Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 34

The Mand River

winds through the

Zagros Mountains
in western Iran. The
Zagros Mountains
consist of rocks
deformed into folds
called anticlines and
synclines by com-
pressive forces that
resulted from the
collision of the Ara-
2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning

bian and Eurasian

does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.

Not For Sale

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 26 12/07/13 7:33 PM
Not For Sale
tectonics: a
Unifying theory

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning

does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Early Ideas About Continental Drift
2.3 What Is the Evidence for Continental Drift?
2.4 Features of the Seafloor
2.5 Earths Magnetic Field
2.6 Paleomagnetism and Polar Wandering
2.7 Magnetic Reversals and Seafloor Spreading
2.8 Plate Tectonics: A Unifying Theory
GEO-INSIGHT 2.1: Plate Boundaries, Earthquakes, and Tsunami
2.9 The Three Types of Plate Boundaries
2.10 Hot Spots and Mantle Plumes
2.11 Plate Movement and Motion
2.12 The Driving Mechanism of Plate Tectonics
2.13 Plate Tectonics and the Distribution of Natural Resources
2.14 Plate Tectonics and the Distribution of Life
Key Concepts Review


Whether Earth looked different in the past than it does today in terms
of the position of continents and ocean basins?
Why such natural disasters as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and
tsunami always seem to occur repeatedly in the same areas of the
If there is a unifying theory in geology, similar to the theory of
evolution in biology?
Why the Middle East has so much oil?
Why natural resources are seemingly distributed unevenly throughout
the world?
Why the present distribution of plants and animals is not random?
USGS EROS Data Center/Landsat/NASA


33418_ch02_rev02.indd 27 12/07/13 7:33 PM

28 Chapter 2Plate Tectonics: A Unifying Theory

2.1 Introduction Early Ideas About

Imagine it is the day after Christmas, December 26,
2004, and you are vacationing on a beautiful beach in
Continental Drift
Thailand. You look up from the book you are reading to The idea that Earths past geography was different from
see the sea suddenly retreat from the shoreline. Within todays is not new. The earliest maps showing the east coast
minutes of this unusual event, a powerful tsunami will of South America and the west coast of Africa probably
sweep over your resort and everything in its path for provided people with the first evidence that continents may
several kilometers inland. In the next few hours, the have once been joined and then broken apart and moved
coasts of Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Somalia, to their present positions. As far back as 1620, Sir Francis
Myanmar, Malaysia, and the Maldives will be inundated Bacon commented on the similarity of the shorelines of
by the deadliest tsunami in history. More than 230,000 western Africa and eastern South America. However, he
people will die, and the region will incur billions of dol- did not make the connection that the Old and New Worlds
lars in damage. might once have been joined.
Now go forward to October 25, 2010, when Mount During the late 19th century, the Austrian geolo-
2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning

Merapi in Central Java, Indonesia, began a series of violent gist Edward Suess noted the similarities between the Late
eruptions that lasted into late November. Huge quantities of Paleozoic plant fossils of India, Australia, South Africa, and
ash, lava, and ash flows were emitted during these eruptions, South America, as well as evidence of glaciation in the rock
does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.

and although warnings were issued, at least 350 people were sequences of these continents. The plant fossils make up a
killed by the eruptions, and more than 350,000 were evacu- unique flora that occurs in the coal layers just above the gla-
ated from areas around the volcano. cial deposits of these southern continents. This flora is very
Almost five months later, on March 11, 2011, a cata- different from the contemporaneous coal swamp flora of the
strophic 9.0-magnitude earthquake struck Japan, killing northern continents and is collectively known as the Glos-
more than 20,000 people, and leaving thousands injured sopteris flora after its most conspicuous genus ( Figure 2.1).
and homeless. This devastating earthquake also generated Suess also proposed the name Gondwanaland (or
a tsunami that sent walls of water crashing into the north- G ondwana as we will use here) for a supercontinent com-
eastern shores of the island, causing further damage and posed of the aforementioned southern continents. Abun-
casualties. dant fossils of the Glossopteris flora are found in coal beds in
What do these three recent tragic events have in com- Gondwana, a province in India. Suess thought these south-
mon? They are part of the dynamic interactions involving ern continents were at one time connected by land bridges
Earths plates. When two plates come together, one plate is over which plants and animals migrated. Thus, in his view,
pushed or pulled under the other plate, triggering large the similarities of fossils on these continents were due to
earthquakes such as the recent ones that shook Haiti in 2010, the appearance and disappearance of the connecting land
and New Zealand and Japan in 2011. If conditions are right, bridges.
earthquakes also can produce a tsunami such as the one in
Indonesia in 2004 and in Japan in 2011.
As the descending plate moves downward and is
assimilated into Earths interior, magma is generated.
Being less dense than the surrounding material, the
magma rises toward the surface, where it may erupt as a
volcano. It therefore should not be surprising that the
distribution of volcanoes and earthquakes closely follows
Copyright and Photography by Dr. Parvinder S. Sethi

