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Prepared by W. Boria and P, Snyder, P.E.
Chautauqua County Department of Health and Human Services
February 9,2016


The Village of Fredonia has a population of LA,792 which is served bythe Village's Public
Water Supply through 3,500 + service connections, The Village also serves another 400
people in the Town of Pomfret Water Districts (Berry Rd, Chestnut Rd and North End)
through 156 service connections, along with 6,224 students and staff at the State
University of New York at Fredonia.

The original water supply system was completed in 1884 and utilized a small surface
water reservoir located close to the current one. Water from the current Fredonia
Reservoir is treated using a conventional surface water treatment plant with
coagulation, solids removal, conventional filtration, corrosion control and chlorine


Source Description-Fredonia Reservoir

The village water needs are served by the Fredonia Reservoir located 2 miles south of
the village in the Lake Erie watershed. This is an upland reservoir fed by one north
flowing tributary stream that originates near the north end of Cassadaga Lakes. The
outlet from the reservoir flows to Canadaway Creek, a tributary to Lake Erie; Cassadaga
Lakes is in the Alleghany-Ohio-Mississippi watershed and flows south. The original water
system was constructed in 1884 and included a 10 MG reservoir. A second upper
reservoir with a capacity of 90 MG
was subsequently added above
the first, Then in 1937, the upper
reservoir was replaced with the
existing 335 MG reservoir and the
lower 10 MG reservoir

Photo: Fredonia Reservoir at full

capacity. View looking south from the
dam where the top of the intake
structure is visible.
This is a flow-through type reservoir with a concrete spillway. The watershed area for
the reservoir is approximately 5.5 square miles of which the Village owns a little more
than 317 acres, or 0.5 square miles.

ln 1967 the reservoir intake was cut down to allow water to be drawn from as deep as
possible during drought. Two 12" cast iron pipes lead from the reservoir intake to the
filter plant that are encased in concrete inside a rock tunnel. These pipes provide the
ability to draw water from either the shallow or deep portion of the intake. There is
also an abandoned 24" line that used to draw water from an old intake that has not be
used since before 1964 because it is covered with silt.

The reservoir suffers from infilling by erosion and sedimentation. This is a natural
process that is exacerbated by the steep topography and erosive soils. Stream
gradients in the watershed range from2.7 to 4.6Yo, which is steep but typical of the
entire Lake Erie Escarpment in Chautauqua County. For comparison, the average
stream gradients for the streams feeding Chautauqua Lake, located in the Alleghany-
Mississippi watershed, are less than 1%. Since it was constructed, the reservoir has lost
43% af its volume to sedimentation, or about 2 MG per year.

Four bathymetric surveys (volume measurements) of the reservoir have been

c 1937 New Reservoir constructed - capacity 335 MG
1964 Reservoir surveyed - capacity 305.5 MG (by Senior, Bissell & Bronke
a 1984 Reservoir Surveyed - capacity 27L MG (by K. Matai, SUNY Fredonia)
a L988 Spillway raised L.3 ft increasing capacity by 20.9 MG
a 1990 Reservoir Surveyed - capacity 2L1 MG (by Pieczonka Engineering, volume
calculated by Wilson and Shermet, SUNY Fredonia).
Photos: Top Left - Main stem of stream feeding
reservoir taken at Darby Switch Rd. Note
stream water is Iaden with grey sediment
caused by bank erosion. Top Right - Location
of one erosion problem upstream of Darby
Switch Rd. Note water is clear except along far
bank, Lower Right - View f rom mouth of
stream at reservoir inlet showing sediment
deposited over recent years. Taken in20O7
when the reservoir was low, this area would normally be under water.

Numerous heavystorms and floods overthe years have accelerated reservoir infilling. A
report by FEMA stated that 5 feet of sediment was deposjted in the reservoir along the
inlet stream and 2 feet at the water intake structure between 1954 and 1972,with75%
of it from one storm (Hurricane Agnes in June 1,972). Ongoing erosion processes and
other storms have also deposited large amounts of sediment in the reservoir. Dredging
projects were planned in 1965, 1972,1999 and 2001 but were never completed.

