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DEEP FOUNDATIONS

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Pile Foundation
Pile foundation is the most common type of deep
foundations.
It is used to transfer the structural loads acting at the
foundation level into deeper layers of soil.

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Pile Foundation
The pile length is determined such that the soil layers
surrounding the pile have adequate shear strength to safely
support these structural loads.

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Pile Foundation

Pile foundation is more expensive than shallow foundation.


However, it may be the best solution for the following
reasons:
 To increase the load carrying capacity of the site by reaching the
lower soil layers with higher resistance than the upper soil layers.

 To reduce the total and differential settlements.


 To avoid excavation under water for sites where G.W.T. is
relatively high.

 To densify cohesionless loose soil layers using compaction piles.


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Pile Classification

Pile Material

Methods of Pile Placement in Soil

Transmission of Pile Loads to Soil

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Pile Material

Timber piles

Steel piles

Concrete piles

 Precast

 Cast-in-place
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Pile Material

Timber piles

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Timber Piles

 Used in woody countries where tree trunks of good timber

quality are available.

 Minimum diameter = 30 cm.


 Load capacity = 15 t 25 t.

 End pile Protection

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Timber Piles

 Advantages:
 Economical.
 Easy Handling
 Driven rapidly.
 Do not need heavy machinery.
 Used where piles are likely to the subjected to unusual lateral
forces.

 Disadvantages:
 Low pile capacity.
 Need protection against decay. Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Pile Materials

Steel piles

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Steel Piles

 H section or steel pipes.

 Open-ended or closed-ended.

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Steel Piles

 Usually filled with concrete after driving.

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Steel Piles

 Splices by welding or bolting.

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Pile Materials

Precast concrete piles

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Precast concrete piles

 Piles are sufficiently reinforced or

prestressed to be able to resist the

handling stresses and the driving

stresses.

 May be square or octagonal cross

sections.

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Pile Materials

Cast-in-place concrete piles


 Constructed in two steps:
Concrete

 Step (1): execute a hole in the ground.

 Step (2): fill the hole with concrete.

Hole

Step (1) Step (2)


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Cast-in-place concrete piles

 How to execute a hole (step 1):

 Bored cast-in-place pile.

 Driven cast-in-place pile.

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Cast-in-place concrete piles

 Bored cast-in-place pile: the hole is drilled

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Cast-in-place concrete piles

 Driven cast-in-place pile:

 The hole is formed by driving a


casing into the ground.

 The casing may be closed-


ended or open-ended.

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Cast-in-place concrete piles

 Driven cast-in-place pile:

 The casing may be withdrawn or


left to protect concrete.

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Cast-in-place concrete piles

 Piles have to be reinforced if subjected to lateral loads

causing moment in the pile or tension forces.

 If there are no lateral loads or tension forces: at least the

top 4 m of the pile should be reinforced.

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Pile Classification

Pile Material

Methods of Pile Placement in Soil

Transmission of Pile Loads to Soil

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Methods of Pile Placement in Soil

 Pile boring
 Drilling is done with a short-flight auger or bucket drill.
 Using temporary or permanent casing, bentonite slurry
may be needed during drilling through unstable soils to
maintain the stability of the sides of the hole.
 After drilling, the bottom of the hole is cleaned of any
loose material.
 Then, the reinforced steel cage is placed. Finally the
concrete is poured using a tremie pipe.
Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Pile Boring

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Pile Boring

 Dry drilling may be used: (CFA)

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Pile Boring

 Allow to check subsoil conditions.

 Necking and squeezing problems.

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Pile Boring

 No noise or vibration problems.

 Large diameter piles.

 Change of soil properties.

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Methods of Pile Placement in Soil

Pile driving
 Used to insert either the pile itself into the ground
(timber, steel, precast reinforced concrete piles) or the
casing (for cast-in-place pile).

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Pile Driving

 Piles are driven by the dynamic


impact of a pile-driving hammer
or a vibratory driver.

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Pile Driving

 Pile toe should be provided with a metal shoe to facilitate

penetration of the pile in firm soils.

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Pile Driving

 Piles may be driven to a predetermined length, to a specified

tip elevation, to a specified minimum penetration resistance

(hammer blows per cm), or according to a combination of

these criteria.

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Pile Driving

Problems associated with pile driving:


 Effect on neighboring structures.
 Overdriving
 Obstructions
 Heaving
 False driving resistance.
 Piles not reaching same depth
 Piles inclined or dislocated during driving.
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Pile Driving

 Effect on neighboring structures


 Driving vibration may be harmful to neighboring
structures especially those founded on shallow
foundations.
 Driving through loose sand may cause settlements to
neighboring structures.

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Pile Driving
 Overdriving
Overdriving to overcome soil resistance and reach required
pile tip level may cause damage to driven pile and decrease
in its carrying capacity

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Pile Driving
 Overdriving

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Pile Driving

 Obstructions
 Fill soils containing wooden or stone pieces cause
obstruction to the pile driving.
 They should be removed by first excavating the fill
layer, if having a reasonable thickness. Otherwise,
these obstructions could be displaced away from the
pile path with jets of water.