plate boundaries.
If you are like most people, you probably have
only a vague notion of what plate tectonic theory is.
Yet plate tectonics affects all of us. Volcanic eruptions,
earthquakes, and tsunami are the result of interactions
between plates. Global weather patterns and oceanic cur-
rents are caused, in part, by the configuration of the con-
tinents and ocean basins. The formation and distribution
of many natural resources are related to plate movement
and, thus, have an impact on the economic well-being Figure 2.1 Fossil Glossopteris Leaves Plant fossils, such as
and political decisions of nations. It is therefore impor- theseGlossopteris leaves from the Upper Permian Dunedoo
Formation in Australia, are found on all five of the Gondwana
tant to understand this unifying theory, not only because
continents. Their presence on continents with widely varying
it affects us as individuals and as citizens of nation-states,

Not For Sale

climates today is evidence that the continents were at one time
but also because it ties together many aspects of the geol- connected. The distribution of the plants at that time was in the
ogy you will be studying. same climatic latitudinal belt.

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 28 12/07/13 7:33 PM

Not For Sale What Is the Evidence for Continental Drift? 29

of the same rock sequences and mountain ranges of the same

age on continents now widely separated, the matching of gla-
cial deposits and paleoclimatic zones, and the similarities of
many extinct plant and animal groups whose fossil remains
are found today on widely separated continents. Wegener
and his supporters argued that this vast amount of evidence
from a variety of sources surely indicated that the continents
must have been close together in the past.

bpk, Berlin/Art Resource, NY

Continental Fit
Wegener, like some before him, was impressed by the close
resemblance between the coastlines of continents on oppo-
Figure 2.2 Alfred Wegener Alfred Wegener, a German site sides of the Atlantic Ocean, particularly South America
meteorologist, proposed the continental drift hypothesis in 1912 and Africa. He cited these similarities as partial evidence

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning
based on a tremendous amount of geologic, paleontologic, and
that the continents were at one time joined together as a
climatologic evidence. He is shown here waiting out the Arctic
winter in an expedition hut in Greenland. supercontinent that subsequently split apart. His critics

does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.
pointed out, however, that the configuration of coastlines
results from erosional and depositional processes and there-
Alfred Wegener and the fore is continuously being modified.
Continental Drift Hypothesis A more realistic approach is to fit the continents
together along the continental slope where erosion would be
Alfred Wegener, a German meteorologist ( Figure 2.2), is gen-
minimal. Sir Edward Bullard, an English geophysicist, and
erally credited with developing the hypothesis of continental
two associates showed in 1965 that the best fit between con-
drift. In his monumental book, The Origin of Continents and
tinents occurs at a depth of about 2,000 m, confirming the
Oceans (first published in 1915), Wegener proposed that all
close fit between continents when they are reassembled to
landmasses were originally united in a single supercontinent
form Pangaea ( Figure 2.3).
that he named Pangaea, from the Greek meaning all land.
Wegener portrayed his grand concept of continental move-
ment in a series of maps showing the breakup of Pangaea and
the movement of the various continents to their present-day
locations. Wegener amassed a tremendous amount of geo-
logic, paleontologic, and climatologic evidence in support of
continental drift; however, initial reaction of scientists to his Greenland
then-heretical ideas can best be described as mixed.
Nevertheless, Alexander du Toit, a South African geolo- Eurasia
gist, and one of Wegeners more ardent supporters, further
developed Wegeners arguments and gathered more geologic
and paleontologic evidence in support of his continental
drift hypothesis. In 1937, du Toit published Our Wander- North
America Africa
ing Continents, in which he contrasted the glacial deposits

Copyright Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

of Gondwana with coal deposits of the same age found in
the continents of the Northern Hemisphere. To resolve this South
apparent climatologic paradox, du Toit moved the Gond- America
wana continents to the South Pole and brought the northern
continents together such that the coal deposits were located
at the equator. He named this northern landmass Laurasia. It
consisted of present-day North America, Greenland, Europe, trali
and Asia (except for India, which was part of Gondwana). Aus

