the solution of swing equation by point

by point method?

Ans.__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

________________________

Q.2) Which equation forms the basis of the numerical solution by point by point

method?Give meaning of each term .

Ans.__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

Q.3) What is swing equation?

Ans.__________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

THORY:-

The procedure can be used for calculating stability of problem.

1) Draw a horizontal vector I , the Ix drops are drawn vertically .The

several voltage vectors radiating from point O differ by the appropriate

Ix drops.In order to represent conditions at the steady state stability

limit,the diagram must be drawn sothat V 1 & V2 have their assigned

values & sothat E1 & E2 are 900 apart.

2) Lay off segments Ix1,Ixe & Ix2 along a staaight line, making them

proportional to the given of x1, xe,& x2 respectively, to any conveneint

scale.

3) With I(x1+ xe + x2)=Ix as diameter,construct a semicircle.Any point O

lying on this semicircle meets the requirement that E1 leads E2 by 900.

4) Construct locus of constant ratio V1/V2. If V1=V2 this locus is the

perpendicular bisector of Ixe. If V1 is not equal to V2 the locus can be

proved to be a circle whose center is on the vertical line of Ix drops or an

extension thereof. Suppose constant ratio 1:1

V1/V2=1.1/1=2.2/2=3.3/3

5) Intersection of this locus with semicircle is operating point O.Vectors

E1,V1,V2 &E2 may be drawn.

6) The scale of the diagram is set by the specified values of V1 & V2.

7) Measure V1 & V2 & calculate voltage scale if V1=5cm from graph &

given

V1=1 p.u. The voltage scale become 1 cm=0.2p.u.

8) Measure E1 & E2 multiply by voltage scale.

9) The scale having been found ,the poweer can be calculated.Two ways of

caculating it are the

a) Measure the lenghts of vectors E1 & E2 then

E1 E2

Pm=

x1 + xe + x2

EE

= 1 2 -------------------------------------------------- (a)

x

b) Measure Em,the perpendicular from O to Ix.It represents the in-

phase components of each of the four voltages.It also represents

the lowest voltage at any point on the line between machines, at

which point the power factor is unity.Also measure the diameter

of the circle,Ix = I(x1+ xe + x2) & divide it by the total reactance

x in order to find the current I.Then

Pm = EmI

For values of V1/V2 differing greatly from 1.00 the locus of constant

V1/V2 will not intersect the semicircle.The lack of an intersection

indicate that no power can be transmitted stably with the assumed values

of terminal voltage.

PROBLEM:-

Find the steady state stability limit of a system consisting of a generator

of reactance 0.60 unit connected to an infinite bus through a series

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

units & the voltage of the infinite bus, at 1.00 unit.

SOLUTION:-

By graphical method:-

Lay off AB = Ix1= 0.60 unit & BF = Ix2 = 1.00 unit. With the midpoint C

of line AF(0.80 unit from each end) as center, draw a semicircle AOF of radius

0.80 unit.Construct the locus DGHOK by locating points G,H,K by intersections

of arcs having centers at B & F. For point K, the radii are 1.10 from B & 1.00

from F; for point H,they are 0.83 & 0.75;for point G,0.55 & 0.50.The

intersection of this locus with semicicle ia point O.Draw OA,OB &

OF.,representing E1,V1 & V2 = E2 respectivly.Measure OF.It is 0.83 unit of length

& represents 1.00 unit of voltage. Therefore,the scale is 1 unit of length = 1.21

units of voltage Measure OA.It is 1.38 units of length & therefore, represents a

voltage of (1.38)(1.21)=1.67 units.

The steady state stability limit is therefore

Pm= (1.67)(1.00)/1.6

= 1.04 units

By Analytical method:-

Refer to the vector diagram. From the relation between the sides of a

right triangle,the in-phase component Em of the severral voltage vectors can be

written in the following four ways,using successively triangles Oac,Obc,Odc &

Oec:

Em = E12 - C2 ------------------------------------------------- (1)

= V12 - ( C Ix1) 2 ----------------------------------------- (2)

= V22 - ( B Ix2) 2 --------- ---- ------------------------- (3)

= E22 - B2 ------------------------------------------ (4)

From equations 1 & 2,

V12 = E12 - C2 + ( C Ix1) 2

= E12 - C2 + C2 - 2C Ix1 + I2 x12

= E12 - 2C Ix1 + I2 x12 ----------------------------------- (5)

Similarly from equation 3 & 4,

V22 = E22 2BIx2 + I2x22 --------------------------------- (6)

Now BI,CI & I2 in equation 5 & 6 must be expressed in terms of

voltages & reactances.From right triangle Oae,

E12 + E22 = I2x2

= (C + B)(C+B) ---------------------------------------- (7)

