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EDUW 695/Ethics and Issues in Education

Filter Reflection EDUW 695 Rebeca Arndt

Why I became a teacher


Seemingly a rhetorical question at times, the answer to why I become a teacher is strongly

rooted in my childhood, imprinted in the very fabric of my character and personality.

In the village where I grew up, the priest, the doctor, the nurse and the teachers were the most

respected and appreciated people, they were the nobility of the village with their self-confident

attitude, their polished shoes, their wise words.

At some point in the primary school I faced the question What do I want to be when I grow

up? and without a question I answered I want to be a teacher, I want to be an educator same as

Mrs. Paun, my dear teacher with red hair and red lips, that smelled like lavender. I wanted to be

just like her, teach children to read and write, discover the magical world hidden in those books

of her. I wanted to be like her and tell stories and be an example. I wanted to be loved and

respected same as I oved and respected her.

But my path was not a straight road to a successful teaching career. Once I realize that teaching

in my country would barely offer me the means to live, I decided study communication, political

studies and public relations. However, years after working in different fields, I truly realized that

I was not happy doing what I was doing and reanalyzed carrier option. It was in that moment

when I truly understood that what made me happy was working with children and I began

studying Montessori Education and worked with preschool age children. Furthermore, I worked

with elementary and middle school students and soon enough will work with high school

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students as well. Have been working with children of various ages, from different socio-

economical classes, with children from Madagascar, Japan, India, Albania, Morocco, Mexico,

children of all races and ethnicities and have learned so much. Not only have I shared my

knowledge with my students, have I supported them in classroom and outside of classroom but I

have also inspired my students or at least tried to inspire them.

In the past, my deep appreciation for the profession of educator influenced me to desire

becoming and educator and this high respect and appreciation imprinted in me at such a young

age fueled me to pursue my dream and continues to nourish my eagerness to continue to

education, to improve the quality of my teaching and better assist my students always.

I believe that acknowledging and reflecting upon the true reasons for which I chose to be a

teacher will always influence my future decisions as I certainly know that I chose to be a teacher

to help children discover their true potential, to aid children find love for learning, to unfold the

world around us, to find answers to questions, to try making the world a peaceful, loving, wiser,

better place to all of us.

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Contemporary Legal Analysis EDUW 695 Rebeca Arndt


In the School District of Janesville, the district where I work, in fall 2006, a high school student
had allegedly broke into the school's computer system and caused intermittent outages problems
that led to loss of class and work time across the school district.
In order to benefit of the privilege of using technology belonging to the school district, all
students in the School District of Janesville needed to abide by the Acceptable Use of
Technology Rules and abiding the expectations of using the network responsibly, efficiently,
ethically and legally.
In this case, the student who allegedly caused an outrage by releasing data packets into the
computer network at Craig high school through a computer loaded with hacking software,
deliberately broke the The Acceptable Use of Technology Policy (6724), Guidelines for
Acceptable Use of Technology by Students and Staff (6724.1) and Internet Safety Policy
(6724.2) printed in the student handbook.
An investigation was opened and the students home was searched. Computer equipment was
confiscated from his possession. Documents filed with the search warrant alleged Henry installed
a computer hard drive at Craig. The hard drive contained software hacker tools and records
belonging to the district, according to court documents.
The student was expelled from school and an investigation was opened, however the student was
never arrested, never charged and never prosecuted. In fact, student graduated in 2007 and joined
the Army and he is now a college graduate student.

I believe that this incident was dealt with quite easily and the student did not receive the right
punishment for a crime of such magnitude and I disagree with the way the entire situation
unfolded.
The district emphasized more on the weakness of the system which was breached rather than on
the crime committed. It appeared that for about seven days after the incident teachers were
unable to teach, and students were unable to attend classes reliant on this technology. Staff who
rely on this technology were unable to perform portions of their work the district said in a
written statement.
In the future, I believe that a similar situation should be dealt with by facing the gravity of the act
with the consequences mandated by law.

In a similar case that took place in Commack High School in Long Island, New York, in
October 2015, three high school students allegedly hacked into their schools computer system to
change students grades and schedules.

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Following the police investigation, the groups leader was charged with third-degree burglary,
computer tampering, three counts of second-degree identity theft, one count of computer trespass
and one count of eavesdropping.
The student turned himself to the police after days of going missing. He now faces charges for
burglary, computer tampering and identity theft, and could see up to 11 years if convicted.
I agree with how the issue in Commack High School in Long Island, New York was handled.

