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Internet of Things

The whys and hows of the next big technology

Seminar Report

Babita Naagar
I have taken efforts in this project. However, it would not have been possible without
the kind support and help of many individuals and organizations. I would like to
extend my sincere thanks to all of them.

I am highly indebted to Mrs Anamika Chauhan for her guidance and constant
supervision & also for their support in completing the project.
I would like to express my thanks to the Internet for providing necessary information
regarding the project . No project is possible without Google now-a-days.

Introduction : What is IoT?..............................................................3

How IoT is already changing lives? : Examples of IoT products
in market6

IoT is bigger than we realize : Scope of IoT9

Smart Connected Products : Implications and Capabilities.13

Design Framework for SCP..22

Challenges to IoT..26


What is Internet of Things?

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of physical objectsdevices, vehicles,

buildings and other itemsembedded with electronics, software, sensors, and
network connectivity that enables these objects to collect and exchange data. The IoT
allows objects to be sensed and controlled remotely across existing network
infrastructure, creating opportunities for more direct integration of the physical
world into computer-based systems, and resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy
and economic benefit; when IoT is augmented with sensors and actuators, the
technology becomes an instance of the more general class of cyber-physical
systems, which also encompasses technologies such as smart grids, smart homes,
intelligent transportation and smart cities. Each thing is uniquely identifiable
through its embedded computing system but is able to interoperate within the
existing Internet infrastructure. Experts estimate that the IoT will consist of almost
50 billion objects by 2020.
British entrepreneur Kevin Ashton first coined the term in 1999 while working at
Auto-ID Labs (originally called Auto-ID centers, referring to a global network of
objects connected to radio-frequency identification, or RFID). Typically, IoT is
expected to offer advanced connectivity of devices, systems, and services that goes
beyond machine-to-machine (M2M) communications and covers a variety of
protocols, domains, and applications. The interconnection of these embedded devices
(including smart objects), is expected to usher in automation in nearly all fields,

while also enabling advanced applications like a smart grid, and expanding to the
areas such as smart cities.

"Things," in the IoT sense, can refer to a wide variety of devices such as heart
monitoring implants, biochip transponders on farm animals, electric clams in coastal
waters, automobiles with built-in sensors, DNA analysis devices for
environmental/food/pathogen monitoring or field operation devices that assist
firefighters in search and rescue operations. Legal scholars suggest to look at
"Things" as an "inextricable mixture of hardware, software, data and service". These
devices collect useful data with the help of various existing technologies and then
autonomously flow the data between other devices.Current market examples include
smart thermostat systems and washer/dryers that use Wi-Fi for remote monitoring.

As well as the expansion of Internet-connected automation into a plethora of new
application areas, IoT is also expected to generate large amounts of data from
diverse locations, with the consequent necessity for quick aggregation of the data,
and an increase in the need to index, store, and process such data more effectively.
IoT is one of the platforms of today's Smart City, and Smart Energy Management

How IoT is already changing lives?
Examples of IoT products in market

1. Smart Bulb

Why is Lumen better?

The Lumen Smart Bulb combines the practical utility of a standard white bulb, the
party fun of multi-coloured lights, and the longevity and costs savings of an LED
bulb. All of this, within a single package that works with existing standard bulb
sockets already in our homes. Everything can be controlled easily from a proprietary
application in our mobile smart phone.
Power Saving and Long Lasting
400 lumens is the equivalent of a traditional 40W light bulb, with much lower power
consumption, Lumen is able to create the same amount of light as a conventional
light bulb. Besides energy savings, the Lumen also has a longer life span, translating
to obvious money savings.
Bluetooth 4.0 Controls

Why Bluetooth 4.0? BT 4.0 is the new trend and they are available in all the new
apple device. it allow to establish a direct interaction between the device and Lumen,
which just make everything so much easier. Bluetooth 4.0 also have the advantage
of multi control capabilities and with a range of up to 30ft, you control all the Lumen
bulbs in your home right from the palm of your hand whether youre in the bedroom

or the living room.


FitBit is a physical activity tracker designed to help you become more active, eat a
more well-rounded diet, sleep better and ultimately, turn you into a healthier human
The linchpin of FitBit is its three-dimensional accelerometer system. In plain
language, that just means it tracks motion, as well as the intensity of that motion.

