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Maldives National University

Bachelor of Business (Management & Marketing)


Business Research Methods
Research Proposal
Semester 5

Asima Abdul Rahman


S042942
18th August 2016
Lecturer: Idham Fahumy
Business Research Method Research Proposal S042942

Table of Contents
1. Abstract ......................................................................................................................................... 2
2.Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 3
2.1. Overview ................................................................................................................................ 3
2.2. Problem Statement .............................................................................................................. 3
2.3. Rational of the research ...................................................................................................... 4
2.4. Research objective............................................................................................................... 4
2.5. Hypothesis ............................................................................................................................. 4
3. Literature review .......................................................................................................................... 6
3.1. Background of job satisfaction ........................................................................................... 6
3.3.1. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs ...................................................................................... 7
3.3.2. Herzbergs Two-Factor theory/ motivator hygiene theory ....................................... 7
4. Methodology ................................................................................................................................... 9
4.1. Methodological Framework 1 ............................................................................................. 9
4.2. Research design................................................................................................................... 9
5. Timeline ........................................................................................................................................ 10
6. Reference ..................................................................................................................................... 11
6.1. Bibliography............................................................................................................................. 11
7. Appendix ...................................................................................................................................... 12
7.1. Questionnaire...................................................................................................................... 12

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Business Research Method Research Proposal S042942

Identification of the Factors influencing job


satisfaction: in the case of Mithuru Company Private
Limited.

1. Abstract

A research topic is chosen to do a business research. Therefore, I have chosen the main topic
as job satisfaction and it has been narrowed down to identification of the factors influencing
job satisfaction in the case of Mithuru Company Private Limited. As there is a problem in job
satisfaction. Since there is high turnover in Mithuru company. That is the reason I took this
problem to do a research. I have defined research objectives and hypothesis according to the
research would be conducted. Then I have done a methodology based on the literature review.
Finally I have created a time frame and budget determining the research.

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Business Research Method Research Proposal S042942

2. Introduction
2.1. Overview
Mithuru Company Private Limited is one of the leading private business organization in
Kulhudhuffushi and northern atolls of Maldives selling almost all the types of goods. They
have established seven main business outlets. They are marketing general goods, food items,
electronic items, furniture, hardware, construction materials and kitchenware. Apart from this,
they provide sea transportation facility between Kulhudhuffushi and Male. This is the business
research proposal, before doing the research we are supposed to prepare a proposal to give
detailed information about the research. Therefore, I am conducting this to analyze the
employee satisfactions of the Mithuru company. In addition, the areas in which the
employees are dissatisfied. At the completion of this research I will be able to figure out the
employees state of mind about the job or the working condition in the Mithuru Company.
Therefore we can find the solutions to this problem.

2.2. Problem Statement


I have chosen the topic job satisfaction in Mithuru to do my business research. I have chosen
this topic since Mithuru is one of the largest private company in Kulhudhffushi, which is
operating in different businesses with number of employees. To identify whether the
employees works in Mithuru is satisfied with their jobs. Other reason I considered this is a
research problem is since there are high rate turnover in the Mithuru Company. Since there
are more number of employees means the management of the business should consider the
wellbeing of the employees.

As the majority of employees now dissatisfied with their pay, working environment of Mithuru
Company I am conducting this research.

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Business Research Method Research Proposal S042942

2.3. Rational of the research


Job satisfaction reflects that an employee feels about their job. Therefore this research will
accomplish the factors influencing the Job satisfaction of the employees in Mithuru
Company. Job satisfaction is very important for all labor intensive business as
the top management is treating them well employees will generate their maximum
outcome. Job satisfaction is important as it will affect the productivity. This research target
group is employees work in the Mithuru. Importance of the research is to get to recognize
the areas which they are not s atisfied and to improve the working conditions.

It will gain various benefits as the journal mentioned those includes, increased
customer retention, reduced customer acquisition expenditures, increased revenue generation
and protection of market share (Jeff S. Johnson, 2015). After analyzing the employee
dissatisfaction, this will help to generate proper suggestion to improve the job
satisfaction in different areas in Mithuru Company. I will do a qualitative and
quantitative approach to gather information relevant to this research. To understand the
employees view about the job.