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Code of Ethics Assignment EDUW 695 Rebeca Arndt


Code of Ethics Assignment
EDUW 695
Portfolio Entry #9
1. Responsibility to Student
The educator is committed to provide a quality education to all students and create, promote,
and implement a learning environment that is accessible to all students so the students achieve
succeed academically, physically, mentally, socially and emotionally in their community and
society. Educators:

A. Embody the Standards for the school, the district and the state of work as applicable to
the educator, in the learning environment;
B. Respect the fundamental stature of each student by assuring that the learning environment
Provides to all students regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, sexual orientation,
disability, religion, language or socioeconomic status a place where their education and
individuality can be nurtures;
C. Maintain a professional relationship with students always while communicating with
them in a transparent and roper manner;
D. Provide a curriculum based on high expectations for each student that meets the needs of
the student;
E. Support each student to develop skills and knowledge needed for a XXI century citizen;
F. Keep in confidence information that has been secured during professional service, unless
disclosure serves professional purposes or is required by law.

2. Responsibility to Colleagues and the Profession


The educator makes efforts to maintain and raise professional standards, to promote a climate
that encourages the exercise of professional judgement and conditions to attract professionals
worthy of trust to careers in education. In fulfilling these goals, the educator:
A. Will extend just, equitable, respectful treatment to all members of the education profession;
B. Will represent his or her own professional qualification with clarity and true intent;
C. Will apply for, accept, offer, recommend, and assign professional positions and
responsibilities based on professional preparation and legal qualifications;
D. Will collaborate with colleagues to support academic achievement and related goals that
promote the best interests of students;
E. Will assist with the professional growth and development of new educators by supporting
effective field experiences, mentoring or induction activities across the career continuum;

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F. Will use honest when making statements about their qualifications and competencies and
employ truthfully effective methods of administering duties, use of time, and conducting
business;
G. Will respect confidential information on colleagues unless disclosure is required by the law or
serves a compelling professional purpose.

3. Responsibility to Parents, Families and Communities


Teachers acknowledge the collaboration with parents, families and communities and work
constantly in building trust while respecting confidently with parents and family to encourage
active involvement in the education of their children. Teachers acknowledge parents and
guardians as the primary educator of the student while the best interest of the student is always
primordial. Teachers will strive to:

A. understand and respect the values and traditions of the diversity represented in the
community;
B. establish open, honest and respectful professional relationships with parents, families,
and communities;
C. involve them in decision-making about the care and education of their children
D. Promote collaboration and support student learning through regular, open, honest and
respectful communication with parents, families, and communities;
E. Respect their privacy of with parents, families, and communities and their right to
information.

4. Responsibility to the State/School Board of Education

The Educator is committed to supporting the Administrative and School Codes, state and federal
laws and regulations, and the School/State Board of Educations standards for highly qualified
educators. Educators will:
A. Provide accurate communication to the School/State Board of Education concerning all
certification matters;
B. Maintain appropriate certification for employment;
C. Comply with state and federal codes, laws, and regulations;
D. Maintain the highest professional standards of accuracy, honesty, and appropriate
disclosure of information when representing the school or district within the community and in
public communications;
E. Advocating for policies and laws that the educator supports as promoting the education
and well-being of students and families;
F. Collaborating with community agencies, organizations, and individuals to advance
students best interests without regard to personal reward or financial gains.

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Ethics issues

1.Jacob and the private school case


Facts Before the parent-teacher conferences began, Mrs. Tami the
owner of a private school gathered around all the employees
in a meeting and among other things in the agenda, the owner
of the school gives clear instructions to the teachers that the
conference should contain only positive remarks. Mrs. Tami
made clear that there will be serious repercussions for the
teachers who will not obey, as in her opinion parents need to
hear great things about their children in order to continue
having their children in the school and therefore pay the
premium.
As Jacobs parent-teacher conference is approaching, Ms. B
struggles to decide on the content of the conference. Jacob is a
bright, funny, restless young guy, always on the move, always
cooking something. Recently he had been involved in a few
violent episodes with other classmates.
It seems that he waits for moments when the Ms. B or her
assistant turn around and begin pushing, kicking or teasing his
friends. Recently he bit one of his best friends cheeks to
blood and behaved as if nothing happened. The incident was
handled by the schools owner and Ms. B did not really learn
what information was disclosed to whom.