FitBit's healthy aims are a hit. FitBit's relatively affordable price and ease of use has
won it a share of loyal users and some accolades. But FitBit is only one product in a
current trend of wearable fitness gadgets. It has plenty of competition.Jawbone's Up,
for instance, is a wristband that tracks your movement and vibrates when you've
been inactive for too long. It has a smartphone app and social networking features,

IoT is bigger than we realize : Scope of IoT

WHEN PEOPLE TALK about the next big thing, theyre never thinking big enough.
Its not a lack of imagination; its a lack of observation. Ive maintained that the
future is always within sight, and you dont need to imagine whats already there.

Whats the buzz? The Internet of Things revolves around increased machine-to-
machine communication; its built on cloud computing and networks of data-
gathering sensors; its mobile, virtual, and instantaneous connection; and they say
its going to make everything in our lives from streetlights to seaports smart.

So much of the chatter has been focused on machine-to-machine communication

(M2M): devices talking to like devices. But a machine is an instrument, its a tool, its

something thats physically doing something. When we talk about making machines
smart, were not referring strictly to M2M. Were talking about sensors.

A sensor is not a machine. It doesnt do anything in the same sense that a machine
does. It measures, it evaluates; in short, it gathers data. The Internet of Things really
comes together with the connection of sensors and machines. That is to say, the real
value that the Internet of Things creates is at the intersection of gathering data and
leveraging it. All the information gathered by all the sensors in the world isnt worth
very much if there isnt an infrastructure in place to analyze it in real time.

Cloud-based applications are the key to using leveraged data. The Internet of Things
doesnt function without cloud-based applications to interpret and transmit the data
coming from all these sensors. The cloud is what enables the apps to go to work for
you anytime, anywhere.

Lets look at one example. In 2007, a bridge collapsed in Minnesota, killing many
people, because of steel plates that were inadequate to handle the bridges load.
When we rebuild bridges, we can use smart cement: cement equipped with sensors
to monitor stresses, cracks, and warpages. This is cement that alerts us to fix
problems before they cause a catastrophe. And these technologies arent limited to
the bridges structure.

If theres ice on the bridge, the same sensors in the concrete will detect it and
communicate the information via the wireless internet to your car. Once your car
knows theres a hazard ahead, it will instruct the driver to slow down, and if the
driver doesnt, then the car will slow down for him. This is just one of the ways that
sensor-to-machine and machine-to-machine communication can take place.
Sensors on the bridge connect to machines in the car: we turn information into

You might start to see the implications here. What can you achieve when a smart car
and a smart city grid start talking to each other? Were going to have traffic flow
optimization, because instead of just having stoplights on fixed timers, well have
smart stoplights that can respond to changes in traffic flow. Traffic and street
conditions will be communicated to drivers, rerouting them around areas that are
congested, snowed-in, or tied up in construction.

So now we have sensors monitoring and tracking all sorts of data; we have cloud-
based apps translating that data into useful intelligence and transmitting it to
machines on the ground, enabling mobile, real-time responses. And thus bridges
become smart bridges, and cars smart cars. And soon, we have smart cities.

What are the advantages here? What are the savings? What industries can this be
applied to?

This isnt just about money savings. Its not about bridges, and its not about cities.
This is a huge and fundamental shift. When we start making things intelligent, its
going to be a major engine for creating new products and new services.

Of all the technology trends that are taking place right now, perhaps the biggest one
is the Internet of Things; its the one thats going to give us the most disruption as
well as the most opportunity over the next five years. In my next post in this two-
part series, well explore just how big this is going to be.

Smart Connected Products

Implications and Capabilities

Smart, connected products are products, assets and other things embedded with
processors, sensors, software and connectivity that allow data to be exchanged
between the product and its environment, manufacturer, operator/user, and other

products and systems. Connectivity also enables some capabilities of the product to
exist outside the physical device, in what is known as the product cloud. The data
collected from these products can be then analyzed to inform decision-making,
enable operational efficiencies and continuously improve the performance of the

Smart, connected products have three primary components; physical, smart, and
connectivity. In Professor Michael Porter's and James Heppelmann's Harvard
Business Review article, "How Smart, Connected Products are Transforming
Competition," they describes the three components as:

Physical made up of the product's mechanical and electrical parts.

