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Romanesque Architecture

Revision
Introduction
This art appeared during the Middle Age
It is the first style that can be found all over
Europe, even when regional differences
The expansion of the style was linked to
the pilgrimages, mainly to Santiago.
Introduction
Romanesque art developed thanks to a
series of causes:
The end of Barbarian invasions
The decomposition of Cordobas caliphate
The establishment of peace in
the Christian world, with the
development of the cities,
commerce and industry.
Expansion
The factors of the expansion of
Romanesque arte were:
Development of feudal system,
that demanded works (castles)
The expansion of religious orders
(Benedictines), expanded the monasteries
The pilgrimage routes
The crusades
Typologies
There are three main architectonical typologies:

Monasteries Castles

Churches
Monastery
It was designed as a microcosm, as the city of
God
They had several dependencies:
Church
Cloister
Chapter room
Abbots house
Monks/ nuns rooms
Refectory
Hospital
Church
It was the main building
It symbolized Gods kingdom
The holiest part was the apse
It had cross shape
Symbolism was important:
Circular parts reflect perfection so they were
linked to God
Squared parts are related to the human.
Church
Characteristics:
Monumental, trying to imitate the Roman models in
the Pilgrimage churches
Small in country churches
They were designed for advertising Catholic church
They were lasting, made of stone
Plans could be:
Latin cross
Polygonal
Basilical

Latin cross Polygonal Basilical


Church
Parts of the plan
Church
Parts from the outside
Church
Elevation:
The church is covered by
stoned vaults
Wall are thick
They need strong
buttresses
Foundations are strong
Few windows
Church
Clerestory Interior elevation: it
consists of three levels:
First floor with columns or
cross-shaped pillars
Tribune Second floor with the
tribune (corridor over
looking the nave, over the
aisles)
Clerestory: area of
Pillar
windows opening to the
Column outside.
Church
Type of covers:
Barrel vault: it was
used mainly to cover
the central nave

Groin vault was


common in aisles and
ambulatory

Dome: spherical were used


in apses. The central could
stand on pendentives or
squinches
Castle
Castles were defensive
constructions
They were fortified for
providing shelter
The wall was one of the
essential elements
They tend to be build in
stepped areas, easier to
defend.
Romanesque in France
It was the original
region of
Romanesque art
It appeared in Clunys
abbey
From there it
expanded thanks to
the pilgrimage routes,
specially to Santiago
in Spain.
Romanesque in France
It is characterized by
various vaulted styles
Provence: pointed domes Saint
and faades decorated Trophime
, Arles
with arches
Auvergne with long choir,
side aisles around the
semicircular sanctuary
forming the ambulatory in
which radiating chapels
Saint Sernin
open
Toulouse
Romanesque in France
Burgundy: barrel-
Cluny
vaulted, three-aisled
basilica
Normandy: Lombard
influences with
groined vaults
supported by flying
buttresses and
faades with two
flanking towers.

Sainte Magdalene, Vezelay


Romanesque in Italy
Italian provinces
developed a great
diversity of architectural
styles
Lombardy with groined
vaults of heavy proportions Saint Ambroggio, Milan
Central Italy classical
decorative elements:
Corinthian capitals,
coloured marble, open
arches, colonnades and
galleries and faades with
sculptures

Saint Miniato, Florence


Romanesque in Italy
South with Byzantine
and Arabic influences,
using mosaics,
interlaced pointed-
Cefalu, Sicily
arches.
Three separate
buildings: church,
baptistery and bell
tower.

Pisa Cathedral, in Tuscany,


presents three separate buildings.
Romanesque in Germany
Churches were planned on a large scale
They used to be very high
They had an apse or sanctuary at each end.
Numerous round or octagonal towers that
conferred them a picturesque silhouette.

Laach

Worms
Romanesque in England
Before the 10th century
were made of wood
Stone buildings were
small and roughly
constructed
The Norman
Romanesque style
replace the Saxon in 11th
century
Romanesque in England
Long, narrow buildings
were constructed with
heavy walls and piers,
rectangular apses, double
transepts and deeply
recessed portals
Naves were covered with
flat roofs, later replaces
by vaults, and side aisles
were covered with
groined vaults.
Romanesque in Spain
First Romanesque:
Catalonia
In the 11th century
the region was almost
assimilated to France
Due to this they
receive the art early
The rest of the Spain
would receive it with
the pilgrimage
Romanesque in Spain
Catalan churches
present, in the outside,
ordered volumes
Wall are decorated with
Lombard bands, and
blind arches and galleries
The plan has three
naves, with a small
narthex
The head has triple apse
Romanesque in Spain
Pilgrims route to Santiago was an important
route for Romanesque Art expansion.
Romanesque in Spain
Characteristics of pilgrimage churches:
Plan with three to five aisles and a transept
In the transept there are radial chapels
Inside there is a tribune
The head has ambulatory and radial chapels
Romanesque in Spain
There are polygonal
buildings too
They are related to the
Temple
They are inspired in
Jerusalems Holy
Sepulchre
Examples are Eunate,
Torres del Rio (both in
Navarre) and Veracruz
(Segovia).
Romanesque in Spain
Castile and Leon:
It is deeply influenced
by the pilgrimage
routes
The churches are
identified with the
spirit of the
Reconquist
Romanesque in Spain
Buildings are simple
and small
It created a contrast
in relation to the
refined Hispano
Muslin architecture.
They frequently have
a covered area in the
outside for the
meetings of the
councils.
Romanesque in Spain
The best examples are:
Santiagos cathedral
Fromista
Sant Climent de Tahull
San Pere de Roda
San Juan de la Pea
There are other buildings
such as castles (Loarre,
in Huesca) or bridges,
essential for pilgrims
(Puentelarreina, Navarre)