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Introducing Eurocode 7

Georgios Katsigiannis
University College of London & Arup

Early Career Members Event


22nd September 2014
Contents
2 Background Terminology Contents Limit States Design Approaches EC7 Evolution

EC7 Background & History

Terminology

Contents of EC7 Part 1 & 2

Limit States

Design Approaches

EC7 Evolution & Review

Introducing Eurocode 7
2 www.workshopec7.com
EC7 Background
3 Background Terminology Contents Limit States Design Approaches EC7 Evolution

Belidor (1729) and Coulomb (1773) were the first to propose


the use of factor of safety for stability problems. Traditionally, in
geotechnical engineering design a global factor of safety has
been used to ensure safety and account for all the
uncertainties involved
According to Terzaghi (1943) the
geotechnical problems can be
distinguished between stability and
elasticity problems

Brinch Hansen in 1956 suggested for ULS the application of


different partial factors to the loads and soil strength
properties. This was widely accepted and had big influence in
geotechnical engineering practice in Europe

Introducing Eurocode 7
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EC7 Background
4 Background Terminology Contents Limit States Design Approaches EC7 Evolution

The Commission of the European Community


aiming to harmonize the technical standards
among the European countries took the initiative to
introduce the first generation of the standards

Harmonization of the civil engineering


standards would
provide a common language between the
European engineers
enhance the competitiveness of the European
companies in the world market
facilitate the exchange of engineering services
and products

Introducing Eurocode 7
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EC7 Background
5 Background Terminology Contents Limit States Design Approaches EC7 Evolution

The Structural
Eurocodes are design
codes for buildings and
civil engineering works

Set of 10 standards,
divided into 58 parts

Based on the Limit


State Design approach
and employ partial
R. Frank, Brussels, 18-20 February 2008,
Dissemination of Information workshop
factors

Eurocode 7 consists of two parts :


EN 1997-1 Geotechnical design - Part 1: General rules (CEN, 2004)
EN 1997-2 Geotechnical design - Part 2: Ground investigation and testing
(CEN, 2007)

Introducing Eurocode 7
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EC7 History
6 Background Terminology Contents Limit States Design Approaches EC7 Evolution

1) 1974-1981 Initiation Stage In 1990, the task of drafting


design codes was transferred to
2) 1981-1987 Model Code Stage
the CEN, European Committee
3) 1988-1990 Conversion to for Standardization
Eurocode
CEN is composed of the
4) 1990-1994 ENV Stage National Standard Bodies of a
number of European countries
5) 1994-1998 ENV Trial Stage

6) 1998-2004 EN Stage

7) 2005-2010 Implementation
Stage

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EC7 History
7 Background Terminology Contents Limit States Design Approaches EC7 Evolution

CEN/TC 250 (Technical Committee


250) is in charge of the Structural
Eurocodes

TC250/SC7 is in charge of Eurocode 7 on Geotechnical Design

Introducing Eurocode 7
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EC7 History
8 Background Terminology Contents Limit States Design Approaches EC7 Evolution

In 1993, SC7 adopted the


ENV 1997-1 pre-standard:
Geotechnical design - Part 1:
General Rules (CEN, 1994)

Conversion of ENV 1997-1 into EN performed from 1997 to 2003

Cases A, B and C became EQU and SRT/GEO Limit States

Introduced alternative ways of verifying STR/GEO via 3 Design


Approaches

Introduced additional Limit States UPL and HYD

Introducing Eurocode 7
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EC7 History
9 Background Terminology Contents Limit States Design Approaches EC7 Evolution

The formal positive vote was obtained in early 2004


CEN finally published Eurocode 7 Part 1 (EN 1997-1) in
November 2004 (CEN, 2004)
Each National Standard Body had to write its National Annex
to EC 7-1 within two years after publication by CEN (2 year
calibration period)

After the calibration period and some further 3 year coexistence


period

EN1997-1 became mandatory in all EU Member States in


2010!

Introducing Eurocode 7
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Eurocode Terminology
10 Background Terminology Contents Limit States Design Approaches EC7 Evolution

The concepts of Actions and Resistances are described in detail


in the EN 1990-Basis of Design

An action is defined as: (a) Set of forces (loads) applied to the


structure (direct actions); (b) Set of imposed deformations or
accelerations caused, for example, by temperature changes,
moisture variation, uneven settlement or earthquakes (indirect
actions)
A geotechnical action is defined as an action transmitted to the
structure by the ground, fill, standing water or ground-water
A resistance is defined as the capacity of a member or
component . . . to withstand actions without mechanical failure
An action effect is defined as a function of the actions, the
material properties and the geometry

Introducing Eurocode 7
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Characteristic & Design Values
11 Background Terminology Contents Limit States Design Approaches EC7 Evolution

P The characteristic value of a geotechnical parameter shall be


selected as a cautious estimate of the value affecting the
occurrence of the limit state

If statistical methods are used, the characteristic value should be


derived such that the calculated probability of a worse value
governing the occurrence of the limit state under consideration is
not greater than 5%

Design value of a geotechnical parameter: Xd=Xk/M

Introducing Eurocode 7
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Geotechnical properties
12 Background Terminology Contents Limit States Design Approaches EC7 Evolution

