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An Analogy of Political Economy of the Philippines and Vietnam and a Policy Proposal on

the Inadequacy for an Upright Economy

Research Question: Why is poverty predominant and unemployment rate is high in the
Philippines despite having the strongest economic growth in Asia?




One of the underlying causes of poverty and unemployment among Filipinos is the
widespread corruption of government officials. Despite the numerous laws preventing corruption
in the Philippines, corruption is still severely widespread. One of the reasons why these
government officials are confident on stealing is that they believe that the public can be
manipulated. Hence, we came up with a policy that will address the culture of corruption in the
Philippines. The proposed solution for this problem is to establish a reasonably educated
Filipinos in order to defy the culture of corruption in the country.

The risk of the proposed policy is that it will cause a further division of Filipinos in terms
of differing views and opinions, especially certain issues on politics and other social problems in
the country. When a country lacks unity and when its people are divided through a political
color, politicians take advantage of these conditions to manipulate the people and to put public
funds directly to their pockets without people noticing it. Another risk of pursuing a more
reasonably educated citizens is that not all citizens are financially stable to obtain a proper

On the other hand, the benefit of pursuing of a more reasonably educated citizen is that it
will lead to a better government. People complain against their government about bad
governance, public services, and corruption, hence, the government will be forced to comply
with the complaints of its people. When citizens are highly educated, government officials are
fearful of mistreating the public or committing corruption as it will be impossible for them to
escape punishment. Consequently, educated people are better voters; it is because highly
educated citizens use logical and factual information rather than superficial information about the
candidates. This will lessen the selection of corrupt officials in the country as the citizens are
well-informed and educated enough to vote for a deserving candidate. Pursuing reasonably
educated citizens promotes patriotism and nationalism. Patriotic citizens think not only for their
own welfare, but also the welfare of the whole nation, hence it will lead to national unity as
every citizen are similarly devoted to improve the Philippine society. The reason why there is a
long-standing culture of corruption in the Philippines is that citizens lack interest and support for
their country. Filipinos do not take much of their time and attention to these issues, especially
corruption as some of them think that corruption is already normal in the country, as a result,
they do not engage themselves on fighting corruption. Moreover, most of Filipinos today are
only concerned with their own development; they often disregard the welfare of their own

Overview of the Cost and Benefits of Comprehensive Sex Education in the Philippines:



Benefits of Sex Education

Birth control is the primary benefit of implementing sex education in the Philippines.
This may greatly help to prevent teenage or unplanned pregnancy which is the main reason for
overpopulation. Nowadays, many teenagers are being active in sexual intercourse and are
involved in early pregnancy. If sex education will be part of our education system, it will not
only help our country economically but it will also help teenagers themselves for them not to
experience or suffer under the pain and burden of unwanted pregnancy at a young age as well as
giving them rightful knowledge on how to make decisions concerning the sex aspect of their
lives now and in the future. According to the study, women who received no education about
abstinence or birth control from parents and schools were the most likely to have an unplanned
pregnancy. In contrast, those who received sex education that either focused on abstinence or
contraception in school were least likely to have an unplanned pregnancy or abortion.1 In this

case, sex education requires proper counselling and guidance first and foremost of their parents
as they are the ones who truly guide and accompany them. Both mother and father should teach
their sons and daughters about the consequences of teenage pregnancy. Formally speaking, sex
education should be taught in school by health teachers and educators in order to instil proper
and knowledgeable information about sex and relationships. With this in mind, this will be the
first step in order to prevent overpopulation which is a big contributor for poverty. Due to
overpopulation, scarcity of resources happens and many people have nothing to make their lives
economically sound and helpful.

HIV/Socially Transmitted Diseases (STD) prevention is another benefit of implementing

sex education in schools. With the help of these professional health teachers, children will be
given ideas and knowledge about such diseases that will eventually raise awareness. According
to United Nations Population Fund, millions of people are vulnerable to HIV infection, and
AIDS remains the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age and young
adolescents.2 Unfortunately, people who are HIV/STD victims may not be able to work thus
reducing human capital or labor which then leads to decrease of economic value. AIDS destroys
existing human capital in a selective way. It is primarily a disease of young adults. A few years
after they become infected, it reduces their productivity by making them sick and weak, and then
it kills them in their prime, thereby destroying the human capital progressively built up in them
through child-rearing, formal education and learning on the job.3

Economically speaking, if sex education will be implemented in the Philippines, it will

help our country to boost its economy and to fight overpopulation.

Cost of Sex Education

There are direct and indirect costs correlated in implementing comprehensive sex
education. Given the fact that this program requires health teachers and experts, the former cost
includes the fees and payroll expenses that will be reasonably and fairly given to those experts
and educators. This is what makes this program somehow costly. Knowing that sex education in
schools really needs the guidance of health experts, schools will be pressured to hire them and on

how to meet their minimum wages. The latter cost covers the imperfect processes and the
potential risks of implementing this program. This may be false information about reproductive
health. Children may misinterpret or misunderstood the concepts being taught to them. By
providing them ideas about contraception, they may extrapolate that they are allowed to do pre-
marital sex since they are taught how to use condoms properly in order to prevent unplanned
pregnancy. In other words, they may infer that teaching them how to use contraception justifies
pre-marital sex since the thing that is important here is not to get pregnant. Also, religion makes
it harder for some family to accept sexual education because it is a sensitive issue. Some religion
values more the innocence of young adolescents and doesnt want them to be exposed to such
sensitive and private matters until theyre already adults.

Overview of the Cost and Benefits of Disaster Risk Identification:

Problem: Natural Disasters


Benefits of Disaster Risk Identification

The main benefit of having disaster risk identification is preparedness. In disaster risk
identification, it aimed to identify possible factors that cause disasters like typhoons, landslides,
flash floods, earthquakes, etc. With this policy, troops will be sent in areas that are more likely
prone to such disasters and will provide urgent reliefs and take basic precautionary steps not only
to give them information and increase their level of awareness to the possible threats and impacts
of disaster but in order also to make sure that the communities affected can cope up and recover
from the damages. Implementing national and local preparedness plans and policies is part of the
policy, providing each local government units tools and equipment that will help them to patrol
or monitor around their areas, relief goods will be given immediately to those who are and will
be victims/evacuees, establishing evacuation centers capable enough to protect and serve as their
temporary houses. Agencies and organizations help will be highly needed in informing the
residents and giving reliefs as well as the help of experts and researchers in order to identify how
massive the aftermath of a certain disaster will be. In this case, people are being informed and
educated about the probable impacts and casualties a disaster may bring to their communities as
well as providing them knowledge and skills how to recover from the damages thus may help to
reduce the number of casualties and lower the amount of damages.

Cost of Disaster Risk Identification

Disaster risk identification can be expensive as it needs different tools to meet the most accurate
findings. It will require technical services such as early warning signals, weather forecasters, researchers,
and other tools to be used for estimation. Science and technology is essential for disaster risk
identification, the study will require an extensive network of monitoring technology to monitor the
changes on the climate. Aside from identifying tools, the proposed policy can be expensive in terms of
conducting research as the government disaster rick identification team will conduct its studies and
surveys in the disaster-prone areas. In relation to this, this leads to another risk of the proposed solution:
disaster risk identification can be time-consuming. The proposed technique requires an intensive and
long-time research in order to meet accurate estimations. Furthermore, the technique also requires
consultation with people and groups that have knowledge about the study, and it also requires several
discussions about the possible solutions.