From equation 1 & 4,

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

E12 - E22 = C2 - B2

= (C + B)(C - B) --------------------------------------- (8)

E12 = C(C + B)

= CIx ---------------------------------------- (9)

Subtract equation 8 from equation 7 & divide by 2,obtaining

E22 = B(C + B)

= BIx ------------------------------------- (10)

From eq. 9,

E2

CI = 1 -------------------------------------- (11)

x

From eq. 10,

E2

BI = 2 --------------------------- --------- (12)

x

From eq. 7,

I2 = E12 + E22 / x2 --------------------------------------- (13)

Substitution of eqs. 11,12, & 13 into eq. 5 gives:

V12 = E12 - 2E12 x1/x + E12 (x1/x) 2 + E22(x1/x) 2

= E12[1 - (x1/x) ] 2 + E22(x1/x) 2

V12x2 = E12(x -x1)2 + E22x12

= E12(xe + x2)2 + E22x12 ----------------- (14)

A similar substitution into eq. 6 gives,

V22x2 = E12x22 + E22(xe+ x1)2 ------------------ (15)

Simultaneous solution of eqs.16 & 17 yields:

[V12 ( xe + x1 )2 - V22 x12 ]x 2

( x + x ) 2 ( xe + x2 ) 2 - x12 x2 2

E12 = e 1 ----------- ----------- (16)

[V2 ( xe + x2 ) - V1 x2 ]x

2 2 2 2 2

( x + x ) 2 ( xe + x2 ) 2 - x12 x2 2

E22 = e 1 ----------- ----------- (17)

Hence

V12V22 [( xe + x1 )2 ( xe + x2 )2 + x12 x2 2 ]

E1E 2x 2 -V14 x2 2 ( xe + x1 )2 - V24 x12 ( xe + x2 )2

= ( xe + x1 )2 ( xe + x2 ) 2 - x12 x2 2 ----------- (18)

Substitution of eq. 18 into eq.a gives:

E1E 2

Pm =

x

V12V22 [( xe + x1 )2 ( xe + x2 )2 + x12 x22 ]

-V14 x2 2 ( xe + x1 )2 - V24 x12 ( xe + x2 )2

=x ( xe + x1 )2 ( xe + x2 )2 - x12 x2 2 ------------ (19)

The denominator for may be rewritten as,

[( xe + x1 )( xe + x2 ) + x1 x2 ][( xe + x1 )( xe + x2 ) - x1 x2 ]

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

= [x e (x e + x1 +x 2 ) + 2x1x 2 ][ x e (x e + x1 +x 2 )]

= (x e x + 2x1x 2 ) x e x

Giving

V12V22 [( xe + x1 ) 2 ( xe + x2 )2 + x12 x2 2 ]

-V14 x2 2 ( xe + x1 )2 - V24 x12 ( xe + x2 ) 2

Pm = (x e x + 2x1x 2 ) x e ------------- -------- (20)

This is desired eq.Some values of V 1 & V2 which differ too greatly make

the radicand zero or negative,showing that no power can be transmitted

stably at such voltages.

Considerable simplification results if the voltages are equal.

Putting V1 = V2 = V & simplifying,we get,

V 2 ( xe + 2 x1 )( xe + 2 x2 )

Pm = ------------------------------------- (21)

xe x + 2 x1 x2

Given data in the above problem:-

V1= 1.10 V2= 1.00

x1 = 0.60 . x2 = 0

xe = 1.00

Use eq. 20

V12V22 = 1.21 V14 = 1.46 V24 = 1.00

xe+ x1= 1.60 xe+ x2 = 1.00

2 2 2 2

(x e + x1 ) (x e + x 2 ) + x1 x 2 = (1.60)2 (1.00)2 0 = 2.56

x 2 2 (x e + x1 ) 2 = 0

x12 (x e + x 2 ) 2 = (0.60)2(1.00)2 = 0.36

x = x1 + xe + x2 = 1.60

xe ( xe x + 2 x1 x2 ) = 1.00[(1.00)(1.60)+0]

= 1.60

(1.21)(2.56) - (1.46)(0) - (1.00)(0.36)

Pm =

1.60

3.10 - 0.36

=

1.60

Pm = 1.04 per unit

CONCLUSION:-

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

Q.1) What is steady state stability limit?

Ans.__________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Q.2) What is equation of Pm?Give meaning of each term.

Ans.__________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Q.3) What is advantages of Clarke diagram?