R. Frank, Brussels, 18-20 February


2008, Dissemination of Information
workshop

Introducing Eurocode 7
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Contents of EN1997-1
13 Background Terminology Contents Limit States Design Approaches EC7 Evolution

EN 1997-1 Geotechnical design


Part 1: General rules (CEN, 2004)
Section 1 General
Section 2 Basis of geotechnical
design
Section 3 Geotechnical data
Section 4 Supervision of
construction, monitoring and
maintenance
Section 5 Fill, dewatering, ground
improvement and reinforcement

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Contents of EN1997-1
14 Background Terminology Contents Limit States Design Approaches EC7 Evolution

EN 1997-1 Geotechnical design


Part 1: General rules (CEN, 2004)
Section 6 Spread foundations
Section 7 Pile foundations
Section 8 Anchorages
Section 9 Retaining structures
Section 10 Hydraulic failure
Section 11 Site stability
Section 12 Embankments

Informative annexes on active & passive earth pressures, bearing


capacity and settlement of foundations

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Contents of EN1997-2
15 Background Terminology Contents Limit States Design Approaches EC7 Evolution

EN 1997-2 Geotechnical design


Part 2: Ground investigation and testing (CEN, 2007)

Section 1 General
Section 2 Planning and reporting of
ground investigations
Section 3 Drilling, sampling and
groundwater measurements
Section 4 Field tests in soils and rocks
Section 5 Laboratory tests on soils and
rocks
Section 6 Ground investigation report

+Informative annexes

Introducing Eurocode 7
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Limit State Design
16 Background Terminology Contents Limit States Design Approaches EC7 Evolution

Serviceability Limit States (SLSs) are concerned with the comfort


of the users and the functioning and the appearance of the structure
(EN 1990 3.4(1) P)

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Limit State Design
17 Background Terminology Contents Limit States Design Approaches EC7 Evolution

Serviceability limit states (SLSs) correspond to conditions beyond


which specified service requirements for a structure or structural
member are no longer met

Verification of serviceability is expressed


by the following inequality

Ed=design effects of actions (e.g.


displacement, distortion)
Cd=limited design value of the effects of
actions Bond & Harris (2008)

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Limit State Design
18 Background Terminology Contents Limit States Design Approaches EC7 Evolution

Ultimate Limit States generally are associated with collapse. They


relate to the safety of people and the structure (EN 1990 3.3(1) P)

Serious failures involving danger or severe economic loss

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Limit State Design
19 Background Terminology Contents Limit States Design Approaches EC7 Evolution

Ultimate limit states (ULSs) are associated with collapse, or with


other similar forms of structural failure

GEO failure or excessive


deformation of the ground, in which
the strength of soil or rock is
significant in providing resistance

STR Internal failure or excessive


deformation of the structure or
structural elements in which the
strength of structural material is
significant in providing resistance Bond & Harris (2008)

Introducing Eurocode 7
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Limit State Design
20 Background Terminology Contents Limit States Design Approaches EC7 Evolution

Verification of strength is
expressed by the following inequality

Ed= design effects of actions


Rd= design corresponding resistance
Applies to GEO/STR Limit States

Bond & Harris (2008)

Introducing Eurocode 7
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Limit State Design
21 Background Terminology Contents Limit States Design Approaches EC7 Evolution

Ultimate limit states (ULSs) are associated with collapse, or with other
similar forms of structural failure

EQU loss of equilibrium of the structure


or the ground, considered as a rigid body,
in which the strengths of structural
materials and the ground are insignificant
in providing resistance

UPL loss of equilibrium of the structure


or the ground, due to uplift by water
Bond & Harris (2008)
pressure (buoyancy) or other vertical
actions

HYD relates to hydraulic heave and


internal erosion conditions

Introducing Eurocode 7
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Limit State Design
22 Background Terminology Contents Limit States Design Approaches EC7 Evolution

Verification of stability is expressed


by the following inequality

Ed,dst= destabilising effect of actions


Ed,st= stabilising effect of actions
Rd= additional design resistance Bond & Harris (2008)

Applies to EQU and UPL Limit States

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Limit State Design
23 Background Terminology Contents Limit States Design Approaches EC7 Evolution

Verification of HYD Limit State is expressed by the following


inequality

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Design Approaches
24 Background Terminology Contents Limit States Design Approaches EC7 Evolution

Bond & Harris (2008)

LFA
MFA

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Eurocode 7 Evolution & Review
25 Background Terminology Contents Limit States Design Approaches EC7 Evolution

At the 26th meeting of TC250/SC7 a decision


was made to establish a number of Evolution
Groups (EGs) to look at the technical issues
that require improved coverage in a future
revision of Eurocode 7.

12 EC7 Evolution Groups http://www.eurocode7.com/sc7/


evolutiongroups

Structural Eurocodes Systematic Review

The process of reviewing the Eurocodes


has started. From April to September
Eurocodes are out for comment
This is our opportunity to influence the
Eurocode 'Evolution' process

Introducing Eurocode 7
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THANK YOU
FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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