The total amount of water currently avaiiable for use (i.e. above the intake) is currently
unknown. Most recent estimates are 213.8 MG by Harza Engineering (1999), 157 MG by
Wilson and Shermet {2008) and 201 MG by O'Brien & Gere (2011). These
measurements vary significantly and must be recalculated. O'Brien & Gere will be
completing a new bathymetric survey in 201"6 to help sort this out.

ln addition to erosion and sedimentation problems, the reservoir has also been stressed
by drought. lt has been depleted in late summer-fall due to drought at least l-0 times
Photos: Fredonia Reservoir intake when
lmpacted by drought; Left 2007; Right 1991.

over the past 50 years. The reservoir capacity during these times ranged from about
50% to less than 5% {5A%b 95% depleted). The three most serious recent droughts
occurred in L991 (95% depleted), 1998-1999 {78% depleted)and 2007 (60% depleted).
During water emergencies in 1991 and 1998 the Village pumped water from Cassadaga
Lakes, across the Allegheny - Lake Erie watershed divide to the stream that feeds the
reservoir. NYSDEC made emergency provisions to permit this water transfer but they
will not allow it again. lnstead they required the Village to conduct a supptemental
water supply study which was complete in 1999. This study looked at various options to
increase the supply of water including construction of another reservoir, increasing the
size of the existing reservoir, dredging and developing groundwater wells, Dredging had
been proposed several times previously but never underlaken; the other options
including wells were investigated but found to be too costly or not feasible.

An interconnection to the City of Dunkirk system along with a drought emergency plan
and water conservation plan were ultimately chosen as a solution to reservoir
shortages, but development of a permanent alternate source of water was mandated by
NYSDEC in 1998 and never accomplished.

NYSDEC Dam lnspections

The most recent inspection of the dam was completed on October 74,2AL5 by NYSDEC.
The inspection report indicates that the reservoir is a high risk Class C dam. Recent
improvements to the dam included the installation an access way to the west
embankment for maintenance and monitoring purposes, along with a hydraulic analysis
of the embankment which included borings and installation of monitoring wells. The
report indicates:
. The dam has inadequate spillway capaclty to handle the spillway design flood,
which would be created by a rare massive storm. This is a serious deficiency
because overtopping of the dam embankment would most likely lead to its
r The spillway does not meet DEC's structural stability criteria and there are some
repairs required.
r The dam embankment must be cut and maintained free of trees and brush.
Currently the west side of the dam is severely overgrown and the east side has
small trees, brush and other vegetation, lf left, the roots can lead to further
stability problems.

Supplemental Source
The interconnection to the City of Dunkirk's water system was constructed in 1993 in
response to the 1991 drought. lt has been used on a semi-routine basis, especially
during the droughts of 1998, 1.999 and 2007. However it is only capable of supplying a
portion of the village's needs. The design flow of the pump station was 800 gpm (1.2
MGD). However its actual maximum pumping capacity is only 640 gpm (0.92 MCD). To
achieve 800 gpm, Dunkirk's 8" water main on Vineyard Drive would need to be upsized
to a 10" main and the line into and out of the station would need to be upsized. More
importantly, use of the pump station reduces water pressure to the City's commercial
customers on Vineyard Drive to a point where water service is disrupted or pressures
fall below 20 psi, which creates a violation for the City. These limitations make using the
existing interconnection a problem, except at a much reduced pumping rate.

Source Capital lmprovement Needs

The geology of the watershed and steep stream gradients create significant long-term
challenges for using all upland reservoirs in Chautauqua County as water supply.
Solutions to these problems should address both the cause (stream erosion)and the
symptoms (turbidity and sedimentation). However, the cause could be ignored with
greater reliance placed on routine maintenance and dredglng. ln addition to dredging, a
sedimentation basin should be installed at the reservoir inlet to trap sediment before it
reaches the reservoir. This would be designed to be cleaned out yearly, To further
prevent erosion and sedimentation, tributary streams to the reservoir should be
surveyed to identify and prioritize areas where streambank erosion is a problem. These
can then be stabilized using non-point source pollution best management practices for
erosion control. However, most areas would be located on private property so
landowner agreements would be necessary for the Vlllage to undertake this work.