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Pile Driving
 Heaving
 Driving in a dense sand or stiff clay layer may cause
heaving of already driven piles.
 Heaved piles resting on sand should be re-driven to
prevent severe settlements of the structure.

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Pile Driving
 False Driving Resistance
 Piles driven in silts and very fine sands under water
show high resistance to driving because of the built-up
of excess pore water pressure.
 If piles are left for some time and then driven again,
their resistance reduces because of pore water pressure
dissipation.
 Similarly, piles driven in fill containing stone pieces or
natural boulders.
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Pile Driving

 Piles not reaching same depth


 Piles are resting on an underlying sand layer which is
not horizontal.

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Pile Driving

 Piles inclined or dislocated


during driving
 Maximum allowable inclination
from vertical= 1.5%
 Maximum allowable dislocation =
50 mm or 1/10 pile diameter

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Methods of Pile Placement in Soil

Pile jacking
 The jacking force is resisted
by a superimposed
deadweight or soil anchors.
 Economical solution for piles
constructed in weak soils.

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Pile Jacking

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Methods of Pile Placement in Soil

Water jetting
 To facilitate driving of piles in
sandy soils.
 Water jetting from small pipes at
the pile tip allows the penetration
of the pile under its own weight.

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Water Jetting
 Then, a hammer is used to carry out the pile penetration
for the last 1.5 m to ensure that the pile tip is resting on
undisturbed soil.

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Bored Pile

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Pile Classification

Pile Material

Methods of Pile Placement in Soil

Transmission of Pile Loads to Soil

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Pile Classification

Pile Material

Methods of Pile Placement in Soil

Transmission of Pile Loads to Soil

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Transmission of Pile Loads to Soil

Vertical loads

 Column loads

 Uplift forces

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Transmission of Pile Loads to Soil

Inclined loads

 Retaining walls

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Transmission of Pile Loads to Soil

Horizontal loads

 Harbor structures

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Transmission of Pile Loads to Soil

Negative skin friction loads:


 When a pile penetrates through very soft layer, sensitive
clay, or moderately compressible recent fills.

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Transmission of Pile Loads to Soil

Negative skin friction loads:


 The downward settlement of these layers induces
additional vertical load.
 This additional downward soil load should be taken
into contact in the design of piles

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Transmission of Pile Loads to Soil

Piles can transmit:

 Vertical loads
 Inclined loads

 Horizontal loads
 Negative skin friction loads

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Transmission of Vertical Pile Loads to Soil

Transmission of pile loads to soil by:


 Skin resistance (friction)
 End bearing

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Transmission of Pile Loads to Soil

Skin friction (friction):


 Friction piles transfer their loads to the surrounding
soil through skin resistance or friction developed along
their sides.

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Transmission of Pile Loads to Soil

End Bearing:
 If a pile penetrates a soil of low resistance then ends
inside a layer of much higher resistance, most of the
load will be transferred to the soil through its base.

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Estimation of Pile Bearing Capacity

1. Static Bearing Capacity Formulae P

2. Pile Material Capacity


L

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Estimation of Pile Bearing Capacity

1. Static Bearing Capacity Formulae : P

Pult = Pf + Pb

Pult: ultimate pile load capacity


L
Pf : skin friction resistance along pile length
P b: end-bearing resistance at pile tip

Pall1 = Pult/FS
FS = 2.5 3.0

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Estimation of Pile Bearing Capacity

2. Pile Material Capacity : P

For reinforced concrete pile


Pall2 = (cu/F.S) A

L
cu = ultimate compressive strength of concrete (= 2500 t/m2)
A = cross section area of pile
F.S = 5.0

Pall = smaller of Pall1 & Pall2

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Estimation of Pile Bearing Capacity

Pf in Clay: P

Pf = ca L Per.
ca = adhesion = cu
Per. = pile perimeter L

L = pile length
= 0.3 0.4 for bored piles
Clay
For driven piles:
Very soft to soft 1.0
Medium stiff 0.8
Stiff 0.6
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Estimation of Pile Bearing Capacity

Pb in Clay: P

Pb = c Nc c A

c = cohesion L

A = pile cross section area


Nc c = 10

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Estimation of Pile Bearing Capacity

Pf in Sand: P

Pf = L2 ko Per. tan
ko = lateral earth pressure coefficient at-rest
= 1 sin L

= friction angle between soil and pile


= 2/3
Per. = pile perimeter
L = pile length

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Estimation of Pile Bearing Capacity

Pb in Sand: P

Pb = ad Nq A

ad = effective overburden pressure at pile tip L

A = pile cross section area


(o) 25 30 35 40
Nq =
Nq 15 30 75 150

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Transmission of Vertical Pile Loads to Soil

Types of Piles according to how pile loads are


transmitted to soil :

 Friction Pile

 End-Bearing Pile

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Transmission of Vertical Pile Loads to Soil

Friction Pile:
 Pile tip is in clay layer or sand layer ( 34o)
P

 Pult = Pf + Pb

Clay layer
Sand layer ( 34o)
Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Transmission of Vertical Pile Loads to Soil

End-Bearing Pile:
 Pile tip is in sand layer ( > 34o)
P
 Pult = Pb

Sand layer ( > 34o)

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Pile Group Considerations

A pile cap is cast over a group of piles supporting a


column in order to transmit the applied load to all the
piles in the group.