Ethical Issue Should Ms. B follow her directors instruction and share only
positive things about Jacob?

Arguments Pro. :
1. Ms. B should follow her directors instruction and
share only positive things about Jacob because she
might lose her job if she does not follow her directors
instructions.
2. Ms. B should follow her directors instruction and
share only positive things about Jacob because
would make it easy for her to deal with the parents
when she creates such a positive environment.
3. Ms. B should follow her directors instruction and
share only positive things about Jacob because it

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might help the schools image of having distinguished


teacher who transforms all students in perfect little
humans.
4. Ms. B should follow her directors instruction and
share only positive things about Jacob because
would make parents feel proud of their son.
Con.:
1. Ms. B should not follow her directors instruction and
share only positive things about Jacob because she
would break her internal moral compass of treating
everyone the same, and being truthful to both parents
and students.
2. Ms. B should not follow her directors instruction and
share only positive things about Jacob because
parents might learn in the future about their sons
behavior and believe that Ms. B. was lying to them by
omitting the truth.
3. Ms. B should not follow her directors instruction and
share only positive things about Jacob because the
parents and her need to discuss the issues that Jacob is
having and find a solution for this issues.
4. Ms. B should not follow her directors instruction and
share only positive things about Jacob because
Jacob might have this type of behavior at home or
with his friends and might hurt again other students or
even worst.
Ethical Decision Ms. B come clean to the parents and presented very
diplomatic the issues that Jacob is having at school. She
learned this way what mom is pregnant and having little time
for Jacob due his hard pregnancy. They also moved in a new
building thats still under construction and the entire routine
of Jacob is compromised.
They agreed on a plan to implement with Jacob. Parents were
very happy about the turnout of the conference.
Consequalists/Nonconsequalist Ms. B. decisions is nonconsequalist as it is based on the
obligation of the teacher to follow rules and principle of
conduct and ethic and be always truthful to her students,
parents and administration. Ms. B strongly believed in the
wrongness of the students actions based on properties
intrinsic to the actions which had to be discussed with the
parents, regardless of the threat to her own job security.

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2.Inappropriate language case


Facts Ms. is teaching French At Jersey Middle School. During
break time, while walking down the hallways she hears a
student shouting in Spanish swearing words towards another
student. Ms. B approaches the place where the shouting
comes from to find a student at a top of a staircase shouting to
other student inappropriate words in Spanish. Ms. B, clearly
disturbed by the language used, approaches the student and
asks him in Spanish whats his name and why is he using that
kind of language?
Scared the student runs away from Ms. B.

Ethical Issue Should Ms. B report the incident to the administration?

Arguments Pro:
1. Ms. B should report the incident to the administration
because this student might use this type of language
some other time.
2. Ms. B should report the incident to the administration
because other Hispanic students might think that this
type of language is okay to use especially since
nobody understand it.
3. Ms. B should report the incident to the administration
because the student in case might use foul language
with other non-Spanish speakers in the school and
promote the creation of a secret swearing
vocabulary In Spanish.
4. Ms. B should report the incident to the administration
because Spanish speaking visitors might hear this kind
of language and this will damage the schools
reputation.
Con: 1. Ms. B should not report the incident to the
administration because she does not even know who that
student was.
2. Ms. B should not report the incident to the administration
because the student was not one of her students and she feels
is not her duty to report such incidents.
3. Ms. B should not report the incident to the administration
because its might create tension among the Hispanic students
and give her a bad reputation.

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4. Ms. B should not report the incident to the administration


because student might not admit to the accusation but instead
blame Ms. B for laying.

Ethical Decision Ms. B reported the incident and together with the English
Language Learner teacher they found the student resolved the
incident.

Consequalists/Nonconsequalist Ms. B. decisions is nonconsequalist as it is based on the


obligation of the student to follow rules of the school and
principle of conduct. Ms. B strongly believed in the
wrongness of the students actions based on properties
intrinsic to the actions.

3.Gina and the television case

Facts Ms. B and her assistant Gina work together in a Montessori


classroom with 24 students ages 3 to 6 old. As one can imagine
there is never a dull moment in their classroom, regardless if the
group is inside or outside.
Ms. B is a strong advocate against the use of technology in the
classroom. She strongly believes that students would first learn
about the world around them, about nature and interact with other
people before being exposed to imaginary play and technology. She
also knows for a fact that many students in her classroom are
exposed at home to technology and spend many hours playing on
their IPad or watching TV. There is however a TV in the classroom,
but Ms. B had never turned it on, nor does she know where the
remote control is.
As Ms. B and Gina work on slightly different shifts, with one or two-
hour difference in between their arrival and ending time, during her
early shift it come to Ms. B s attention that right after she finishes
her shifts, students are gathered in a circle my Gina and they all
watch TV until they are picked up.