Harza Engineering (1999) looked at several options to increase source water capacity for
the village. Those options deemed feasible are listed below with capital costs
extrapolated to 2015 dollars using U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics inflation rates.
o Reservoir Dredging (adds 62 MC) s8.33 M
r Relocate intake to deeper pool (adds 27 MG) s613K

Bacik-Karpinski Associates (2001) prepared an engineering report and permit

applications to conduct maintenance dredging once per year over a 10 year period that
would add a total of 3 to 4 MG of capacity, but a cost estimate was not included.

O'Brien & Gere is currently working on the following engineering studies - to be

completed in 2016:
r Complete new bathymetric survey of reservoir
r Evaluate construction of a new intake in a deeper area of reservoir
. Required improvements needed to bring the dam and spillway into compliance
(this work was previously estimated at $ 3.5 M)

An additional engineering study is needed to identify best course of action and

determine the costs associated with the following:
. Dredge reservoir $ I
r Install sedimentation basins S I
o Stabilize critical stream bank areas $ f
In a meeting on Novemb er 24,2014 between Village, City and County staff with Clark
Patterson Lce aud Iiill Engineering, Central Avenue near the college was selected as an
optin-ral location for a new purnp station.
o lnstall new purxp stalion (March 2015 estimate) $2.7 M

To maintairr the rcsenoir as a reliablc source for the foreseeable future will require
careful planning and a sigriificant investment by the Village Board. A combination of
actions listed above is lequired to secure the reservoir for another 30 to 50 years, The
ultimatc useful lifc ol'thc rescrvoir and dam will depend on the rnaintenance and
improvements undertaken over the next ten years, as well as the severity and frequerrcy
of future stomls.

A sltorl- attd lortg-lernr ttcliorr plart to ctdt{ress source issrtes mus! be devcloped nttd
snbtrtitted to the CCDHHS. Tltis x'auld be best accornplished through strategic
planning by the Village Board.

Source Operation and Maintenance Needs (costs not determined|

. Update drought emergency plan based on new bathymetric survey (e.g. what
reservoir level triggers purchasing water from Dunkirk?)
. Monitoring and reporting per NYSDEC Dam Safety regulations.
. Update dam emergency action plan.
. |nspect tunnel containing pipes leading from reservoir to plant and conduct
maintenance and make improvements as needed.
. lnstall door on tunnel outlet.
. Cut vegetation and mow dam embankments on BOTH sides of spillway.
. Conduct Watershed Rules and Regulations inspections as by NYSDOH.
Submit inspection report to CCDHHS.
. Purchase water from Dunkirk when needed (i.e. during significant main breaks,
drought or other emergencies).
. Re-survey reservoir bathymetry every 10 years.
. Clean out sedimentation basin. Yearly if/when constructed.
. lnspect, repair and replace stream bank erosion control structure. Yearly if/when
Treatment Plant Description
The originaltreatment plant was constructed in L927-28 and included a coagulation
basin, two filters with a capacity of 1 MGD and a 319,200 gallon clearwell/storage tank.
The treatment building was expanded in 1937 and a third filter added increasing plant
capacity to 1.5 MGD. ln 1967 the building was further expanded and a fourth filter was
added along with a new rapid mix chamber; the old coagulation basin was
decommissioned and replaced with two high rate waterflocculation units (brand name
lnfilco Accelerators, generically known as upflow clarifiers). This increased the plant
capacity to 2.5 MGD. Finally, the filters, pipe gallery, chemical injection systems,
instrumentation and controls were upgraded in 2005.

