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Present continuous

 

n

i

'

Present simple

 

For m

 

Affirmativ e

 

vvork

 

he/ she/

 

it

works

we/ you/ the v

wor k

Negativ e

 
 

doirt

 

he/ she/

it

doesn't doesn't

work

we¡

you / they

don't

Question s

 

do

!

does

 

he/ she/

it

work?

do

we/ you/ the y

Uses

 

The

present

simpl e is used:

 

1

to talk about a habi t or somethin g tha t happens regularly.

How

often

do

you

see

your

grandparents?

 

2

to talk about a state.

 

She doesn't like coffee.

3

to talk about somethin g whic h

is always

tru c

Babies cry when they're

hungry.

4

t o talk about a future , timetable d event.

 

The train leaves at 930 tonight.

 

Adverb s

of

frequenc y

 

1

Adverbs of frequenc y are ofte n used wit h

the.present

simpl e to

talk about habitua l or repeated

actions .

Commo n

adverbs o f frequency include :

always

usually.often

sometimes

occasionally

seldom

rarely

never

 

2

The y normall y

come r

after the verb

be.

 

He's

always

late.

 

after an auxiliary verb .

 
 

They've

often

talked

about

you.

IWty

>*M

OJTÍ¿/

nUKfci?.

 

before othe r

verbs .

 

She

never

wears

Jeans.

 

3

Th e adverbs always,

never,

rarely,

seldom,

hardly

ever don' t

normall y com e

at the beginnin g or end of a sentence .

He always drives to work. (NO T Always he drivos to work.)

For m

 

Affirmativ e

 

I

a m

 

he/ she/ it

is

workirig

 

we/ you/ the\

are

Negativ e

 

1

a m

 

he/ she/ it

is

notjV')ikin>j

 

we/ vou/ they

are

 

Question s

 

am

-

!

is

lie/ she/

it

workiiTg?

 

are

we/ you/ the y

.

 

Uses

 

The present continuou s

is used:

 

1

to talk about wha t is

happenin g now, at thi s moment .

 

James,

what

are

you

dolng?

 

2

t o talk about a

temporar y

situation , or activity happenin g

around now .

 

He's

learning

English.

 

3

to talk about futur e plans or arrangements .

 

I'm

seeing

her

tonight.

 

4

t o talk about change i n progress.

 

My

father's

becoming

very

bad-tempered.

Verbs not normall y used in th e continuou s for m

 

Some groups of verbs are no t normall y used i n the

continuou s form. The y

include :

 

Verbs

o f thinkin g

an d

opinión : believe. doubt, feel,

forget,

guess,

imagine,

know,

mean,

 

realise,

recognise,

remember,

see

1=

understand), suppose, think, understand

 

Verbs

o f emotion : dislike,

 

hate,

like,

love, prefer,

want,

wish

Verbs

o f possession

an d

being : be,

belong,

consist

of,

contain,

have (= possess),

include,

¡nvolve,

need,

own,

possess

Verbs o f th e senses: hear, see, smell, sound, taste

 

Forming questions

 

1

To for m a question, we pu t the auxiliary verb (is,

have,

can,

would,

etc.)

before

the

 

subject.

Is

it

raining?

Can

you

remember

his

ñame?

Would

your

friend

like

a

drink?

2

I n

the

present

simpl e we use do/

does

to make

questions .

What

does she

want?

3

I n

the

past simpl e we

use did

t o make

questions .

Did

you

win?

 

4

Whe n

who,

what

or which

is the subject

o f a question, we

do

no t use

do,

does or

 

did.

Who

Uves

in that

hou'se? (NOT

Who

does Uve m that

house?)

5

Not e thcpositio n of prepositions i n questions .

What

are

you

listening

 

to?

 

Crammar

95

Uoit 2

Pas t

simple

 

For m

 

Affirmativ e an d

negativ e

 

1/ he/

she/

it

vvqi'ked

we/

vou/ they

 

didn't

work

Question s

1/ 1/ 1 lie/ she/

it

,.

did

,

 

work?