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Pile Group Considerations

No. of piles = 1.1N/Pall


The spacing between piles (S) in a group should be kept as large
as possible to avoid overlap between stresses, which may cause
reduction in allowable pile load or excessive settlements.
On the other hand, large spacing requires massive and heavy pile
caps, the weight of which must also be carried by the piles.
N

S = (2.0 3.0) times the pile diameter

S
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Pile Group Considerations

Pile Arrangement

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Pile Group Considerations

Group Action of Friction Piles


 Friction pile groups may fail as a unit before the
load per pile reaches the maximum capacity of a
single pile.

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Pile Group Considerations

Group Action of Friction Piles


 Thus, the load-carrying capacity of a group of
friction piles could be less than the sum of the
calculated individual pile capacities.
 Consider the group to act as one large pile whose
length is equal to the length of the individual piles.
The cross-sectional area is equal to the area
enclosed within the outer perimeter of the group.

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Pile Group Considerations

Group Action of Friction Piles


Pultg= Pfg + Pbg

Ag = cross section area of pile group


Perg = perimeter of pile group

Pallg= Pult/F.S = ?? 1.1N


y

If unsafe:
increase pile length or pile diameter
X
reduce load capacity of the pile group Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

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Settlement of Pile Foundation

After checking the group action of the friction pile group,


the load supported by the pile foundation is assumed to be
acting at the lower third point of the pile length on an area
equal to the area enclosed by the piles.

The settlement will be considered due to the consolidation


of the clay below this point.

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Settlement of Pile Foundation


Y
X

S = mv p H
Ag
mv = coefficient of volume compressibility of clay N
H = thickness of layer
q = N/Ag
p = N/Ac Ac Ag
L q
H/4
1
L/3
2
Y H/2
p
H Ac
H/4
Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017
H/4 X

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Settlement of Pile Foundation


Y
X
or cc/(1+eo) H log [(Po + p)/Po]
cc = compression index
Ag
H = thickness of layer N

Po = effective overburden pressure at H/2


q = N/Ag
Ac Ag
p = N/Ac L
H/4 q
1
L/3
2
Y H/2
p
H Ac
H/4
Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017
H/4 X H/4

Negative Skin Friction

Negative skin friction: is the force developed between


the soil and the pile in the downward direction due to
compressibility of soil, occurs in:
P
 Very soft or sensitive clays: due to consolidation.
Dry fill
 Recent dry fills: settle when saturated. Very soft clay
Sensitive clay

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Negative Skin Friction

Estimated by adding the weight of settling soil to the


structure loading and both should be resisted by the pile
group.
Wadd. = (A1 + A2) h N
h tan 20
Dry fill A2
Very soft clay h Wadd
Sensitive clay 20o
A1

A1
A2 Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Negative Skin Friction

Wadd. = (A1 + A2) h


Ppile = (Wadd. + 1.1 N )/No. of piles
Ppile Pall/pile
N
h tan 20
Dry fill A2
Very soft clay h Wadd
Sensitive clay 20o
A1

A1 Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017


A2

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Eccentric Loads
.     
   

.
  

My
- +
N = load acting on G.S. xi i +
M x = N ey yi
N
ey Mx
My = N ex
ex

-
Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Pile Load Tests

The most acceptable method to determine the load capacity


of a pile is to load it in a pile load test.

For important projects, pile load tests are carried out on


both preliminary non-working piles as well as working piles.

EC recommends to carry out one test for each 200 working


piles.

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Pile Load Tests

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017


Pile Load Tests



The test load 1 %25

= (1.5 2.0) times the design load per pile. 1 %50


1 %75
Two conditions should be satisfied
3 %100
0.50Pd Pd 1.50Pd
0.25Pd 0.75Pd 1.25Pd 3 %125
12 %150
15 %125
15 %100
15 %75
15 %50
15 %25
4
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Pile Load Tests

Dr. Asmaa Moddather Foundations Fall 2017

Pile Load Tests

Condition (1): Pd Pw
0.16
 Draw S/P S curve 0.14
0.12
S/P (mm/ton)

 Pult = 1/(1.2b) 0.1 b


0.08 1
0.06
 Pw = Pult/FS 0.04
0.02

 FS = 2.0 0
0 10 20 30
Settlement (mm)
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Pile Load Tests

Condition (2): Sat P Smax

 P = 1.5Pd

 Smax = 0.02D + 0.5PL/EA

 Sat P (from pile load test results)

D = pile diameter
L = pile length
A = pile area
E = Youngs modulus of concrete
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