Photo: Village of Fredonia Water Treatment Plant

Water from the reservoir flows from the intake through the plant and to the village
entirely by gravity. High capacity pumps are used to backwash filters. When water
enters the plant polyaluminum chloride, cationic polymer, and bentonite clay are added
in a rapid mix chamber, Powder activated carbon was used in the past as a ffeatment
additive, but was discontinued several years ago. From the mix chamber water enters
the two upflow clarifiers that are connected in parallel and provide coagulation,
flocculation and 95% of particle removal. Water then flows to the four dual media
filters containing 18" of anthracite coal and L2" of sand, where any remaining solids,
particulates and contaminants are removed. Chlorine gas is then added as a
disinfectant and zinc orthophosphate is added to inhibit corrosion and reduce lead and
copper problems in the distribution system. The water then enters the clearwell that
provides the required chlorine contact time and initiai water storage and then onto the
viltage. Backwash water from the filters and sediment that accumulates in the clarifiers
is pumped to a sludge basin where the solids settle out and the liquid discharged to the
creek. The basin is pumped out every two to three years and the sludge transported to
the Village's wastewater treatment plant.
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Q.*t *gt0''tr flN* ? Yvovtl Hfufi'-lr

Photos; Top Left - Liquid chemical feed systems;

Top Right - Rapid mix chamber; Lower Left -
upflow clarifiers.

The treatment ptant is completely

automated and alarmed allowing for
unsupervised night operation. lt is
currently being staffed during two shifts
from 6 AM to 2 PM and 2 PM to 10 PM and on unmanned/automated operation
between 1"0 PM and 6 AM,

Average water production was 1.82 MG in 2014 and 1.55 MG in 2015. Average
production dropped approximately 0.5 MGD after the Carriage House closed in spring of

Treatment Plant Evaluation and Capital Needs (costs to be determined)

The water treatment plant requires a number of significant improvements to bring it
into compliance and/or ensure its long-term operation and ability to reliably produce
drinking water that meets NYSDOH standards. This includes:

. The surface wash pumps each must have a reduced pressure zone (RPZ)
backflow prevention device installed. This is a violation of Part 5, Subpart 5-1.31
Cross Connection Control in that a NYSDOH approved reduced pressure zone
(RPZ) backflow prevention device needs to be installed forthe surface wash
. The disinfection byproduct (DBP) removal study needs to be finished by O'Brien
and Gere, engineering plans approved by the CCDHHS and fully implemented for
reducing DBPs in the distribution system, Refer to the Distribution section of this
report for information about DBP levels.
. Drainage in the underground pipe gallery is very poor and needs to be improved.
This is a high moisture area with standing water that accelerates pipe and valve
. Spill containment is needed around the liquid chemical storage area and the area
needs to be configured to minimize the need to move 55 gallon drums around.
. For safety reasons dry chemical storage, handling and feed operations must be
isoiated from the general plant area. Use of powdered activated carbon is
strictly prohibited without this and other protective measures in place.
. Windows in the chlorine gas treatment room need to be bricked up and securely
blocked out. They are currently covered with plywood.
. Clearwell manholes are deteriorated and must be repaired; manhole covers
must be replaced with Bilco type hatches that are watertight, overlap and are
lockable; vents must be repaired or replaced.

. The hydraulic actuators for the valves that control the discharge of the sludge
from the clarifiers should be replaced and tied into the SCADA system.

Treatment Plant Operation and Maintenance Needs (costs to be determined)

o A detailed standard operating procedure (SOP) manual for the entire water
system must be completed.
o Filter media was last changed in 7AO2 and must be evaluated to determine if it
needs to be replaced. Report due in 2016; schedule media replacement if
. Upflow clarifiers need to be drained, inspected and cleaned. This will be difficult
to accomplish due to the lack of finished water storage capacity and/or a
properly sized interconnection with the City of Dunkirk. Due by the end of 2018.
. Auto switchover for coagulant feed pumps must be installed.
o All treatment plant operators must be familiar with all aspects of SOP and
proficient at running jar tests to calculate chemical feed rates based on water
quality changes.
. Pipe gallery must be kept dry and allexposed metal surfaces scraped, painted
and free of rust.
. Flow arrows and labels must be installed on all piping.
r All valves must be exercised routinely and those that do not work scheduled for
o Changes must be made to chemical handling/storage to improve operator
r Hydrant next to plant entrance is inoperable and must be tested, rebuilt and/or
. A security Bate must be installed on the driveway to the plant to control
unauthorized access to plant after hours.
o New security cameras must be installed that provide greater coverage and the
ability to record. These security improvements are especially important since no
one is at the plant during third shift.