 

we/'

you/ they

Regular verbs for m the past simpl e affirmative by adding

-ed?live

> lived

visit

>

vísited

Man y commo n verbs are irregular. See

the list of irregular

 

verbs o n

 

page

112.

Use

 

The

past

simpl e

is used:

 

1

to talk

about a

finished

action i n the past,

often wit h

a

time adverbial.

 

He leftschool

in

1994.

2

to talk about somethin g tha t happened regularly i n the

past.

She

went

out

every

night.

 

3

to talk about a past situation

/ went

to Oxford

University.

Past

continuous

 

For m

 

Affirmativ e

an d

negativ e

 
 

was

 

1/ he/

she/

it

wasn't

 

we/

you/ they

were

 

,.

.

weren't

Question s

 

was

 

1/ he/

she/

it

working. '

 

were

 

we/ you/ they

 

Uses

 

The

past continuou s is used:

 

1

to talk about an actio n whic h

was i n progress

at

a

.particular momen t i n the past.

 

/ was watching televisión at 9.30.

2

to describe

a situatio n pr the background to a scene.

 

It was raining

and

he

was

carrying

an

umbrella.

3

to describe

an interrupted action i n the

past.

 

We were watching

the

news

when

you

rang.

4

Th e past continuou s is ofte n used after while

and as.

(NOT

during)

While

we

were playing,

it started

to

rain.

Note : the past continuou s is no t used about regular

or

habit s i n the

past.

actions

He

rang

her

ovening.)

every

evening.

(NOT

He

was

ringing

her

avery

Past perfect

simple

For m

Affirmativ e

an d

negativ e

1/ he,

she/

it

liad

we/

vou/ thev

hadn't

Question s

 

had

[/ lie/

she/

we/

vou/ thev

Uses

left

left

The past perfect is used:

  • 1 for an action tha t happened before anothe r action i n the

 

past.

When

we got

to the

station,

the

train

had

already

left.

  • 2 for a n action tha t happened before a certain tim e i n the

 

past.

Bv 4.00

thev liad

waiked

almost

twenty

kilometres.

 

infinitive with

to and

ing

form

Infinitive wit h

ftt

  • 1 The infinitive wit h to is used after certain verbs.

They

 
 

include :

afford,

agree, appear,

arrange,

ask,

attempt,

choose,

decide,

 

demand,

deserve,

expect,

help,

hope,

intend,

learn,

manage,

need,

offer, plan,

pretend,

promise,

refuse,

seem,

threaten,

want, wish,

would

like,

would

love,

woidd

hate,

would

prefer

We decided

to

leave.

  • 2 Not e the negative form of the infinitive :

 
 

He seemed not to care.

 
  • 3 The constructio n verb + objec t

+ infinitive can bé

used

 
 

wit h the following verbs:

 

advise,

allow,

ask,

encourqge,

expect,

forcé,

get,

help,

invite,

persuade,

rentind,

teaCh,

tell,

wam,

would

like,

would

love,

would hate, would prefer.

 

He helpedher to pass the exam.

 

-ing

for m

The

-ing

for m

is used:

  • 1 after certain verbs an d expressions.

The y include :

 
 

admit,

avoid,

be

used

to,

can't

help,

can't

stand,

consider,

deny,

dislike,

don't

mind,

enjoy,

finish,

imagine,

keep,

look

forward

to, miss,

practise,

regret,

suggest

He avoided speaking to me.

 
  • 2 after prepositions .

 
 

He left-without paying.

 
  • 3 as a noun .

 
 

Smoking is bad for you.

 

Verbs followed

by

to

or

-ing

  • 1 A few verbs can be followed by the -ing

for m or

the

 
 

infinitive wit h

to. The meanin g is usuaily similar. They

include : begin,

continué,

hate,

like,

love,

start.

She loves dancing. OR She loves to dance.

