Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 8

Millennium Development Goals

Gender Chart
2015 asdf
UNITED NATIONS

Photo: Trevor Samson / World Bank

Data ava ilable as of March 2014


GOAL 1 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Women are more likely than men to live in the poorest households in 41 out of 75 countries
Ratio of women to men aged 20 to 59 in the lowest wealth quintile of all households, selected developing countries, 2000-2013

In 41 countries, women more likely In 17 countries, women equally likely In 17 countries, women less likely
than men to live in poor households as men to live in poor households than men to live in poor households

130

120

110

100

90

80
Burundi
Rwanda
Malawi
Gabon
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Chad
Burkina Faso
Namibia
Cameroon
Kenya
Nigeria
Zimbabwe
Sudan
Tanzania
Swaziland
Benin
Niger
Ethiopia
Togo
Maldives
India
Madagascar
Mozambique
Lebanon
Uganda
Tunisia
Guinea
Mali
Palestine
Central African Republic
Vanuatu
Cambodia
Timor Leste
Iraq
Tajikistan
Equatorial Guinea
Albania
Nepal
Senegal
Mauritania
Azerbaijan
Sierra Leone
Bangladesh
Comoros
Yemen
Morocco
Indonesia
Liberia
Bhutan
Egypt
Jordan
Cte D'Ivoire
Afghanistan
Turkey
Ghana
Zambia
Pakistan
Myanmar
Somalia
Uzbekistan
Viet nam
Armenia
Thailand
So Tom and Prncipe
Republic of Moldova
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Kyrgyzstan
Ukraine
Philippines
Mongolia
Kazakhstan
Lesotho
Belarus
Montenegro
Serbia
70

Source: UN Women calculations using the latest available data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS).
Note: This indicator is weighted by the ratio of female to male aged 20-59 in all households to take into account the fact that women may be overrepresented in the entire population. Values
above 103 indicate that women are overrepresented in the poorest quintile. Values below 97 indicate that men are overrepresented in the poorest quintile. Values between 97 and 103 indicate
parity. Poor households refers to the bottom 20 per cent of households, using the wealth asset index as a proxy measure in DHS and MICS.

Data gaps limit our understanding of womens experience of poverty. Data represented in the lowest wealth quintile of households, the households are
on poverty and vulnerability to poverty by sex are not available in many more likely to be headed by women or to have no male adults. This suggests
countries, making the assessment of global and regional trends very dif- a greater risk of poverty among separated women, widows and single moth-
ficult. Despite such limitations, research shows that women face a height- ers, including self-reported heads of household without a male partner.
ened vulnerability to poverty. A recent study using the wealth asset index
as a proxy for household poverty found that women aged 2059 are more Many factors contribute to womens heightened vulnerability to poverty.
likely than men of the same age to live in poverty in most countries with These include unequal access to paid work, lower earnings, lack of social
data. Further analysis indicates that in countries where women are over- protection and limited access to assets, including land, credit and property.

Women are still more likely than men to be in vulnerable employment, despite a decreasing trend of people
in vulnerable employment
Proportion of own account and contributing family workers in total employment, women and men, 1991-2015 (percentage)

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10
Men Women
0
1991
1998
2008
2015

1991
1998
2008
2015

1991
1998
2008
2015

1991
1998
2008
2015

1991
1998
2008
2015

1991
1998
2008
2015

1991
1998
2008
2015

1991
1998
2008
2015

1991
1998
2008
2015

1991
1998
2008
2015

1991
1998
2008
2015

Sub-Saharan Southern Asia Oceania South-Eastern Eastern Asia Northern Africa Caucasus and Western Asia Latin America Developed World
Africa Asia Central Asia and the regions
Caribbean

Source: ILO, 2015 (Key Indicators of the Labour Market Database).


Globally, the proportion of women in vulnerable employment defined as The challenges posed by vulnerable employment are multiple. A recent ILO
the share of own-account and contributing family workers in total employ- report indicates that this group constitutes the overwhelming majority of
ment declined from 60 per cent in 1991 to 46 per cent in 2015, compared the worlds 300 million workers who live in extreme poverty. These jobs
to 53 and 44 per cent respectively for men. As a result, the gender gap has generally provide limited income security, limited job security, poor work-
declined from 7 to 2 percentage points during this period. Southern Asia, ing conditions and little or no social protection. For women, who consti-
sub-Saharan Africa and Oceania have the highest shares of women in vul- tute close to two-thirds of contributing family workers, the challenge is
nerable employment with more than 4 in 5 employed women in those re- even greater. Because this work is unpaid, it increases not only their vul-
gions in vulnerable employment. nerability to poverty but can also contribute to a vicious cycle of low re-
sources leading to lower bargaining power in the household.