Ethical Issue Should Ms. B report the situation to the administration?

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Arguments Pro:
1. Ms. B should report the situation to the administration
since she believes that television should not be used as
a method of educating those students as it is not
Montessori material.
2. Ms. B should report the situation to the administration
because parents of the students might find out about
Ginas approach to education and complain about how
Ms. B manages her classroom.
3. Ms. B should report the situation to the administration
before the administration finds out about the entire
situation because administration might think that Ms.
B was aware about what happens in her classroom at
all times and she it might have serious repercussions
for her career and job security.
Con:
1. Ms. B should first talk to Gina and confront her about her
practice.
2. Ms. B should not talk to the administration because is not
her responsibility to oversee what is happening in the
classroom after her schedule ends.
3. Ms. B should not report the situation to the administration
because for Gina is not the first when she bends the rules in
her favor and that might cost her job.
Ethical Decision Ms. B decided to confront Gina about having her students
watch television after her shift ends. Gina admits bending the
rules but she states that she is too tired to work with the
students on enrichment, late in the evening. They decide to
have a young yogini class in the evening.

Consequalists/Nonconsequalist Ms. Bs decision is consequentialist because her decision was


focused the overall good that her action produced. She views
in this case that moral rules to be as chosen solely based on
their consequences.

Confession case

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Facts After class, Kam is often confiding into Ms. B and shares with her
personal things, small drama happening in the school, latest trends
and other things like this.
Yesterday after class Cam and Natalie were the only students left
in the class. They were still gathering their things and chatting so
Ms. B approached and asked what they talk about.
Kam unraveled how his friend Josey who was celebrating that day
2 months anniversary with her boyfriend just learned from him
how, a couple of months ago, at a party, he made out with her
boyfriend.
Cam continued confessing that this is not the worst thing he had
made, that he slept with other friends boyfriends before.
Ms. B is in a state of shock and does not know what to do or think.
What is clear for her now is that Kam had openly confessed his
sexual preferences.

Ethical Issue Should Ms. B betray Kams trust and further take the
matter do the administration?

Arguments Pro:
Ms. B should discuss the matter with the
administration as is her duty to report any unlawfully
and/or harmful situation to the administration and as it
is the schools duty to assist in such matter. Councilors
in the school can provide their expertise in such
situation.
Ms. B should definitely have a meeting with the
administration which should further what he meant by
slept with other people, because if that means
having sex it is an unlawfully act to pursue.
Ms. B should not only inform the administration of the
school but inform the police that some 8 grade
students are sexually active and that she suspects that
same sex partners are engaging in sexual activities as
well.
Ms. B should get involved into reaching to Kams
parents and sharing to them the information she has.

Against:
Ms. B should not betray Kams trust and keep the
story for herself as the student trust Ms. B and
confides in her often. This can change the way Kam

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sees Ms. B as a person and as a teacher and may harm


her integrity.
Ms. B should not further investigate the matter as it
should be clear to her that slept refers to sexual
activity.
Ms. B should not intervene and discuss the situation
with the police officer, as she is does not have proof
regarding the allegations she is going to make towards
Kam.
Ms. B should not intervene in the matter as the
districts image can be damaged by initiating a gay
investigation.
Ethical Decision Ms. B went and discussed the matter with the administration
as she believed that Kams confession of sleeping with
other males is not appropriate for his age. The act that Kim
confessed to might harm not only Kam but potentially other
students in the school.

Consequalists/Nonconsequalist The decision is nonconsequalist as it is based on the


obligation of the student Kam to follow rules and principle of
conduct. Ms. B strongly believed in the wrongness of Kams
actions based on properties intrinsic to the actions.

4.Kenny and WL opt-out case

Facts Ms. B was informed by the assistant principal that Kennys


mom, Ms. Kretina, had send out an email requesting for a
transfer to a different elective class. As this request is not
unheard of to Ms. B, who encountered before students who
changed their mind when discovered that French is not to their
liking, or they want to do the work, or due to other various other
reasons, Ms. B found disturbing that the mother state that the
reasons for this request is because the teacher is mean to her
son, she does not explain things right and pick on favorites.