  • 2 Some verbs can be followed by the infinitive wit h to or th e

-ing

form.

But the meanin g is no t the same. They include :

forget, go on, remember, stop, try

 

He went on

talking.

(= He continue d doing the same thing.)

He

wenton

to become

a famous

actor.

(= Later he became a

famous actor.)

96

Grammar

Unit 3

Present perfect

simple

 

For m

 

Affirmativ e

 

I

have

he/ she/

it

has

piayed

we/

you/ they

have

Negativ e

 

i

have

he

/ she

/ it

has

not

piayed

we/

vou/ thev

have

Questions

have

I

has

he;

she/ it

piayed?

have

we / vou/ thev

 

Regular verbs for m

the past participl e by adding -ed.

play

>

piayed Uve > lived vislt >

visited.

 

Man y commo n verbs are

irregular. See

the list

of irregular

 

verbs o n page 112.

 

Uses

 

The

present perfect connect s

the past and the present.

it

is

used:

 

1

to talk about

experiences i n one's

Ufe.

Have you ever been to America?

 

Uve never

flown.

2

to talk about the present

result of a past

action.

 

Aun

has

gone

out.

(= She's no t here now.)

 

3

t o talk about

an actio n whic h

began

i n

the

past an d

whic h

continúe s i n the present.

 

[ h.ave lived

in London

for

ten

years.

She has had the same car since

1993.

 

We

use for

wit h

a perio d of

tim e (for

three weeks,

for

two

years,

for

a long

time,

etc.).

We use since

wit h

a poin t

of tim e

i n

the

past

(since

August,

 

since

1993,

since

Christrnas,

etc.)

To indícate a recently

finished

action, the present

perfect is

often used wit h just.

 

James

lias

 

just

left.

(= He wen t out a few moment s

ago.)

 

Present perfect

continuous

 

Affirmativ e

 

1

have

he/ she

/it

has

been

plavinc

we/

you / thev

have

Negativ e

 

have

he/ she /it

has

not

been

plaving

we/

vou/ thev

have

Question s

have

1

has

he/ she/

it

been

playing?

have

we/ you/ thev

 

Uses

The

present

perfect continuous is used:

 

1

like the present perfect simple , to talk about an action

 

whic h began i n the past and whic h continúe s i n the

present. It is ofte n used for temporar y actions and

 

situations .

 

She's been working here since June.

 

2

to emphasise

tha t an activity is

unfinished. Compar e

thi s

wit h the present perfect simpl e whic h often indicates a

finished action.

 

l've been readingDon

Quijote.

(= I haven't

finished

it.)

l've read Don Qiiijote. (= l've finished it.)

Crammar

97

Unit 4

Future

tenses

Ther e are several verb forms tha t can be used to talk about

the future. They include will,

going to.

the present continuous , an d

Form :

will

Affirmativ e

an d

negativ e

1/

he/

she

/it

will

T

we/

vou/ thev

won' t

Question s

 

wil l

1/ he/

she/

it

we/

vou/ the y

Note : sha.ll is sometime s

used instead of will

i n

the

first

person singular an d plural (/ an d we), especially

i n questions.-

Where shall

we

ineet?

 

What

shall

 

I

do?

Form: present

continuou s

 

See

page 95

for the for m of the present

continuous .

Form: going

to

Affirmativ e

an d

negativ e

 

I

am/ am

no t

he/ she/

it

is/

is

no t

going to play

 

we/

you/ thev

 

are/ are

no t

Questions

 

am

I

is

he/ she/

it

goin g t o play?

 

are

we/ you/ the y

 

Uses

 

Will

is used:

 

1

to make

a predictio n about the

future.

 

/ think

it

will

rain

tomorrow.

 

I

won't

see

you

again.

 

2

to talk about a decisión

made at the momen t of speaking.

I'm

tired.

I think

l'll

go

to

bed.

3

t o make a n offer.

 

"I'm hungry."

-

"Vil get

you

something

to

eat."

