Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 4

Name of Candidate: ______________

Student ID: ______________


Signature: ______________

THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES


SAMPLE MID-SESSION EXAM
MATS 2005
INTRODUCTION TO FLUID DYNAMICS AND HEAT TRANSFER

(1) TIME ALLOWED 110 minutes


(2) TOTAL NUMBER OF QUESTIONS - 5
(3) ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS
(4) THIS PAPER MAY NOT BE RETAINED BY THE CANDIDATE
(5) CANDIDATES MAY BRING: Calculators and Drawing Instruments

ANSWERS MUST BE WRITTEN IN INK. EXCEPT WHERE THEY ARE EXPRESSLY


REQUIRED, PENCILS MAY ONLY BE USED FOR DRAWING, SKETCHING OR
GRAPHICAL WORK.

************************

NB: State clearly assumptions, if any, made in your equation derivation and/or
calculation.

1. Answer the following questions (20 marks)

(a) Briefly discuss the physical principle based on which the Navier-Stokes equation is
derived.
(b) Briefly discuss the Bernoullis equation for viscous flow.

Solution:
See lecture note
2. Develop an expression for the velocity distribution for flow of a fluid (density = ,
viscosity = ) in a vertical cylinder of diameter D and length L. Illustrate the velocity and
shear stress distributions within the fluid. Assuming the flow is the laminar flow in a steady
state and the pressure drop through the cylinder is P. (20 Marks)
Solution:
See lecture note.

3. The surface of a plane, which is inclined to the vertical at 60o, is coated with a film of
lubricating oil of thickness 1 x 10-4 m and viscosity 1.96 x 10-2 Pa.s. Calculate the terminal
velocity reached by a cubical box of mass 20 kg and dimensions 1m x 1m x 1m when it is
placed on the inclined plane and allowed to slide on the film of oil. (20 Marks)

Solutions:
At the terminal velocity, the shear force should be equal to the gravity component at the
displacement direction. So
By setting a coordinate system with x being the flow direction and y=0 at the plane, the shear
stress is
mg cos( ) 20 9.81 cos(60)
yx = 98.1Pa
A 1 1
As the flow is a Couette flow.
v v
yx 1.96 102 4
Y 10
v 0.5m / s

4. A spherical lead shot of diameter 3 mm is fired upward into still air at 300 K over open
water. Calculate:
(a) The drag force that the shot experiences as it leaves the gun barrel at a velocity of 150 m/s
(b) The termil1al velocity that it attains when it falls through the still air.
The density and viscosity of air at 300K are 1.177kg/m3 and 1.8510-5 Pas, the density of
lead is 11,340 kg/m3.
Friction factor: f =24/Re for Re < 0.1; f =18.5/(Re3/5) for 2 < Re < 5 102; f = 0.44 for 5102 <
Re < 105. (20 Marks)

Solutions:
a) When the shot leaves gun, the Reynolds number is
vD
Re 2.86 104

So, it is in the Newtons region with f = 0.44
D2
(1/ 2 v ) 4.12 10 N
2
Fk fAK f 2

4
b) When the shot falls down in the air and reaches the terminal velocity
1/2
4 s D
vt g
3 f
Assuming the Newtons region with f = 0.44
1/2
4 s D
vt g 29.3m / s
3 f
Check Reynolds number
vD
Re 5588

5. In the figure water at 300 K is being pumped from the lower reservoir to the higher
reservoir through a pipe of 0.25 m diameter and equivalent length 75 m. Calculate the power
rating of the pump required to pump water at a flow rate of 0.2m3/s. The efficiency of pump
is 75%.

Data: the friction factor is 9.5 x 10-3. (20 Marks)

Solution:
Select the free surface of the fluid in the lower tank as location 1 and the free surface of the
fluid in the upper tank as location 2.
Set Bernoullis equation to the energy balance at two locations:
P2 P1
w ( 21 v22 21 v12 ) g ( z2 z1 ) E f

With P2=P1, v2=v1
w g ( z2 z1 ) E f

g ( z2 z1 ) 9.81 32 313.92 J / kg
Q 0.2
v 4.07m / s
A ( 0.252 / 4)

L L 2 1 1
Ef 2 f e v e f ( contraction ) v 2 e f (exp ension ) v 2
D D fittings 2 2

75 1 1
2 0.0095 0.5 1 4.07
2

0.25 2 2
107.07 J / kg
w g ( z2 z1 ) E f 313.92 107.07 421J / kg
So the power required
W wM / 0.75 421 0.2 1000 / 0.75 112.26kw

-------------------------------------- END -----------------------------------------------