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Kenny is Ms. Bs student for one year and a half and to her
surprise he re-enrolled in French even if he had been constantly
below meeting the expectations for the level. In fact Ms. B feels
that Kenny the student who put lowest amount of work in
French and is the student with the lowest grades in French and.
She is quite frustrated that recently she had to email his parents
about a missing assignment that was due 6 weeks ago. She
never received a reply from his parents but days after the email
was send Kenny showed up in class with his assignment done.
Of very poor quality indeed, but all done!
As Ms. B confronted Kenny regarding the accusations made,
he could not actually elaborate or explain what he means by his
words but he strongly expressed that Ms. B picks on
favorites.
After another conversation with the assistant principal, Ms. B
emails to Ms. Kretina and addresses her concern regarding the
accusations made. The reply from the mother, far from being
eloquent, contained even more accusation, such as the
belittlement of young Kenny during class by Ms. B. Ms.
Kretina also ridicule how Ms. B is taking this so strongly to
heart referring to the fact that Kenny wants to switch classes.
Ms. Kretina also forwards Ms. B her phone number but Ms. B
has no desire to speak with the mother.

Ethical Issue Should Ms. B agree to Kennys drop- out from her class?

Arguments
Pro:
1. Ms. B should agree to Kennys drop- out from her
class because obviously the student does not want to
be in her classroom.
2. Ms. B should agree to Kennys drop- out from her
class because most likely continuing to have him in
her class will generate more and more tension with the
parent.
3. Ms. B should agree to Kennys drop- out from her
class because Kenny is not putting a lot of effort into
this WL class and he might use his time more
efficiently while learning more in another class.
4. Ms. B should agree to Kennys drop- out from her
class because is the mothers request for Kenny to opt-
out of Ms. Bs class and such request must be
respected.

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Con:
1. Ms. B should not agree to Kennys drop- out from her
class because this request is based on false claims that need to
be dealt with.
2. Ms. B should not agree to Kennys drop- out from her
class because this would send an incorrect message to other
students that they can lye their way out of the classroom, by
making false accusations towards the teacher.
3. Ms. B should not agree to Kennys drop- out from her
class because it would send an incorrect message to the
administration that might think that she is guilty of the
accusations made by Kenny and instead of finding a plan to
help Kenny to succeed in her class she would rather have him
removed from class.
4. Ms. B should not agree to Kennys drop- out from her
class because she would not want her reputation to be
tarnished by such accusations and she would rather give the
best she can for Kenny to succeed in her class.

Ethical Decision Ms. B did not agree to Kennys removal from her class and
had scheduled a meeting with Mrs. Kretina and assistant
principal to find a solution for this situation. Invoking
personal problems, the mother could not attend the meeting
and seemingly all accusations were dropped since Kenny is
still in Ms. Bs class (doing in fact much better than before).

Consequalists/Nonconsequalist Ms. B. decisions is nonconsequalist as it is based on the


obligation of the student to follow rules and principle of
conduct and ethic and be always truthful to his/her parents,
teacher and administration. Ms. B strongly believed in the
wrongness of the students actions based on properties
intrinsic to the actions which had to be discussed with the
parent and administration, regardless of implications in such
situation. Ms. B believed that she was falsely accused by the
student in order to gain his exit out of that specific class.

Gina and the telephone case

Facts Ms. B and her assistant Gina work together in a classroom with 24 students
ages 3 to 6 old. As one can imagine there is never a dull moment in their
classroom, regardless if the group is inside or outside.
Recently the school administration decided on a new rule in regard to personal
phone usage: personnel may not use their personal cell phone during working

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hours. In case of emergency, a special request should be made to the


administration. The consequences for not following this rule would be at first a
warning and following that monetary penalties.
Ms. B has a flip phone that she rarely uses therefore she is not worried at all
about this rule. In fact she agrees with it since she is often seeing staff member
busy on their phone when they should be watching their students, instruct, or
redirect students behavior. She also fears that parents witness situations like
this recurring and they might not be very happy about it.
On the other hand Gina seems not happy about it and she openly states that
she does not care about the new rule even if her financial situation is quite bad
and a cut in her salary would have devastating consequences to her and her
family. She continue to use her IPhone, however most of the times she tries to
hide in a corner while being on her phone or cover it with clothing items, or
inside her pockets.

Ethical Issue Should Ms. B reveal to the administration the fact that Gina is repeatedly
breaking the rule?