Ans.__________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

THEORY:-

To occure rapid action modern regulator employs the overshoot principle

of the busbar voltage changes, the regulator changes the excitation to secure

more than compensating rise before the voltage has rises appreciably above

normal however the regular acts to reduce it again.If a sudden voltage changes

takes place the regulator is prepared to restore normal voltage more quickly.

The automatic voltage regulator work on the error detection. The alternator

three phase output voltage obtained through a potential transformer is

rectified,filtered & compared with a reference.the difference between the

actual & reference voltage is the voltage error. The voltage error is amplified

through an amplifier(rotating,magnetic or static) & fed to the field cicuit of

main exciter or pilot exciter.Thus the amplified signal controls the excitation

of the main exciter or pilot exciter through a buck or boost action.

In direct acting type ,the voltage sensitive element of the regulator controls

the rheostat through a direct mechanical connection.Special type of rheostats

must be used,sothat only a small motion & small amount of energy are

required to vary the resistance from one extreme to the other.In this rolling

sector the exciter field rheostat is connected across a series of controls over

which sector roll when drives by a few rows disc energised from voltage to be

regulated against spring of the movement is damped by disc rotating by

quadrant in between poles of permanent magnet.The use of the direct acting

regulators is confined to small & medium sized a.c. generators having self

exciters.

b)PULSE REGULATOR:-

The pulse regulator is rotated about 8 rps by 1 induction motor fed from

the voltage input.It causes contact to engage with a except so far as it upward

movement is limited by a voltage which is located by a sensitive

electromagnet & demand by a spring loaded dashpot contacts across the

exciter field rehostate are closed by a spring except when coil d is

energised.In normal opration contacts d & b make & break & so cutting the

field rheostate in & out The avarage field current depends on the relative make

and control armature to pull & contact a & b held open for a largest interval.

c) QUIESCENT REGULATOR:-

This is basically a pulse type regulator but with relay control of a motor

drives rheostate control.It swifs bast load generator stator for which voltage

changes are slow.

The idagram giving the main features of a servo type regulator using

amplidyne. The system consists of a direct driven constant voltage main

exciter & amotor driven auxiliary exciter whose field is controlled by

amplidyne. Both the auxiliary exciter & amplidyne are driven by a d.c. motor

fed from main exciter.

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

The main exciter is designed with a magnetic circuit such thht change of

flux with speed is small & its output voltage is roughly constant. The

armatures of main & auxiliary exciters are connected in series & this series

combination excites the field winding of the alternator.Thus the auxiliary

exciter controls the excitation current of alternator by a buck-boost action.

The potential transformer provided a signal proportional to alternator

voltage .this signal is compared with a reference 7 the error is amplified by a

semi-conductor amplifier. The current transformer provided the load current

compounding signal. The amplifier output feeds the amplidyne control field.

The amplidyne output alters the auxiliary exciter field.

Any change in alternator voltage creates an error signal which is ampified

& fed to the amplidyne control field. The amplidyne further amplifies this

signal & feeds it to the field of auxiliary exciter. This caues a change in the

output voltage of auxiliary exciter A change in auxiliary exciter output causes

a change in the alternator field current.

The several time lags in the circuit necessitate negative feed back for

stabilization of the system response. The feedback signals are taken from the

outputs of amplidyne & the auxiliary exciter & fed to the semi-conductor

amplifier.

e) ELECTRO-MECHANICAL REGULATOR

A rolling sector rheostatic regulator is a typical example of electro-mechanical

regulators. The measuring device of a rolling sector regulator is a Ferraris

motor fed from potential trasformer connected across main alternator

terminals The motor field is produced by either a split phase or a two phase

winding depending on arrangedment of potential transformer. The motor

exerts a rotating totrque on drum M.Aspring provides the restraining torque.

The drum controls the movement of pivots P1 & P2 .Two rolling sectors S1 &

S2 are arranged so that the movements of their pivots P1 & P2 cause each of

them to roll over a bank of contacts. The contacts are connected to resistance

elements which are, in turn,connected in series with the exciter field circuit A

clockwise motion of rolling sectors increaes the resistance in the field circuit

& an anticlockwise motion reduces the field circuit resistance. Whenever the

alternator voltage increaes the motor causes a clockwise motion of sectors.

The resulting increase in reduction in alternator voltage.A reverse action take

place when alternator voltage drops. Damping is provided by the eddy

currents. Current compounding can also be introduced.

The response of this regulator is quite slow. This regulator is still being used

on old, small & medium sized machines. It is not used in modern machines.

CONCLUSION:-

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:-

Q.1) What is AVR?

Ans.___________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

Q.2) What is the main function of AVR?

Ans.___________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

Q.3) On which principle the servo type regulator works?