GOAL 2 Achieve universal primary education


The gender gap in youth literacy has fallen since 1990, and a greater proportion of youth can read and write
Literacy rate among youth aged 15 to 24 by sex and region, 1990, 2000 and 2015 (percentage)

Sub-Saharan Africa Since the 1990s, global progress in youth and adult literacy has been slow
but steady, and the gap between women and men has narrowed. The lit-
eracy rate among youth aged 15 to 24 increased globally from 83 per cent
Oceania in 1990 to 89 per cent in 2010. This improvement was largely a result of
increasing attendance in primary and secondary school among younger
generations. According to projections based on historical trends, 93 per
Southern Asia cent of male youths and 90 per cent of female youths are expected to be able
to read and write by the end of 2015.

Northern Africa Northern Africa and Southern Asia have shown the greatest improvement
in youth literacy, especially among young women. Over the past two dec-
ades, sub-Saharan Africa has also experienced a large increase in youth
Western Asia literacy. However, compared to other regions, a smaller proportion of its
young women and men (70 and 78 per cent respectively) are expected to be
able to read and write by the end of 2015.
South-Eastern Asia

Latin America and the Caribbean

Eastern Asia

Caucasus and Central Asia

40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Female Male 1990 2000 2015 Projection

Source: United Nations, 2015 (The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015).
GOAL 3 Promote gender equality and empower women
Globally women earn 24 per cent less than men, There has been significant progress in womens representa-
and gender gaps in pay persist in all regions tion in national parliaments since 2000; but, in 2015, only
Distribution of working-age women and men (aged 15 and above) by
labour force participation and employed women and men by status in 1 in 5 parliamentarians worldwide is a woman
employment, 2015 (percentage) Proportion of seats held by women in single or lower houses of national
parliament, 2000 and 2015 (percentage)
Working-age women and men Employed women and men
100 100
7 Oceania
23 18
3.6
80 80
50 4 37 4.4
29
60 60 Western Asia
2 4
3 4
40 40 12
72
47 52 52 Southern Asia
20 20
7
18
0 0
Women Men Women Men South-Eastern Asia
12
Employed Contributing family workers
18
Unemployed Own-account workers
Economically inactive Employers Caucasus and Central Asia
7
Wage and salaried workers
18
Note: Data for 2015 are projections.
Percentages in charts may not always add to 100 because of rounding. Eastern Asia
20
Source: United Nations, 2015 (The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015). 22

Sub-Saharan Africa
Equal access to decent paid work, with earnings that support an adequate 13
standard of living and that are compatible with womens and mens shared 23
responsibility for unpaid care work, is essential for gender equality and Northern Africa
womens empowerment. However, globally, less than half of working age 4
women are employed compared to almost three quarters of men. In devel- 25
oping regions, the majority of women remain concentrated in low-skilled, Latin America and the Caribbean
low-paid jobs, often in the urban, informal and agricultural sectors that do 15
not provide an adequate route out of poverty. 27

Globally women earn 24 per cent less than men and perform two and a Developed regions

half times more unpaid care and domestic work than men. This work, 16
26
which is essential for the development of children and for nurturing
healthy and productive individuals, may prevent women from fully en- Developing regions

gaging in employment, and too often goes unrecognized and unsupported 12

through adequate policies. Women are more likely than men to work as 21

contributing family workers, who have little or no financial security or World


social benefits. In 2015, the proportion of employed women working as 14

contributing family workers is 18 per cent, compared to 7 per cent of em- 22

ployed men. Women are less likely to work as own-account workers. These
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
differences in occupations between women and men are some of the root
2000 2015
causes of the gender differences in pay.
Source: United Nations, 2015 (The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015).

Since the MDGs were adopted, progress in womens representation in


national parliaments has been significant. Globally, the proportion of
women in parliaments increased from 14 per cent in 2000 to 22 per cent
in 2015. In Northern Africa, in particular, progress has been impressive,
with womens representation rising more than six-fold from 4 per cent to
25 per cent. Latin America and the Caribbean also registered impressive
gains. By 2015, it became the region with the highest share of women in
parliaments (27 per cent).

However, this also means that no region has more than one third of seats in
parliament held by women. Similarly, gender differences are also persistent
in other areas of decision-making not monitored by the MDGs: as of August
2015, there were 11 women Heads of State and 13 women Heads of Govern-
ment (combined total of 19 women, because some hold both titles), and, as
of January 2015, only 18 per cent of government ministers were women.
GOAL 4 Reduce child mortality
Child survival is inextricably linked with gender equality and womens empowerment
Infant and child mortality rates by mothers characteristics and access to health services, 2004-2014 (deaths per 1,000 live births)

140
Infant mortality Under-five mortality

120 125

100
95 95
80 87
78 77
70
60 65
61 60
53 52 51 54
40 46
38
31
20

0
No Primary Secondary Less than 20-29 30-39 40-49 Neither One or the Both
education or higher 20 other

Mother's education Mother's age at birth Access to antenatal and/or delivery care

Source: Calculated using data from Demographic and Health Survey STATCompiler. Data are based on simple averages for about 60 countries (2004-2014).