2.4. Research objective


The main objectives of this research includes;
To assure whether the employees of the Mithuru company is satisfied or not.
To identify the various aspects of the job satisfaction and the relationship between those
factors with the performance.
To understand to what extent the employee benefits influence the job satisfaction.
To determine the reasons for not satisfied with the job.
To help in implementing the improvements to make employee satisfied.

2.5. Hypothesis
Job satisfaction is the dependent variable to organizational factors. Hypothesis testing will be
carried out with the respect to this factor and job satisfaction would be conducted hypotheses
are supposed to be generated. Hypothesis may be tested through correlation statistical tools.
When the management of Mithuru making their employees satisfied then it will affect the
performance/ quality of the services.

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Business Research Method Research Proposal S042942

2.6. Definitions of terms

Job satisfaction - whether employees are happy and contented and fulfilling their desires
and needs at work. Many purport that employee satisfaction is a factor in employee
motivation, employee measures goal achievement, and positive employee morale in the
workplace. (Susan, 2016)

Motivation- the process that initiates, guides, and maintains goal-oriented behaviors.
Motivation is what causes us to act, whether it is getting a glass of water to reduce thirst or
reading a book to gain knowledge.

Customer retention - to the activities and actions companies and organizations take to
reduce the number of customer defections (Galleto, NG DATA, 2016).

Customer acquisition management- to the set of methodologies and systems for managing
customer prospects and inquiries that are generated by a variety of marketing techniques
(Galleto, NG DATA, 2016). It is gaining new consumers.

Compensation - something typically money, awarded to someone in recognition of loss,


suffering, or injury.

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Business Research Method Research Proposal S042942

3. Literature review
3.1. Background of job satisfaction
The term job satisfaction refers to the attitudes and feelings people have about their work.
Positive and favorable attitudes towards the job indicate job satisfaction. Negative and
unfavorable attitudes towards the job indicate job dissatisfaction (Armstrong, 2006).
In (BASOL, 2016) concept job satisfaction was defined by Hoppock as a combination of a
persons psychological, physical and environmental events from his job to obtain job
satisfaction/be satisfied.

Alex Soemadji Nitisemito says in (Chandra, 2016) that job satisfaction is the work environment
is everything that exists around the employee and may affect the employee in performing his
or her duty.
Frazier (Lai Chai Hong, 2013) stated that there are a few elements that affect job satisfaction,
which are extrinsic and intrinsic motivating factors, the quality of supervision and social
relationships with the work group.

Robbins (Scheers & Botha, 2014) defines motivation as the willingness to exert high levels
of effort toward organizational goals, conditioned by the efforts ability to satisfy some
individual need.
There are many definitions other than this and those defined by various scholars according to their
perception. There are several things that lead to employee satisfaction. Which includes high rate
of pay, working hours, suitable bonuses, the relationship between employees and top manager,
decision making power to the employees. The employer should motivate staffs by attracting
these compensations.

3.2. Motivation and job satisfaction


According to (GLMEANU (MANEA), 2015), the relationship between motivation and job
satisfaction was approached from several perspectives in organizational psychology and
managerial. Motivation refers to what is desired, what is expected by exercising an action and
the achievement expectation of job satisfaction. This realization may take different forms, from
the tangible achievements to imaginary achievements. Satisfaction comes from experience; it
is a particular type of experience: what we experience when we realized our expectations.

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Business Research Method Research Proposal S042942

3.3. Motivational theories


According to Pride et al. and Smoke (Lai Chai Hong, 2013), Abraham Maslow is an American
psychologist and is known for developing a theory of motivation based on a hierarchy of needs.
Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary (2007) defined need as to have to have or to want
something very much. Maslow suggested that there are four basic needs that must be satisfied
so that a person can act unselfishly. The four basic needs are psychological, safety, love, and
esteem. He referred these needs as deficiency needs. Once these basic needs are fulfilled,
other or higher needs will surface. When these are fulfilled, again other or higher needs will
appear. And the same goes for these needs and the other or higher needs that follow.

3.3.1. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

Figure 1: Maslows hierarchy of needs


Maslows hierarchy of needs shows that the basic human needs are psychological or survival
needs; follows by safety and security needs; love, affection, and belongingness need; self-
esteem needs; and self-actualization needs. According to Smoke (Lai Chai Hong, 2013)
physiological or survival needs are basic needs such as water, air, food, sleep, sex and so on.
For example, if an employee is sleep-deprived, he or she will feel discomfort and unable to
concentrate in his or her task. Thus, he or she will have a strong urge to satisfy this need.