Smart made up of sensors, microprocessors, data storage, controls,
software, and an embedded operating system with enhanced user
Connectivity made up of ports, antennae, and protocols enabling
wired/wireless connections that serve two purposes, it allows data to be
exchanged with the product and enables some functions of the product to
exist outside the physical device.

Each component expands the capabilities of one another resulting in "a virtuous
cycle of value improvement." First, the smart components of a product amplify the

value and capabilities of the physical components. Then, connectivity amplifies the
value and capabilities of the smart components. These improvements include:

Monitoring of the product's conditions, its external environment, and its

operations and usage.
Control of various product functions to better respond to changes in its
environment, as well as to personalize the user experience.
Optimization of the product's overall operations based on actual
performance data, and reduction of downtimes through predictive
maintenance and remote service.
Autonomous product operation, including learning from their environment,
adapting to users preferences and self-diagnosing and service.[2]

The Internet of Things (IoT)

The Internet of Things is the network of physical objects that contain embedded
technology to communicate and sense or interact with their internal states or the
external environment. The phrase "Internet of Things" reflects the growing number
of smart, connected products and highlights the new opportunities they can
represent. The Internet, whether involving people or things, is a mechanism for
transmitting information. What makes smart, connected products fundamentally
different is not the Internet, but the changing nature of the 'things'. Once a product
is smart and connected to the cloud, the products and services will become part of an
interconnected management solution.

Capabilities of Smart Connected Products

The capabilities of smart, connected products can be grouped into four areas:
monitoring, control, optimization, and autonomy. Each builds on the preceding one;
to have control capability, for example, a product must have monitoring capability.

Smart, connected products enable the comprehensive monitoring of a products

condition, operation, and external environment through sensors and external data

sources. Using data, a product can alert users or others to changes in circumstances

or performance. Monitoring also allows companies and customers to track a

products operating characteristics and history and to better understand how the

product is actually used. This data has important implications for design (by

reducing over engineering, for example), market segmentation (through the analysis

of usage patterns by customer type), and after-sale service (by allowing the dispatch

of the right technician with the right part, thus improving the first-time fix rate).

Monitoring data may also reveal warranty compliance issues as well as new sales

opportunities, such as the need for additional product capacity because of high


In some cases, such as medical devices, monitoring is the core element of value

creation. Medtronics digital blood-glucose meter uses a sensor inserted under the

patients skin to measure glucose levels in tissue fluid and connects wirelessly to a

device that alerts patients and clinicians up to 30 minutes before a patient reaches a

threshold blood-glucose level, enabling appropriate therapy adjustments.

Monitoring capabilities can span multiple products across distances. Joy Global, a

leading mining equipment manufacturer, monitors operating conditions, safety

parameters, and predictive service indicators for entire fleets of equipment far

underground. Joy also monitors operating parameters across multiple mines in

different countries for benchmarking purposes.

Smart, connected products can be controlled through remote commands or

algorithms that are built into the device or reside in the product cloud. Algorithms

are rules that direct the product to respond to specified changes in its condition or

environment (for example, if pressure gets too high, shut off the valve or when

traffic in a parking garage reaches a certain level, turn the overhead lighting on or


Control through software embedded in the product or the cloud allows the

customization of product performance to a degree that previously was not cost

effective or often even possible. The same technology also enables users to control

and personalize their interaction with the product in many new ways. For example,

users can adjust their Philips Lighting hue lightbulbs via smartphone, turning them
on and off, programming them to blink red if an intruder is detected, or dimming

them slowly at night. Doorbot, a smart, connected doorbell and lock, allows

customers to give visitors access to the home remotely after screening them on

their smartphones.

The rich flow of monitoring data from smart, connected products, coupled with the

capacity to control product operation, allows companies to optimize product

performance in numerous ways, many of which have not been previously possible.

Smart, connected products can apply algorithms and analytics to in-use or historical

data to dramatically improve output, utilization, and efficiency. In wind turbines, for

instance, a local microcontroller can adjust each blade on every revolution to capture

maximum wind energy. And each turbine can be adjusted to not only improve its

performance but minimize its impact on the efficiency of those nearby.