The present continuou s is used t o talk about plans tha t have

already been made . A n adverb expressing the futur e

(this

summer, tomorrow, next Friday etc.) is normall y include d i n

the sentenc e or

implied.

I'm

meeting

Tom

tomorrow.

"What

are

you

doing

tonight?"

-

"I'm

staying

in."

Going to is used: 1 to make a prediction wher e there is some evidence now
Going
to
is used:
1
to make a prediction wher e there is some evidence now .
Look at those black clouds. It's going to rain.
2
to talk about plans wher e the decisión has been made
before speaking. It normall y expresses a degree of
intention.
She's going to stady French.
Future
continuous
Form
Affirmativ e
an d
negative
1/ he/
she/
it
will
be
vvaiting
we/
you/ they
won'
Questions
1/ he/
she/
it
be
waitin
we/
vou/ thev
The
future continuou s is used to indícate tha t an action
will
be
i n progress
at
a
particular momen t i n the
future.
/ will
be
working
all
day
tonwrrow.
When
yon
get
home,
will
your
mother
be
waiting
for
you?
Future perfect (will have
-f-past
participle)
For m
Affirmativ e
an d
negativ e
1/ he/
she/
it
will-
,
,.
.
.
,
have
hmshe a
we/
vou/ thev
won't
Questions
.,,
1/ he/
she/
it
,
,
.
,
,„
will
have
finished?
we/
you/ they
Uses
The
futur e perfect
is used
to say
tha t a n action will
be
finished
by
a certain
tim e
i n
the
future.
By next
spring
l'll
have
bought
a new
car.
They'll
have
known
each
other
for
twenty
years
in
[une.
The definite articie:
the
1
To talk about thing s i n general, we normall y use a plurali
or uncountabl e nou n withou t the definit e articie.
Potatoes are cheap. (NOT The potatoes are clwap.)
Gold is expensive. (NOT The gold is expansiva.)
2
The definit e articie is onl y used before a plural or
uncountabl e nou n whe n we wan t to talk about specific
things .

The potatoes we ate last night were delicious.

The

gold

in Fort

Knox

is lieavily

guarded.

98

Crammar

Unit 5

Conditional

sentences

 

Form: firs t

conditiona l

 

If

+ present

simple , +

will

Ifyou

go

to the

party,

you'il

enjoy

it.

1

A futur e tense is

no t used

i n

the

if

clause.

 

(NOT

If

you'il

go

to the

party,

you'il

 

enjoy

it.)

2

Othe r moda l verbs (can,

may,

should,

must,

etc.)

can

replace

will.

 

Ifyou

go

to the

party,

you

may

enjoy

it.

3

Will

can also be

replaced by an imperative .

 

Ifyou

go

to the

party,

take

a

taxi

horne.

 

4

Should

can be used to talk about a future possibility. I n

forma l English, inversión

 

of subject

and verb can be

used

wit h should.

 

Whe n inversión

is used,(¡7)is

omitted.

Ifyou

should

go

to the

party,

don't

forget

to take

a bottle

of

wine.

;

-

,

rin- <

»

I

Vn---

 

Should

you

go

to the

party,

give

my

regards

to

Peter.

5

Bot h verbs can be i n the present

if yo u are talking

about

situations i n general.

 

Ifyou

go

to

a

lot

ofparties,

you

meet

a

lot

ofpeople.

Form: second

conditiona l

 

If+

pas t simple , +

would

Ifyou

went

to the party,

you'd

enj'oy it.

 

1

After If,

we normall y use

were

(no t was)

wit h

/ and

he,

she,

it.

Ifl

were you,

 

I'd go

to the

party

 

2

Othe r moda l verbs (could,

 

might,

etc.)

can replace

would.

Ifyou

went

to the party,

you

might

enjoy

it.

Form : thir d

conditiona l

 

If+

pas t

perfec t

+ would

have

 

If

you'd

(had)

gone

to the

party,

you'd

(would)

have

enjoyed

it.