3.3.2. Herzbergs Two-Factor theory/ motivator hygiene theory


Another important theory concerning job satisfaction is Herzbergs Two-Factor theory. Two
groups affect job satisfaction they are those intrinsic to the job (intrinsic motivator or satisfiers) such as
achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility and growth. The second group is those extrinsic
motivators or hygiene factor) such as pay and working conditions (Armstrong, 2006).

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Business Research Method Research Proposal S042942

According to Madura (Lai Chai Hong, 2013), Frederick Herzberg had conducted a study on
200 accountants and engineers about job satisfaction in the attempt to identify factors that
contribute to their dissatisfaction towards their job. He listed that common factors identified
for dissatisfied employees are working conditions, supervision, salary, job security, and status.
On the other hand, the common factors identified for satisfied employees are achievement,
responsibility, recognition, advancement and growth. Factors identified among satisfied
employees are known as motivation factors where factors identified among dissatisfied
employees are known as hygiene factors, maintenance factors or job context factors. From this
study I am able to understand Herzbergs Two Factors theory.

3.4. Job satisfaction and performance


It is a commonly held and a seemingly not unreasonable belief that an increase in job
satisfaction will result in improved performance. But research has not established any strongly
positive connection between satisfaction and performance. A review of the extensive literature
on this subject by Brayfield and Crockett 1955 (Armstrong, 2006) concluded that there was
little evidence of any simple or appreciable relationship between employee attitudes and their
performance. An updated review of their analysis by Vroom 1964 covered 20 studies, in each
of which one or more measures of job satisfaction or employee attitudes was correlated with
one or more criteria of performance. The median correlation of all these studies was 0.14, which
is not high enough to suggest a marked relationship between satisfaction and performance.
Management required to improve employee motivation. It is clear from the literature review
that motivation directly affects the amount of input that an employee is willing to put towards
an organizational goals, and that the higher the level of motivation, the more the intended input.
An individuals desire to reach self-actualization can motivate employee constantly better
him/herself to grow.

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Business Research Method Research Proposal S042942

4. Methodology
4.1. Methodological Framework 1

Remuneration

Quality of work life

Life
Promotion Job Satisfaction
Satisfaction

Supervision

Teamwork

This methodological framework shows the employees job satisfaction due to the following
factors such as remuneration, quality of work life, promotion, supervision, teamwork. When
they are satisfied with the job, it lead to the life satisfaction.

4.2. Research design


In this research, quantitative approach survey would be conducted to do the research. I will
distribute questionnaires to the selected staffs. SSPS is using to do the questionnaire for this.
The question will be prepared according to the respondents. The question will be easily
answerable.

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Business Research Method Research Proposal S042942

5. Timeline frame and Budget


Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5
Problem statement

Introduction

Rational of the research

Revise the objectives


and hypothesis
Literature review

Methodology

Develop questionnaire

Research design

Abstract

Submit the research


proposal

Activity Cost (MRV)


Printing questionnaires 300
Total 300

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Business Research Method Research Proposal S042942

6. Reference
6.1. Bibliography
Armstrong, M. (2006). A Handbook of HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICE MANAGEMENT
PRACTICE (10th ed.). United Kingdom: Kogan Page Limited.

BASOL, O. (2016, June 1). Classic or Modern? Enhancement of Job Satisfaction Scale for Green Job
Workers., 105. Retrieved from
http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=998a6a1f-439d-41fe-9aeb-
e133b41e4fba%40sessionmgr4007&vid=11&hid=4214

Chandra, T. (2016). The Influence of Leadership Styles, Work Environment and Job Satisfaction of
Employee Performance--Studies in the School of SMPN 10 Surabaya. 132. Retrieved from
http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1086697.pdf

Galleto, M. (2016, June 17). NG DATA. Retrieved from ngdata website:


http://www.ngdata.com/what-is-customer-retention/

Galleto, M. (2016, June 17). NG DATA. Retrieved from ngdata website:


http://www.ngdata.com/what-is-customer-acquisition/

GLMEANU (MANEA), R. (2015, September 1). Valahian Journal of Economic Studies. Theoretical
Considerations on Motivation at the Work Place, Job Satisfaction and Individual
Performance, 71. Retrieved from
http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?sid=fda69e2a-62dd-4e42-bb03-
b3354500b761%40sessionmgr4008&vid=18&hid=4214&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ
%3d%3d#AN=116292269&db=bth

Jeff S. Johnson, S. B. (2015). Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 2015. Contingent cross-
selling and up-selling relationships with performance and job satisfaction:, 51.