Real-time monitoring data on product condition and product control capability

enables firms to optimize service by performing preventative maintenance when

failure is imminent and accomplishing repairs remotely, thereby reducing product

downtime and the need to dispatch repair personnel. Even when on-site repair is
required, advance information about what is broken, what parts are needed, and how

to accomplish the fix reduces service costs and improves first-time fix rates.

Diebold, for example, monitors many of its automated teller machines for early signs

of trouble. After assessing a malfunctioning ATMs status, the machine is repaired

remotely if possible, or the company deploys a technician who has been given a

detailed diagnosis of the problem, a recommended repair process, and, often, the

needed parts. Finally, like many smart, connected products, Diebolds ATMs can be

updated when they are due for feature enhancements. Often these can occur

remotely, via software.

Monitoring, control, and optimization capabilities combine to allow smart, connected

products to achieve a previously unattainable level of autonomy. At the simplest level

is autonomous product operation like that of the iRobot Roomba, a vacuum cleaner

that uses sensors and software to scan and clean floors in rooms with different

layouts. More-sophisticated products are able to learn about their environment, self-

diagnose their own service needs, and adapt to users preferences. Autonomy not

only can reduce the need for operators but can improve safety in dangerous

environments and facilitate operation in remote locations.

Autonomous products can also act in coordination with other products and systems.

The value of these capabilities can grow exponentially as more and more products

become connected. For example, the energy efficiency of the electric grid increases

as more smart meters are connected, allowing the utility to gain insight into and

respond to demand patterns over time.

Ultimately, products can function with complete autonomy, applying algorithms that

utilize data about their performance and their environmentincluding the activity of

other products in the systemand leveraging their ability to communicate with

other products. Human operators merely monitor performance or watch over the

fleet or the system, rather than individual units. Joy Globals Longwall Mining

System, for example, is able to operate autonomously far underground, overseen by a

mine control center on the surface. Equipment is monitored continuously for

performance and faults, and technicians are dispatched underground to deal with

issues requiring human intervention.

Design Framework for SCP

When we think of design for connected products, we tend to focus on the most
visible and tangible elements. These are the industrial design of connected devices,
and the user interfaces (UIs) found in mobile and Web apps and on the devices

They are important concerns, which have a major impact on the end users
experience of the product. But theyre only part of the picture. You could create a
beautiful UI, and a stunning piece of hardware, and users could still have a poor
experience of the product as a whole.

Designing for IoT is inherently more complex than Web service design. Some of this
is to do with the current state of the technology. Some of this reflects our as-yet
immature understanding of compelling consumer IoT value propositions. Some of
this stems from the fact that there are more aspects of design to consider. Tackling
them independently creates an incoherent user experience (UX).

Designing a great connected product requires a holistic approach to user experience.

It spans many layers of design, not all them immediately visible. More than ever, it
requires cross-discipline collaboration between design, technology, and business.
Great UX may start with understanding users. But the designers ability to meet
those users needs depends on the technology enablers, business models, and wider
service ecosystem.

As designers and their collaborators, we need a shared understanding of the

challenges. We also need a common vocabulary for discussing them so that when we
use the word design, were talking about the same things.

This report introduces a framework for understanding the experience design of

consumer IoT products. It sets out the different facets of design that combine to
shape a connected product, and shows you how they fit together. It explains the
extra complexities that surround designing for connected products. And it discusses
how technology and the wider commercial context work to shape the UX of IoT

Its beyond the scope of this report to delve into the design process for IoT. This is
more complex than pure software design: hardware adds new considerations and is

less easily modified. Value propositions and design requirements must be clearly
defined before product and design decisions are baked into the hardware, when they
are hard to change. But here, we will show why the nature of the challenges requires
collaboration between design and engineering for both hardware and software, and
the business.

Why UX for IoT is different

Connected products pose design challenges that will be new to designers
accustomed to pure software services. Many of these stem from:

The specialized nature of IoT devices

Their ability to bridge the digital and physical worlds
The fact that many IoT products are distributed systems of multiple devices,
The quirks of networking.