1

Would an d had are bot h ofte n contracted to 'd, particularly

after pronouns .

 

2

Othe r moda l verbs (might have, could have, etc.) can

 

replace would have.

 

If you'd gone to the party, you might have enjoyed it.

 

3

Inversión of the subject

an d verb can

be used

i n third

conditiona l sentences i n forma l English. Whe n inversión

is used,6/is omitted.

 

Had you gone to the party, you might have enjoyed it.

 

Uses

 

u

1

The first conditiona l is used to talk about a situation tha t

is true or ma y becbm e true. It is likely to happen.

 

Ifthey win the match, l'll buy you

a drink.

(= It is probable

that the y will wi n the match.)

 

2

The second conditiona l is used to talk about a situation

tha t is unrea l or unlikel y to happen.

 

Ifjane

went

to the party,

she'd

enjoy

it.

(= It is unlikely

tha t

Jane will go to the party.)

 

If I were you, I'd go to bed. (Thi s is an unrea l situation. You

canno t 'become' anothe r person.)

 

3

The third conditiona l is used to describe an imaginar y

event or situation i n the past. It didn't happe n or exist.

Ifhe'd scored that goal, they'd have won the match. (= He

didn't score the goal an d the y didn't wi n the match .

The

following

sentences ¡Ilústrate

the difference i n meanin g

between the three types of conditiona l sentences:

 

first conditional : Ifthey offer me drugs, I won't take them.

The speaker believes

it is probabl e

or likely tha t he/ she

will

be offered drugs i n the future.

second conditional : Ifthey offered me drugs, I wouldn't take

them.

\

The speaker believes

it is improbabl e or unlikely tha t he/

she

will be offered drugs i n the future.

thir d conditional : If they'd offered me drugs, I wouldn't have

taken them.

The speaker is talking about an imaginar y situation i n the

past. It di d no t happen.

Note : these words/ phrases

can

also

be used

i n

first

and

second

conditiona l sentences.

 
  • 1 (=

unless

if

...

not)

 

He'll

die

unless

we get

him

to hospital.

(= He'll

die if we don' t

get hi m to hospital.)

 
  • 2 as

long

as,

providing,

on

cafidition

that

(= but only-if

...)

/'//

win

as

long

as

I play

well.

I'd

lend

you

my

car providing

you

agreed

to look

after

it.

You can

go

out

on

conditíon

 

that

you

come

lióme

before

midnight.

Should/

ought

 

to

Should

an d ought

to are

used:

  • 1 to give advice.

 

You look ill. You should/ ought to go to bed.

 
  • 2 to make suggestions.

 

You should/ ought to see that film.

 
  • 3 to talk about wha t is a good

or th e correct

thin g

to

do .

You should/ ought to go to the dentist twice a year.

People shouldn't drive so fast.

  • 4 to express a futur e possibility.

They should be here

soon.

 

Should

have/

ought

to

have

Should

have

an d ought

to have

are used t o say tha t somethin g

in

the past was a mistake or

wrong .

 

/ ought

to have

told

the

truth.

I shouldn't

have

lied.

You shouldn't

have

been so rude.

You ought

to have

apologised.

Gramma r

99

Unit

 

6

 

Reported

 

statement s

 

p a

i

Direc t

speech

 

Reported

speech

 

I

love her."

f

,ffSf

-

;

f" 1 1 '"

He

said

tha t he

 

loved her.

i'o¡r

I

me t

her at a party."

 

He

said

tha t he

had

me t

her

at

 
 

Y

:

tlDP.L €

a party.

 

'

"

i

l've always loved

her.

He said tha t

he

had

alwavs

 
 

loved

her.

 

i'Wi

"f*U <

l'll always love her."

 

He said

that he woul d

always

 
 

F L.iuRe

 

love her.

 

fOMJrr;(

i,ri

1 can't

leave

 

her."

 

He said

tha t he couldn't leave

 
 

her.

íoi

j

>

I

ma y marr y

 

her."