Globally, the rate of reducing child mortality has more than tripled since health services both before and during delivery, children are far more
1990. According to the latest estimates, the global under-five mortality likely to survive. Mothers age at birth is also a powerful determinant of
rate has declined by more than half, from 90 to 43 deaths per 1,000 live child survival. Childbearing at a young age, often the result of an early
births between 1990 and 2015. Despite the significant decline in child marriage, and at an older age constitute a significant risk for these young
mortality in most regions, current trends are not sufficient to meet the women and their children. Expanding access to sexual and reproductive
child mortality target and will take about 10 more years to meet the global health services and rights, particularly for poor women and those living
target of reducing the under-five mortality rate. in underserved locations such as rural areas, is important to improve the
lives of women and their children.
Child health and maternal health are inextricably linked. When women
are educated and have access to comprehensive sexual and reproductive
GOAL 5 Improve maternal health
Maternal mortality has declined by nearly 44 per cent since 1990; but most maternal deaths are still attributed to pre-
ventable causes
Maternal mortality ratio, 2015 (maternal deaths per 100,000 live births, women aged 15-49)

<20
2099
100299
300499 Data not available
500999 Not applicable
0 875 1,750 3,500 Kilometers
1000 Population <100 000 not included in the assessment

The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever Data Source: World Health Organization
on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, Map Production: Health Statistics and
or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted and dashed lines on maps represent approximate border lines Information Systems (HSI)
for which there may not yet be full agreement. World Health Organization WHO 2015. All rights reserved.
Source: WHO, 2015 (Trends in Maternal Mortality: 1990 to 2015. Estimates by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, World Bank Group and the United Nations Population Division).

Globally, there were an estimated 303,000 maternal deaths in 2015. The generally due to a lack of emergency obstetric care services, low levels of
maternal mortality ratio dropped by nearly 44 per cent from the 1990 skilled assistance at delivery, particularly for poor women, and the con-
level, but well below the MDG target to reduce the maternal mortality tinued denial of sexual and reproductive health and rights for women and
ratio by three quarters by 2015. High levels of maternal mortality per- girls in many countries. In particular, unsafe abortions also constitute a
sist in sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia, which together accounted leading cause of maternal deaths. Globally, in 2008, an estimated 21.6 mil-
for 88 per cent of the total maternal deaths in 2015. Most of these deaths lion unsafe abortions took place, mostly in developing countries, resulting
are preventable. The causes of maternal mortality vary by region but are in 47,000 deaths.

Unmet need for family planning has declined worldwide, but remains unacceptably high in most regions
Proportion of women aged 15-49 worldwide, married or in union, who have an unmet need for family planning or who are using any method of
contraception, 1990 and 2015 (percentage)
100 Contraceptive prevalence Unmet need for family planning Total demand for family planning = sum of contraceptive prevalence and unmet need for family planning

4
80 6
11 83
78
17
12 73 12
14 14 12
14 15
60 18 19
21 22 64 64
25 61 61
21 59
57 58
28 55
24
49 49
40
Latin America and the Caribbean

44 44

28 39 39
Caucasus and Central Asia

28 29
Sub-Saharan Africa

South-Eastern Asia

20
Northern Africa
Southern Asia
Western Asia

Eastern Asia
Oceania

13
World

0
1990 2015 1990 2015 1990 2015 1990 2015 1990 2015 1990 2015 1990 2015 1990 2015 1990 2015 1990 2015
Source: United Nations, 2015 (The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015).

Between 1990 and 2015 the unmet need for family planning has declined ern contraception. In 2015, 12 per cent of married or in-union women
worldwide. However, there are more than 225 million women (married of reproductive age worldwide want to delay or avoid pregnancy but are
or in union) with unmet need for contraception who are not using mod- not using any method of contraceptive.
GOAL 6 Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
The number of new HIV infections among young people has declined, but young women continue to be more vulnerable
than young men
Estimated number of new HIV infections among young women and men, aged 15-24, 2014
Sub-Saharan Africa Since 2000, the number of new HIV infections has declined by 40 per cent,
260,000
from 3.5 million to 2.1 million. Young people aged 15-24 years constitute
150,000
30 per cent of those newly infected in 2014. Among youth, women con-
South-eastern Asia
stitute 56 per cent of those infected. In sub-Saharan Africa in particular,
24,000
where approximately 75 per cent of global infection among young people
37,000
occurs, the number of young women who are newly infected is nearly dou-
Southern Asia
24,000 ble the number of young men. Lack of comprehensive knowledge around
29,000 HIV and other gender-related factors, such as the inability of young wom-
Latin America en to negotiate safe sex, are major contributing factors and continue to
11,000 expose the inadequacy of current efforts to address young womens unique
20,000 vulnerabilities.
Eastern Asia
3,600
5,400
Caribbean
2,200
2,100
Caucasus and Central Asia
<1000
1,000
Northern Africa
<1000
<1000
Western Asia
<500
<1000
Oceania
<500
<200