Lai Chai Hong, A. H. (2013, July 1). Business Management Dynamics. A Study on the Factors Affecting
Job Satisfaction amongst Employees of a Factory in Seremban, Malaysia. Retrieved from
http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=f5b802b8-cd7e-464a-9e1c-
dc5b68749a1b%40sessionmgr4009&vid=13&hid=4204

Scheers, L. v., & Botha, J. (2014, October 1). Journal of Business & Retail Management Research.
Analysing relationship between employee job satisfaction and motivation, 107. Retrieved
from http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=c36e78c8-9ff3-4625-
a709-fd9b6ee3f559%40sessionmgr4006&vid=9&hid=4112

Susan, M. (2016, June 28). human resouces. Retrieved from humanresources.about.com:


http://humanresources.about.com/od/employeesurvey1/g/employee_satisfy.htm

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7. Appendix
7.1. Questionnaire

I am a student from Maldives National University (Kulhudhuffushi Campus) Business School,


studying Bachelor of Business (Management and Marketing). The main reason for this survey
is get information about job satisfaction in Mithuru Company. This survey form is randomly
distributed to Mithuru employee and the information you provided will be treated anonymously
and your identity will remain confidential.
1. Age
o 16 to 20
o 21 to 25
o 26 to 35
o 35 to 45
2. Gender
o Male
o Female

3. How long have you worked at the (company)?


o Less than 6 months
o 6 months to 1 year
o 1 3 years
o 3 5 years
o More than 5 years

4. In which department are you working in Mithuru Company?


o Office
o Ticket office
o In any shop
o Boat
Mention if other ..

5. My work gives me a feeling of personal accomplishment.


o Strongly Agree
o Agree
o Neither Agree nor Disagree
o Disagree
o Strongly Disagree

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Business Research Method Research Proposal S042942

6. When a customer is dissatisfied, I can usually correct the problem to their satisfaction.
o Strongly Agree
o Agree
o Neither Agree nor Disagree
o Disagree
o Strongly Disagree

7. My job makes good use of my skills and abilities.


o Strongly Agree
o Agree
o Neither Agree nor Disagree
o Disagree
o Strongly Disagree

8. Are you satisfied with the pay


o Strongly Agree
o Agree
o Neither Agree nor Disagree
o Disagree
o Strongly Disagree

9. Is the working hours comfortable


o Strongly Agree
o Agree
o Neither Agree nor Disagree
o Disagree
o Strongly Disagree

10. The co-workers are supportive to each other


o Strongly Agree
o Agree
o Neither Agree nor Disagree
o Disagree
o Strongly Disagree

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11. I am rewarded for the quality of my efforts


o Strongly Agree
o Agree
o Neither Agree nor Disagree
o Disagree
o Strongly Disagree
12. How satisfied are you with the information you receive from management on what is
going on in your division?
o Strongly satisfied
o Satisfied
o Neither satisfied nor Dissatisfied
o Dissatisfied
o Strongly Dissatisfied
13. How satisfied are you with your involvement in decisions that affect your work?
o Strongly satisfied
o Satisfied
o Neither satisfied nor Dissatisfied
o Dissatisfied
o Strongly Dissatisfied
14. Considering everything, how satisfied are you with your job? (If your answer is
option 3rd, 4th and 5th then go to 14 question.)
o Strongly satisfied
o Satisfied
o Neither satisfied nor Dissatisfied
o Dissatisfied
o Strongly Dissatisfied
15. The reasons for dissatisfaction
o Remuneration
o Working environment
o Relationship between management and employees
o Decision making power
o Co-workers
Mention if others

16. What suggestions do you have for the improvement of Mithuru Company Private
limited?
Suggestions; ......

~ Thank you so much for your kind information ~

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