 

H e said

tha t he

migh t marr y

e

n

 

¡Vi

 

R'in

r

t«i-fe

l

,«<»".<' <

1

If the reporting verb is i n the past

(said,

 

told,

etc.),

the

verb

in

the

reported statement

moves

back a tense int o

the

past.

2

The moda l verbs should,

could,

would,

might

and ought

to

 

do

no t

change .

 

3

Pronouns

(I,

me,

mine,

etc.)

and possessive adjectives

(my,

etc.)

also change .

 

"She

loves

 

me.

 

He

said

that

he

loved

her.

"We

want

to

 

marry."

 

He

said

that

they wanted

to

 

marry.

 
 

"We've told ¡mi

 

parents.

He

said

that

they'd

told

their

 

parents.

 

t

>T)i£r«

 

The following words also change :

 

this

>

that,

 

these

> those,

now>

then,

next

week

>

the

next

weekftoday

 

>

that

day,

tomorrow

>

 

the

next

doy,

yesterday

>

 

the

day

before,

last

week >~the week

before.

 

The

tw o mos t

commo n

reporting verbs are sfly and fe//.

 

Say

introduce s a statement;

it isn't necessary to use

the

ñame

of the person

being addressed

(or an

objec t

pronoun ) wit h say.

The

ñame of the

person (or a

pronoun ) mus t follow re/i.

 

He

said

he

was

 

sorry.

He told his girlfriend/ her he was sorry.

 

The

conjunctiorft/w f can

be omitte d after say

and fe//.

 

He

said

(that)

he

loved

her.

 

He

told

his girlfriend

(that)

he

was

sorry.

 

Othe r reporting verbs

can

be used. They

include :

 

announce,

 

answer,

declare,

exclaim,

 

protest,

reply,

swear

 

"I

love you."

 

He

declared

that

he

loved

 

her.

Reported

questions

  • 1 the word order is verb + subject.

I n direct questions

 

What

is

the

time?

Why

are

you

crying?

In

reported questions

the wor d order

is subject + verb.

There

is n o question

mark wit h

reported

questions .

 

She

as.ked what

the

time

was.

She asked

why

they

were

crying.

  • 2 is no question word ( What/

If there

Why/

When/How,

etc.)

in

the direct question.

i fot

whether

are

used

i n

the

reported

question.

"Are you

English'.'"

She

asked

if

whether

we

were

English.

Reported

commands

  • 1 the imperative is used.

In direct commands

In reported

command s

the

following construction

is

used:

 

subject + verb + object

-

infinitive wit h

to

"Sit dowu."

He

told

her

to

sit

down.

"Picase

help

me."

Siie asked

them

to help

hei:

  • 2 The rollowing construction is used to report negative

commands :

subject + verb + object

+ not

+ infinitive wit h

to

"Don't'shout

at

me."

She

told

him

not

to shout

ather.

  • 3 Othe r

reporting verbs can

be used. They

include :

advise,

encourage,

invite,

persuade,

remitid,

want

 

"Don't

buy

these

shoes."

She

advised

him

not

to

biiy

those

shoes.

100

Crammar

 

'

1

fr

Unit 7

 

Passive

 

Infinitiv e

 

to be repaired

 

Present

simpl e

 

it.is/

the y

are repaired

 

Present

continuou s

it is/ they are being repaired

 

Past simpl e

 

it was/ they were repaired

Pas t

continuou s

 

it was/ they were being repaired

Present

perfec t

it has/ they have been repaired

Past

perfec t

 

it

had/ the y had been

repaired

Futur e

simpl e

 

it/

the y

will

be repaired

 

Futur e

perfec t

it/ the-y will have been repaired

Secon d conditiona l

it/ they

woul d be

 

repaired

Thir d conditiona l

 

it/they woul d have been repaired

 

1

The

passive is

forme d wit h

the verb be

 

+ past participle .

2

The

passive is

used i

n forma l texts.