Arguments Pro: Ms. B should reveal to the administration the fact that Gina is using
her IPhone while on duty because that is the new rule implemented by
the administration.
2. Ms. B should reveal to the administration the fact that Gina is using her
IPhone while on duty because the use of the phone is impeding and
distracting Gina to do her job.
3 Ms. B should reveal to the administration the fact that Gina is using her
IPhone while on duty because she might be seen by parents while on job
and be perceived by an employee that does not do her job and instead of
educating their children she is busy on her phone.
4. Ms. B should reveal to the administration the fact that Gina is using
her IPhone while on duty because Ms. B now has to put more work into
her job since she cant reply on Gina to be her second pair of eyes at all
times.
Con:
1. Ms. B should not reveal to the administration the fact that Gina is
using her IPhone while on duty because Gina will find out that Ms. B is
the one that shared that information and it would most likely create more
tension between the two women, especially since they work every day so
close together.
2. Ms. B should not reveal to the administration the fact that Gina is
using her IPhone while on duty because for Gina there will be financial
repercussions that will impact her negatively.
3. Ms. B should not reveal to the administration the fact that Gina is
using her IPhone while on duty because it might create tension with
other colleagues as well as she will be seen as a person who cant be
trusted.

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Ethical Decision Ms. B did not reveal to the administration the fact that Gina is using her
IPhone while on duty but another colleague did and Gina was after all
sacked.

Consequalist Ms. Bs decision is consequalist in its nature as Ms. B thought that not
/Nonconsequalist revealing to the administration the fact that Gina is using her IPhone
while on duty would produce the right kinds of overall consequences.
She thought that the morally of her act would depend only
on consequences (as opposed to the circumstances or the intrinsic nature
of the act or anything that happens before the act).

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HAS THE TIME ARRIVED FOR UNIVERSAL PRESCHOOL?

HAS THE TIME ARRIVED FOR UNIVERSAL PRESCHOOL?

For Universal Preschool Against Universal Preschool


Preschools should provide Preschools are now factories
foundation for brain for rote memorization and
development and future dry instruction
learning.
Erika Christakis a childhood development
Since neuroscience clearly identifies the first
specialist at Yale University, the author of the
years of life as the most critical years in
book The Importance of Being Little: What
terms of brain development and foundation
Preschoolers Really Need from Grownups
of human adaptability.
argues that preschools take away childhood
In the first years of life, childs brain
from children who longer are offered enough
undergoes an impressive amount of change.
room to play, leading them to become less
At birth, it already has about all the neurons
inquisitive, curious thinkers. Many people
it will ever have. It doubles in size in the first
believe that while the focus on academic of
year, and by age three it has reached 80
more and more preschools increases, the
percent of its adult volume. The growth and
concern in the childs cognitive and social
then environmentally based pruning of
development is lessening.
neuronal systems in the first years support
a range of early skills, including cognitive
skills (early language, literacy, math), social
(theory of mind, empathy, prosocial),
persistence, attention, and self-regulation as
well as the voluntary control of attention and
behavior.
To provide the best environment for this
growth and development to happen,
preschools need to provide high quality
platforms for such development to happen.

All kids can benefit from quality pre- Preschools are failing to offer high
K/ public education in a democracy quality education
should be equally available to all
As they are often seen as little more than
As the mandatory Preschool for All initiative glorified daycare centers that lacks facilities
would invest $75 billion over 10 years in a for meeting the childrens needs and fostering
federal-state partnership aimed at providing quality education, public and private
all 4-year-olds from low- and moderate- preschools in United States spend only 0.4
income families with access to high-quality percent of our GDP, while Denmark, Spain,
preschool, states throughout the country are and Israel each spend at least 0.9 percent.
encouraged to expand those programs to Preschool staffs often consist of unskilled,
reach additional children from middle-class low-paid employees (an average of 6$