Ans.___________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

Q.4) Which regulator is called as pulse regulator?Why?

Ans.___________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

S.S.G.B.C.O.E.&T.,Bhusawal

- Acft Elec PowerTransféré parversine
- Effective Generator MaintenanceTransféré parsundayop
- eiietcrkgenTransféré pardatastage
- 1.ELEC APP.docTransféré parNishant Kamal
- ME 09 305 Electrical Technology NOV 2013Transféré parSai Das
- Control of Direct Current Machine by the Change of Resistance in Armature CircuitTransféré parInternational Journal of Innovation Engineering and Science Research
- 19. Describe in Detail the Method You Use to Parallel the Alternator and Share LoadTransféré parErs Ers
- Centro de Control de Motores SiemensTransféré parnikoll1953
- Modified Electrical q & AnswerTransféré parapi-3701567
- 27216-pdfTransféré parAdeel
- mcdes_qbTransféré parnandhakumarme
- Dc GeneratorsTransféré parAnonymous FzZcDy
- CMKN054600YP8AC_0805_1Transféré parjuan
- Generator Protection.pptTransféré parauazar
- Model Dfig Tugod 2010Transféré parZahari Zarkov
- Ppt of Maon ProjectTransféré parvegirajuvenkatavarma
- Maintenance Schedule for C18 Generator Sets.pdfTransféré parZay M Htet
- Em2 Manual for 2009 BatchTransféré parVishnu Vardhan
- Final Exam Questions- Electrical Fundamentals 2Transféré parAhyad Arif Abdul Rahman
- Leroy Somer R205Transféré parNasredine Alain
- Commutator (Electric)Transféré pargelo_17
- CAR-E PART8Transféré parprsnjt11
- Practica-u6 Cardenas MoralesTransféré parAngel Cardenad Morales
- fulltext01Transféré parAnonymous 9VcxlFErf
- C21 Alternating Current Student3Transféré parpradeepbmahajan
- fctsTransféré parVikash Gupta
- A 0250109Transféré parĦana RababȜh
- IJETR031948Transféré parerpublication
- Crisellelleva Excitation SystemTransféré parJose Domingo Castro
- Qfw Series SteamTransféré parnikon_fa

- QMS D-01Transféré parAjay Bhalerao
- TQM D-02Transféré parAjay Bhalerao
- NIBM 2sem AssignmentTransféré parAjay Bhalerao
- Ajay SIP Part 2.pdfTransféré parAjay Bhalerao
- Understanding How CP and CPK Are UsedTransféré parisotemp
- Universal Current SensorTransféré parAjay Bhalerao
- HVE Complete ManualTransféré parAjay Bhalerao

- To the Light HouseTransféré parMuhammad Asim Shahzad
- Simulation112 (1)Transféré parsajal
- cervical cancer preventionTransféré parvidia
- LW130W Quick Manual TurTransféré parCarlo Alexandre
- 2018-08-01_Trail_RunnerTransféré parPepinoski
- Dyadic Systems 2011 CatalogTransféré parElectromate
- NMRsymetry Spin System(1)Transféré parUmarFarooq
- 7.SALT ANALYSIS AlBr.docxTransféré parmohnish
- Huawei RH2288H V3 Rack Server DatasheetTransféré parFrancine Johnson
- Balon2 CodeTransféré parAshwini Yadav
- Wetspro ManualTransféré parChristian Tapia
- AN3095 Application NoteTransféré parSenthil Kumar Athappan
- ghkhjkhjkghjkghjkghjTransféré parAzkan An
- The Endocrine System Work SheetTransféré parLucia Spaninks
- PPT BHS INGGRISTransféré parTjok Adnyani
- Mc3000 Data SheetTransféré parH_ommer
- Venteclef ClemenceTransféré parHala El Ouarrak
- Final MO Handbook 200510Transféré pardreamyiris
- sempra recessed spec sheet-0601951 a-031008Transféré parapi-170472102
- Cannonball BrochureTransféré parcommunitymediamm
- NtsTransféré parMuhammad Ishaq
- Kyoto ProtocolTransféré parvpnmisra
- 22WMGX UserManual EnglishTransféré parisseau
- 0417 aurorabrule qot webTransféré parapi-242259911
- 7N60Transféré parAldemir Fernando Battaglia
- CH 11 [Sundara]Transféré parbearybear
- DacMagic 100 Usasdasdasder Manual EnglishTransféré parcacao odm
- TheriansTransféré parNeal Schwartz
- Hearing Loss in Children EngTransféré parDevi Prillianti
- 4. Basic Antenna Pairs With Equal Antenna CurrentsTransféré parChiranjivi Kuthumi