Water StoraEe Descri ption

The 319,200 gallon two compartment clearwell was constructed in 1928 and provides
chlorine contact time for treatment as well as some amount of storage. The village also
has a L MG ground levelwelded steel storage tank which was installed in 1958. Water
flows by gravity from the clearwell to the storage tank but must be pumped from the
storage tank into the distribution system.

Water Storage Evaluation

Clear well:
. Last inspected in June 2014.
o Curtains were installed in 2003 inside clearwell to increase contact time and
improve water turnover.

Storage Tank:
. Drained completely, sediment removed, cleaned and inspected by village staff in
. Cathodic protection replaced in 201,4: new cathodic monitoring system installed
and placed into operation in 2015 by Corrpro, lnc. The system is now inspected
annually under maintenance contract with Corrpro.
e Exterior last painted in 2001; interior recoated in 200L,
. Pressure differences between tank and adjacent main require pumps be used to
transfer water from tank to distribution system.
. Provides approximately 0.7 days of drinking water storage which is less than the
minimum l day required by NYSDOH.
r Does not provide adequate storage for fire flow, which was estimated to be 4.1
MGD when the plant was upgraded in 1957.

Water Storage Needs

The storage tank does not meet current design standards for volume; therefore the
village must provide for additional storage or municipal interconnection capacity to
meet NYSDOH standards. Volume should be based upon projected future domestic and
fire flow demands,

. The Village is in violation of Part 5, Suhpart 5-1, Appendix A, Recommended
Standards for Water Works Section 7.01 in that there is an insufficient amount
of finished water storage to meet fire flows and domestic demands combined.
The total available amount of finished drinking water storage is approxirnately
70% of the average daily demand not including fire flow {one full day of storage
is required by NYSDOH standards). The village must construct additional storage
capacity or a new, upgraded interconnection with the City of Dunkirk.
. The storage tank volume must be turned over more frequently. Obrien & Gere
are to make recommendation on this such as installing a mixer in the tank.
. The storage tank must be retrofitted with a device for reducing DBPs following
O'Brien & Gere's report.
. Upgrades to the manhole covers and frames above the clearwell still have not
been completed. The clearwell manhole covers and vents need to be replaced.
This is a violation of Part 5, Subpart 5-1-1.71 (b) in that the respondent failed to
exercise due care and diligence in the maintenance of its water treatment plant.

. The Village should evaluate whether modifying the hydraulics frorn the plant by
means of installing pressure reducing valves in specific locations would allow the
pumps at the storage tank to be abandoned.

Photos: Left-oneoftwoclearwell manholes.Bothmustberepairedandnewcoversinstalled. Right-

looking down into clearwell. Note that deteriorated, exposed rebar in both photos.

Water Storage Capital lmprovement Needs

o New storage tank or (?
. New interconnect (see also Source section of this Report) Sz.z lvt

Water Storage Operation and Maintenance

. Complete installation of ultrasonic meter on inlet to tank.
o A water tap must be installed to measure chlorine residuals at the tank inlet,

. A water tap must be installed to measure chlorine residuals at the tank outlet
without having to enter a confined space area.
o O'Brien and Gere to provide recommendation on tank operations to reduce
disinfection byp rodu cts.
o Webster Road tank must be inspected every 5 years by a qualified storage tank
inspector to determine if any repairs are needed and when the interior and
exterior must be painted/recoated.