0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000


Women Men
Source: UNAIDS Database, 2015.

GOAL 7 Ensure environmental sustainability


Despite progress, women and girls still face constraints in access to improved drinking water and improved sanitation
Location to water source, travel time and primary water carriers in households, 2004-2014 (percentage)
Location of water source

Travel time to water source Who collects water

4
4
20 8
15
26

46 54
69
54

more than 30 min


between 15 and 30 min Women Men Girl < 15 Boy < 15 Other

Not on premises On premises 15 min or less

Source: Calculated using Demographic and Health Surveys for 21 countries (2004-2014).

Access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation is a basic human the remaining households, 54 per cent spend up to 15 minutes collecting
right. Lack of access to water, sanitation and hygiene facilities constitutes water, while 26 per cent spend between 15 and 30 minutes and the re-
a major constraint for women and girls. Globally 663 million people still maining 20 per cent take more than 30 minutes to go to the water source,
lack improved drinking water sources; eight out of ten live in rural areas. collect water and come back. In those households where water has to be
In households where water is not readily available, women and girls are fetched, women and girls are the primary water carriers for their families,
usually in charge of water collection. In 21 countries with data, only 46 doing the fetching in 77 per cent or more of households.
per cent of households have access to water sources on premises. Out of
Population using shared sanitation facilities of an otherwise improved type in 2015, by region (millions)

In 2015, it is estimated that 2.4 billion people worldwide still lack improved
25
sanitation facilities. Of these, 638 million use shared facilities, which pose
42
particular problems for women and girls due to their lack of privacy and
safety, and 946 million have no toilet at all and defecate in the open. Wom-
en generally place higher priority than men on having a toilet in the home
64

211
and require more privacy in order to attend to their needs. However, they
Of the 638 million people
rarely have the control over household resources that would enable them
sharing sanitation of an
otherwise improved type, to make the decision to invest in an improved sanitation facility.
two thirds live in
73

sub-Sahran Africa and


Southern Asia

194

Southern Asia South-Eastern Asia

Latin America and the


Sub-Sahran Africa
Caribbean
Eastern Asia Other regions

Source: UNICEF and WHO, 2015 (Progress on sanitation and drinking water: 2015 update and MDG assessment).

GOAL 8 Develop a global partnership for development


Aid to family planning and reproductive health has until recently been on a steady decline
Bilateral official development assistance to population policies/programmes and reproductive health, 1995-2013 Commitments (constant 2012 US$ billions)
US$ (billions) Percentage
9 80

8 70

7
60
6
50
5
40
4
30
3
20
2

1 10

0 0
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Bilateral aid: reproductive health care (left axis)

Bilateral aid: family planning (left axis)

Bilateral aid: HIV/AIDS control and other population policies and reproductive health (left axis)

Bilateral aid to family planning and reproductive health as a % of bilateral aid to population policies and reproductive health (right axis)

Source: OECD DAC database, 2015.

Reporting on the extent of donors commitments to addressing gender went to projects that include gender equality as a secondary objective.
equality in aid programming has improved in recent years. The OECD
The biggest gap in funding is in the area of womens sexual and repro-
Development Assistance Committee (DAC) gender equality policy marker
ductive health and rights. Despite important commitments in this area,
measures aid activities that target gender equality as a principal or sig-
nificant policy objective. In recent years, aid focused on gender equality as spelled out in MDG5 to improve maternal health, aid to population
has risen on average by 4 per cent annually, compared to overall aid which policies/programmes and reproductive health has plateaued since 2008.
grew at a mere 1 per cent annually. However, despite this growth, the share Also noteworthy, until recently, aid to family planning and reproductive
of aid focused exclusively on promoting gender equality remains grossly health as a percentage of overall aid to the sector has been on a steady
inadequate. In 2012-2013, only US$ 4 billion or 5 per cent of total screened decline, despite continued high levels of unmet need for family planning,
aid was spent on projects exclusively targeted at achieving gender equality and the double dividend of improving maternal and child health that such
and women empowerment. Instead, the bulk of aid for gender equality services can provide.