pg. 18
EDUW 695/Ethics and Issues in Education

families and establish full-day kindergarten more/hour than fast food workers) who work
policies. under the guise of classroom teachers.
While research base in the Unites States is Often preschool staff does not use lesson
strongest preschool programs impacts low- plans, nor it focuses on developing the
income children, international studies as well cognitive, physical, and social skills expected
as some national studies show that early of todays kindergartners.
childhood programs can produce large short- Meanwhile the ratio of teachers to children, a
term benefits for children on intelligence key element of preschool quality that should
quotient (IQ) and sizable long-term effects demonstrate its strong commitment in
on school achievement, grade retention, providing quality education is in United States
placement in special education, and social of an average of 1 to 15 in more than double
adjustment. As long-term effects, recent in comparison to countries as Sweden, Estonia
meta-analyses providing information on or Germany which have a ratio of 1 to 6.
effects into elementary school and beyond, Given the poor quality of much current
argues that preschool education has preschool education, it might instead produce
significant lasting effects on cognitive mild negative consequences.
abilities, school progress (grade repetition,
special education placement, and high school
graduation), and social behavior. Investing in
high-quality preschool environments that
help children learn is more efficient and
effective than trying to remedy learning
problems later on.
Preschool helps children develop Universal pre-K going to waste a lot
important social and self- of money on families that don't need
regulation skills. it

Children need to interact with many same- Entitlements policy analysts, lawmakers,
aged peers to develop skills that will help politicians and even professors argue that the
them succeed at school. These skills include benefit of providing universal early education
listening, sharing, and waiting, taking turns, outweighs the costs and investments. While
and even learning how to lose (for example, research finds that the programs with the
in a game). Children also need to learn largest and longest lasting effects are the most
school-related behaviors to help them thrive educationally intensive and expensive and
in the classroom, such as paying attention, with the vast majority of 4 year olds already
following directions, and completing tasks. enrolled in some sort of child-care center,
Current research shows that self-regulation nursery school or Head Start, the new
(the ability to control one's behavior, program would be basically subsidizing the
attention, and emotions) is a strong predictor middle income families who can already
of early success in school. Kids who can afford to pay for their childrens education.
refrain from expressing strong anger, can
focus on a task despite distractions, raise
their hand instead of calling out, or ask for a
toy instead of taking it tend to adjust more
easily to school environments. Although
parents can certainly encourage these self-

pg. 19
EDUW 695/Ethics and Issues in Education

regulation skills at home, preschool helps


kids develop them in a consistent context so
they can utilize them often.

Universal preschool can drive Half of the mothers do not need


changes in kindergarten and preschool education
elementary practice by accelerating
childrens learning
As more than half of all mothers stay home
with their children while almost 60% of them
When all or most children enter
is having a child under 3. Only half of the stay
kindergarten with the benefits of quality pre-
at home mothers put their children in a
K education, kindergarten and elementary
preschool or nursery school, even dough they
teachers can change their curriculum and
do not need child-care, government funded
teaching practices to build on what they
pre-k programs would have little or no
know children learned in preschool which
educational effect.
sub sequentially will accelerate childrens
elementary learning.
However, this benefit can be lost when only
some children attend preschool. Instead of
building on preschool gains, kindergarten
teachers currently must focus on catching up
children who did not attend.

Bibliography:
1. Taking Sides: Clashing views on educational issues, 18/e page 174, 2008

https://drive.google.com/a/smumn.edu/file/d/0B8LzxXmFd0PQNENsaklfTWo2MnNSYUV1R2liLWNCa0U5VEc
0/view

2. The Case Against Universal Preschool by Alia Wang, Nov 2014

http://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2014/11/the-case-against-universal-preschool/382853/

3. Investing in Our Future: The Evidence Base on Preschool Education by Hirokazu Yoshikawa,
Christina Weiland, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Margaret R. Burchinal, Linda M. Espinosa, William T. Gormley,
Jens Ludwig, Katherine A. Magnuson, Deborah Phillips, Martha J. Zaslow, October 2013

http://fcd-us.org/sites/default/files/Evidence%20Base%20on%20Preschool%20Education%20FINAL.pdf

4. The Myth of the First Three Years, A New Understanding of Early Brain Development and Lifelong
Learning by JOHN T. BRUER, 1999

https://www.nytimes.com/books/first/b/bruer-myth.html

5. Do we already have universal preschool? by: Grover J. "Russ" Whitehurst and Ellie Klein,
September 2015

http://www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2015/09/17-do-we-already-have-universal-preschool-whitehurst-
klein

6. The United States Is Far Behind Other Countries on Pre-K by Juliana Herman, Sasha Post, Scott
O'Halloran, May 2013

pg. 20
EDUW 695/Ethics and Issues in Education

https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/education/report/2013/05/02/62054/the-united-states-is-far-
behind-other-countries-on-pre-k/

7. Pre-K for All by Sara Mead, March 2015

http://www.usnews.com/opinion/knowledge-bank/2015/03/26/5-reasons-we-need-universal-pre-k