Distribution System Description

The Village has over 55 miles of water mains with approximately 3,500 service
connections and provides service to the State University of New York at Fredonia and
the Town of Pomfret.

Three major transmission mains lead to the village from the treatment plant: a 12" cast
iron pipe installed in 1"895 and?4" ductile iron pipe installed about 1984 are routed
down Water Streeq another 12" cast iron pipe is routed down Spoden Rd and Route 60
and Porter Ave installed in 1935.

Approximaiely 75% of water mains in the distribution system are cast iron pipe that
were installed more than 60 years ago, with a large portion installed in the 1890s.
System expansions in the 1940s and 50s extended water service to outer areas of the
village. Coincidentally, the iron pipes used in the late 1890s were made with better
steel than those from the 40s and 50s and have thus performed better. The remaining
25% of water mains are ductile iron pipe that were installed after 1970. Water lines
along Main Street (Rt 20) were replaced in 1996 when the NYSDOT reconstructed the
road. Most service lines connected to Village owned mains are made of either lead,
galvanized iron with lead goosenecks to main, or copper with lead goosenecks. Copper
only services were not installed until approximately 1960 or possibly later. Almost all
customer water meters have been replaced since 2O04. Unaccounted for water (volume
of water lost to leaks, hydrant flushing, fire department use and unmetered
connections) was determined to be L2% in 2010,

Disinfection Byproducts: DBPs include trihalomethanes (TTHMs) and haloacetic acids

(HAAs) which are formed through a reaction between organic matter present in the
water and chlorine, The levels of DBP are directly proportionalto the amount of organic
matter present and the amount of time chlorine has to react with them. DBPs are
formed in the distribution system and are typically highest in those areas with the
longest water residence times, such as dead end mains furthest from the treatment

Compliance monitoring results from 2015 for TTHMs are currently between 55 and 57
pg/l, and for HAAs between 30 and 56 prg/l ll Ve/l = 1 part per billion) from samples

collected from targeted locations in the village. The maximum contaminant level for
TTHMs is 80 [e/l; and for HAAs is 60 pg/|. \4/hile the village is currently in compliance,
the levels are elevated and have exceeded the MCL at times. DBP monitoring
conducted in the Pomfret water districts has also been close to the limit.

Lead and Copper: To reduce leaching of lead and copper from water rnains, service lines
and household plumbing, the Village treats the water with zinc orthophosphate to
control corrosion in the distribution system. Elevated lead levels were identified in the
village in 2005 subsequent to the completion of filter upgrades. These upgrades could
have altered water quality enough to slightly increase corrosivity, which increased lead
levels. Corrosion control treatment was subsequently added, which has reduced lead to
acceptable levels. Compliance levels for lead in the distribution system are 7.4 prg/I, well
below the action level standard of 15 pg/|.

Distribution System Evaluation

. Distribution system has been mapped using GPS and is being used to develop an
updated map and hydraulic model by O'Brien & Gere.
. Water mains are flushed yearly (more frequently in zones with poor water
quality). O'Brien & Gere is working on a unidirectionalflushing plan based on a
new distribution system modelthat will also provide for exercising valves.
. There are isolated locations where water quality (brown or black water) is a
problem. This is primarily from Carrol Avenue north to the village line.
. There are 3 automatic flushing valves in the system to control watr quality
problems at dead ends (located on Carrol Ave and north).
. There are approximately 500 hydrants; all but roughly 6 are in working order.
o Many valves may not work and are not exercised on a regular schedule.
. Pressure is adequate throughout the system.
. Top three priorities for addressing issues and concerns in the distribution
1. Construct upgraded interconnection with the City of Dunkirk
2. Prioritize areas of distribution systern for capital improvements, which
include zones with poor water quality, old mains, valves and hydrants
3. lmplement results of pending engineering study to reduce levels of
d isi nfection byproducts

Distribution System Needs

A new interconnection with the City of Dunkirk is needed to provide a redundant source
in case of an emergency or drought and to undertake certain inspection/repair activities
at the filter plant. A new interconnect will: (1) replace the existing interconnection
which, (2) alleviate severe pressure and volume problems that the City customers in the
Vineyard Drive area experience when the interconnection is activated, (3) provide a
redundant source of water that can meet all Village demands when needed, (4)
elirninate the need to construct additional storage tanks and (5) address the existing
violation for lacking proper storage volume.