It is used

whe n the-

emphasiS

is

o n

the

action rather tharí o n

the

person

or

people wh o di d the action.

 

New

Year is celebrated

throughout

the

world.

 

In

1996

the

Olympic

Gameswere

held

in

Atlanta.

 

3

It

is

no t necessary t o

mentio n wh o di d

the actio n whe n

 

thi s

is understood or no t important.

I

n

the othe r cases, by

>

is used to identif y the person or people wh o di d the

 

action *

 

A

man

was

arrested

lastnight.

(by

the

pólice

is understood.)

David

Copperfield

was

written

by

Citarles

 

Dickens.

4

Moda l

verbs (can,

could,

might,

etc.)

can also

be used

i n

the

passive:

 

The

passive

may

be

found

in many

newspaper

articles.

Passive wit h reportin g

 

verbs

1

The passive

is used wit h reporting verbs to talk about wha t

is generally

though t or said.»The constructio n is forme d

 

wit h the passive

reporting verb + to + infinitive/

perfect

infinitive .

 

Crime is thought to be linked to poverty.

 

Robiñ Hood is said to have robbed onlv the rich.

 

2

Othe r reporting verbs include :

 

believe, claim, consider, expect, know, prove, suppose 1

The escaped prisoners

are

bfilieved

to be

Iteading

fot

the port

of

Dover.

fiU>-i-« .

Relative clauses

Defining

relative

clauses

  • 1 Defining relative-clauses

specífy:—or define— wha t isbein g

talked

about.

A

woman

caused

the

accident.

She

went

 

to príson.

>

The

woman

who

caused

the

accident

went

to

prison.

  • 2 relative pronoun s whó

The

(and sometime s

that)

are

used

to

specify people; which

an d that

are used to

specify

things .

*

This is

the gun

which/

that

was

found.

"

-

Where

¡s the

man

who

found

it?

  • 3 Relative pronoun s mus t be used whe n the person or

thin g

to whic h

the y refer is the subject

of the

verb i n

the

relative ckpse : •

The

burglar

who

broke

into

the

bank

was

arrested

later.

(NOT

The

burglar

broke

into

the

bank

was

arrested

later.l

 

Witnesses

saw

someone

who

looked

suspicious.

iNOT

 

Witncsscs

saw

sotncone

looked

suspicious.)

 
  • 4 Relative pronoun s can be omitte d whe n the person or

thin g to whic h

they refer

is the object

of the

verb i n

the

 

relative clause.

 

This

is

the

weapon

(which/

that)

the

attacker

used.

(= Thi s

is

a

weapon. The attacker used thi s weapon.)

 
  • 5 The

relative pronoun s whose

an d where

canno t

be

omitted.

It is possible

to use

in which

insteád of where.

"•

This

is

the

man

whose

arm

was

broken

in the

attack.

''

-;

The

pólice

have

closed

off

the

street

where

the

crime

was

committed.

 

The

house

in which

the

body

was

found

has

been sealed

off.

  • 6 Prepositions-Usually come

at the end of the relative clause *

rathe r tha n before the relative pronou n (if there is one>.

Thi s is less forma l tha n putting the m before the relative

pronoun .

The

boy

rari

off

with

sweets

(wliich/

thatf

he

Itadn't

paid

for.

Non-defining relative clauses

  • 1 Non-definin g relative clauses contai n additiona l informatio n whic h

is

no t

crucia l t o the

meanin g of

the

sentence. Comma s are used t o sepárate non-definin g

relative clauses fro m the rest of the sentence.

Lord Lucan, who disappeared in 1974, is said to have killed his

wife.

He is also thought to have killed the nanny, who lived with the

family.

  • 2 Relative pronoun s mus t always be used i n non-definin g

relative clauses. The y canno t be

.

  • 3 The relative pronou n whom can

be used instead vi

who

whe n the person to whic h it refers is the object of the

relative clause. The use of whom is rather formal.

The

accuséa,

whom

the

judge

treated