8. Few States Look to Extend Preschool to All 4-Year-Olds by MOTOKO RICH, Feb 2013

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/14/education/early-education-far-short-of-goal-in-obama-speech.html

9. Preschool Education and Its Lasting Effects: Research and Policy Implications by W. Steven
Barnett, Ph.D. National Institute for Early Education Research Rutgers, The State University of New
Jersey, September 2008

http://nieer.org/resources/research/PreschoolLastingEffects.pdf

10. Long-Term Effects of Early Childhood Programs on Cognitive and School Outcomes byW. Steven
Barnett, 1995

https://www.princeton.edu/futureofchildren/publications/docs/05_03_01.pd

pg. 21
EDUW 695/Ethics and Issues in Education

Issue Outline
Is a College Education Worth It?
What is your
issue?

My issue involves arguments on two sides: on one side people argue that college is
worth it contending that college graduates have higher employment rates, bigger
Who does your salaries, more work benefits than high school graduates, while on the other side people
issue involve? argue that high school graduates who by not getting into debt, are more likely to save
for retirement, buy a house or get married, and they can become quite successful in job
that do not require college degrees.

This issue impacts education because now more than ever students need to be prepared
to continue their education beyond high school.
How is your
issue impacting
education today?

The issue regarding the value of a college degree has been a controversial topic for
many years, however in the light of the newest studies it seems that the gap between
Why is this the college-degree holders and those with high school diplomas only is steadily widened
issue for each generation.
controversial? It appears that for millennials ages 25 to 32, median annual earnings for full-time
working college-degree holders are $17,500 greater than for those with high school
diplomas only.

1. Study: Income Gap Between Young College and High School Grads Widens
by Danielle Kurtzleben
List the three
http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2014/02/11/study-income-gap-between-
articles you read young-college-and-high-school-grads-widens
about your issue.
2. What's the value of a college education? It depends by Jennifer Barrett
http://www.cnbc.com/2015/06/19/is-a-college-degree-overvalued.html
3. Why College Is Still Worth It Even Though It Costs Too Much? by Liz Weston /
Reuters

pg. 22
EDUW 695/Ethics and Issues in Education

http://time.com/money/4061150/college-degree-worth-it/

Against College Education

Identify an 1. The increase in student loan debt puts at risk graduate students credit score
and can impede hiring opportunities.
organization and
tell their view.

Between 2003 and 2012 the number of college graduate students with student
debt almost doubled from 25% to a staggering 43% increased.

According to the US Congress Joint Economic Committee, approximately 60% of 2011


college graduates have student loan debt balances equal to 60% of their annual income
which often leads to a lower credit score which often jeopardizes future purchases and
even employment.

2. Student loan debt takes a toll on college graduates by pressuring them to live
with their parents and delay retirement, buying a house and/or marriage.

As millennials are buried under a mountain of student debt they have little shot at the
American Dream of homeownership. According to the American Community Survey,
36.8% of young adults under the age of 30 owned a home in 2006, but the rate of young-
adult homeownership fell to 32.3% by 2013.

While Reserve Bank of St. Louis found that the median net worth for households with no
student loans is nearly three times higher for households with student loans, Federal
Reserve Bank of New York (FRBNY) provided evidence that student loan debt is
discouraging home buying among young adults.

3. Many college graduates are employed in jobs that do not require


college degrees.

According to the Department of Labor, in 2012, 1 in 3 college graduates had a job that
required a high school diploma or less.

Overwhelming numbers of college graduating parking lot attendants, bartenders,


janitors and taxi drivers bring home up to 40% less per week than those who work in
jobs requiring college degrees.

4. Colleges are failing to prepare college students for workforce

With business world changing so quickly, it seems that academia id been left behind by
lowering its standards and treating students like customers.

A recent survey, dating January 2015, released by The Association of American Colleges
and Universities (AACU) which surveyed a group of employers and college students the
quality of career preparation found that employers are concerned about new graduates

pg. 23
EDUW 695/Ethics and Issues in Education

not having a range of skills in areas like communication and team work. From a range of
nearly 20 skills, employers consistently rated students much lower than they judged
themselves. While 57 percent of students said, they were creative and innovative, for
example, just 25 percent of employers agreed.

This survey seems to be in sync with the survey stating that 36% of students
demonstrated no significant improvement on Collegiate Learning Assessments after 4
years of college.

pg. 24