A new distribution system model and GIS mapping program is being developed by
O'Brien & Gere. This should identify all distribution system facilities and their condition
for use in targeting those needing replacement based on age, material and condition
along with identifying and logging the location of main breaks and water quality

Approximately 75% of the distribution system is comprised of old and possibly

deteriorated cast iron water mains. These water mains need to be identified and either
replaced if they are structurally inadequate, or cleaned and lined if the mains are of
sufficient size and in good condition.

Distribution System Capital lmprovements (cosls not determinedl

Water main replacement and/or rehab Sl
Total Capital: $ ?

Distribution System Operation and Maintenance

Complete mapping and modeling of distribution system and use to develop an asset
management plan to prioritize and implement distribution system improvements.

Prepare an updated water audit report to calculate unaccounted for water and update


All monitoring and reporting is in cornpliance with NYSDOH requirements. A

nronitoring schedule is prepared each year by CCDHHS that identifies the monitoring
required by the Village (see attached). This is in addition to the daily and eontinuous
monitoring requircd at the treamrent plant and in the distribution system.

An annual water quality Leport is distributed each year to village customers which
includes water testing results arid ideutifies any ploblems. This report must be distributed
byMay3l"eachyear,buthasnotbccnconrplctcduntil lateMayinpreviousyears. This
must be complete by the Village and reviewed by CCDIJI{S muclr earlier; it is
recomnreuded this be courpleted by Aplil I to provide ample tin-re fbr our review.


CCDHHS = Chautauqua County Department of Health and Human Services

DBP = disinfection byproduct
gprn = gallons per minute
HAA = haloacetic acids, a disinfection pyproduct that is carcinogenic
K= thousands
M = million
MG = million gallons of water
MGD = million gallons per day
NYSDEC = New York State Department of Environmental Conservation
NYSDOH = New York State Department of Health
NYSDOT = New York State Department of Transportation
psi = pounds per square inch
RPZ = reduced pressure zone backflow protector
SOP = standard operating procedures
TTHM = Trihalornethane, a disinfection pyproduct that is carcinogenic
Vg/l = micrograms of a contaminant in one liter of water; L pg/l = 1 part per billion


Basik, Karpinski Associates. 2001. Preliminary Engineering Report for Fredonia Reservoir
Maintenance Dredging,

Chautauqua County Health Dept. 2007. Annual lnspection and Sanitary Survey Report.

Cruden, E. 2000. Report on the Comprehensive Performance Evaluation of the Fredonia

Water Treatment Plant. New York State Department of Health.

Hardison, Catherine. 2015. Fredonia Reservoir Dam lnspection Report. New York State
Department of Environmental Conservation.

Harza Engineering. 1999. Draft Supplemental Water Supply Study for the Village of

Matai, Kenneth E. 1984. Bathymetric Map and Volume Estimate of the Fredonia

O'Brien & Gere Engineers. 2011. Fredonia Safe Yield Analysis.

O'Brien & Gere Engineers. 2002. Fredonia Water Treatment Plant Renovations.

Rowley, D. 2008, Sanitary Survey for the Village of Fredonia. New York State
Department of Health.

Senior, Bissell & Bronkie Engineering. 1964. Vlllage of Fredonia, New York Report on
Water Treatment Plant and Reservoir.

Wilson, M. and D. Shermet.2008, Fredonia Reservoir Water Budget and Source

Evaluation {Draft}. SUNY Fredonia.

Wilssn, M. p. 1999. lnvestigation of Village of Fredonia, NY Reservoir Overdrafts and

Corrective Actions. SUNY College at Fredonia, Fredonia, NY 14053.