How tricky those challenges prove will depend on:

The maturity of the technology youre working with

The context of use, and the expectations your users have of the system, and

The complexity of your service (for example, how many devices the user

has to interact with)

But for most connected products, youll need to consider the following factors:

Specialized devices, with different capabilities

Many of the things in the internet of things are specialized embedded computing
devices. Unlike general-purpose computers (smartphones and PCs), their hardware
and software is optimized to fulfill specific functions.

Their physical forms must be designed and engineered. Their UI capabilities may
extend from screens and buttons into physical controls, audio, haptics, gestures (see
Fig. 1-1), tangible interactions and more. But user interactions must be designed
without the benefit of the style guides and standards that Web and mobile designers
can rely upon. Some may have no user input or output capabilities at all. The only
way to find out what they are doing or what state they are in may be via a remote UI.

Challenges to IoT
For any business, venturing into IoT is a good move in todays evolving digital
atmosphere. It is estimated that IoT, a growing trend among startups and
entrepreneurs, will expand from a few million devices to tens of billion devices in the
coming years, impacting everything from basic infrastructure to security to business

However, along with the many opportunities that it springs, IoT also strings along a
line of its own challenges. Here is a rapid glance at the top five of them:

1. Management of Data: The internet is a storehouse of massive amounts of data.

Data is created, shared and distributed on a second-by-second basis. With so much
data being circulated, we need data centres. However, users are now looking to cloud
computing to store data. Security becomes a concern at this point, because IoT will
generate large amounts of data, calling for capacity management on a large scale.
Transferring that much data to a single, central location is not economically viable.

2. Security: IoT will connect millions of devices to the web, so the chance of
malware penetrating your data or system is high. Devices themselves are often in
locations of vulnerability, exposing the risk greatly. Networks through which these
communicate cannot be monitored all the time.

3. Privacy: In this day and age of big data, there arises the debate over who owns
the data is it the users of devices, the manufacturers or the persons who operate
the distribution networks? There has never been a clear answer to that question.
Even as this debate rages, the devices are busy tracking how the users are using
them. For instance, your phone automatically knows which route you prefer to take.
Almost every device needs and uses the internet, thereby passing on a lot of private
information to big companies, which is not altogether desirable. IoT only serves to
amplify this.

4. Connectivity Issue: As IoT grows, connectivity becomes an issue. With millions

of devices connected to the internet, reliable network solutions and hotspots will
face growing demand. Hence, this will call for the installment of several wireless
routers in and around cities. Whether or not connectivity can be boosted to such a
large extent, is questionable. Even if it is, the costs will be astronomical, and its
longevity is also a matter of concern.

5. Business Model: It is important that business strategies and models be built

around IoT, to keep up with the pace of this digital evolution. Existing business will
find it more challenging as their current business models have to be heavily
reconstructed to accommodate something as new as IoT into their day-to-day
workings. New companies, with a leg already in technology, will find it a shade
easier. However, the process of IoT integration will be laborious it will have to be

carefully examined, and it will also lead to heightened resource requirements,
something that startups will find a lot harder than big companies.

What with so many changes cropping up every day in the digital ecosphere,
businesses both big and small have to constantly evolve. Strategies need rethinking,
there is more forethought required to stay abreast with trends, and the time is nigh
for speedy adaptation to IoT. The challenges posed by IoT are many, but tackling it
needs time, and it is not something that companies can hasten to do if they aim to
remain profitable. Nevertheless, slow but gradual steps taken in an effort to tackle
red alert areas such as connectivity and privacy can ensure the eventual success of

1. Wikipedia : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_of_Things
2. Harvard Business Review : https://hbr.org/2014/11/how-smart-connected-
3. PTC - http://www.ptc.com/internet-of-things
4. Udemy : https://www.udemy.com/unpacking-the-internet-of-things/
5. Udemy:https://www.udemy.com/a-simple-framework-for-designing-iot-
6. Cisco : http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/internet-of-
7. How Stuff Works :
8. Internet of Things Architecture : http://www.iot-a.eu/public/news/internet-
9. The Guardian :
10. Forbes : http://www.forbes.com/sites/danielnewman/2014/08/20/there-