What Is the Evidence

2.3 Figure 2.3 Continental Fit When continents are placed together

for Continental Drift? based on their outlines, the best fit is not along their present-day
coastlines but, rather, along the continental slope at a depth of
about 2,000 m.
What then was the evidence Wegener, du Toit, and oth-
Critical Thinking Question Why is the best fit along the
ers used to support the hypothesis of continental drift? It
continental slope and not along the current coastline?
included the fit of the shorelines of continents, the a ppearance

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 29 12/07/13 7:33 PM

30 Chapter 2Plate Tectonics: A Unifying Theory

Similarity of Rock Sequences Greenland, Ireland, Great Britain, and Norway. When the
continents are positioned next to each other as they were dur-
and Mountain Ranges ing the Paleozoic Era, they form an essentially continuous
If the continents were at one time joined, then the rocks and mountain range.
mountain ranges of the same age in adjoining locations on
the opposite continents should closely match. Such is the
case for the Gondwana continents ( Figure2.4). Marine, Glacial Evidence
nonmarine, and glacial rock sequences of Pennsylvanian to During the Late Paleozoic Era, massive glaciers covered
Jurassic age are almost identical on all five Gondwana conti- large continental areas of the Southern Hemisphere. Evi-
nents, strongly indicating that they were joined at one time. dence for this glaciation includes layers of till (sediments
Furthermore, the trends of several major moun- deposited by glaciers) and glacial striations (scratch marks)
tain ranges also support the hypothesis of continental drift. in the bedrock beneath the till ( Figure 2.5). Fossils and
These mountain ranges seemingly end at the coastline of one sedimentary rocks of the
continent only to apparently continue on another continent same age from the Northern
across the ocean. The folded Hemisphere, however, give ConnectionLink
2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning

Appalachian Mountains of no indication of glaciation. To better understand

ConnectionLink North America, for example, Fossil plants found in coals continental glaciers and the
trend northeastward through indicate that the Northern erosional and depositional
does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.

To learn more about how

the eastern United States Hemisphere had a tropical landforms they create, see
Pangaea formed and climate during the time that
and Canada and terminate Chapter 14.
how its origin accounted abruptly at the Newfoundland the Southern Hemisphere
for Paleozoic mountain coastline. Mountain ranges was glaciated.
building, see Chapter 20. of the same age and deforma- All of the Gondwana continents except Antarctica
tional style are found in eastern are currently located near the equator in subtropical to


Copyright Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.


Figure 2.4 Similarity of Rock Sequences on the Gondwana ContinentsSequences

Crystalline Coal Basalt Glacial of marine, nonmarine, and glacial rocks of Pennsylvanian (UC) to Jurassic (Jr) age
basement rocks beds lava flows deposits are nearly the same on all five Gondwana continents (South America, Africa, India,
Australia, and Antarctica). These continents are widely separated today and have
different environments and climates ranging from tropical to polar. Thus, the rocks
Sandstone Jurassic Triassic Permian forming on each continent are very different. When the continents were all joined in
the past, however, the environments of adjacent continents were similar, and the rocks
UC C D forming in those areas were similar. The range indicated by G in each column is the

Not For Sale

Pennsylvanian Carboniferous Devonian age range of the Glossopteris flora.
(Mississippian and

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 30 12/07/13 7:32 PM

Not For Sale
Figure 2.5 Glacial Evidence Indicating Continental Drift
What Is the Evidence for Continental Drift? 31

Permian-age coal deposits

on all five Gondwana con-
tinents. The present-day
climates of South America,
Africa, India, Australia,
and Antarctica range from
South America tropical to polar, however,
and are much too diverse to
support the type of plants
comprising the Glossopteris
South flora. Wegener therefore
reasoned that these conti-
nents must once have been
joined so that these widely
Antarctica separated localities were all

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning
in the same latitudinal belt
Jan Rysavy/iStockphoto.com

(Figure 2.6).
The fossil remainsof

Courtesy of Scott Katz

does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.
animals also provide strong
Australia evidence for continen-
tal drift. One of the best
examples is Mesosaurus, a
a When the Gondwana continents are placed b Glacial striations (scratch marks) on an outcrop
together so that South Africa is located at the South of Permian-age bedrock exposed at Hallets Cove,
freshwater reptile whose
Pole, the glacial movements indicated by striations Australia, indicate the general direction of glacial fossils are found in Perm-
(red arrows) found on rock outcrops on each movement more than 200 million years ago. As a ian-age rocks in certain
continent make sense. In this situation, the glacier glacier moves over a continents surface, it grinds regions of Brazil and South
(white area) is located in a polar climate and has and scratches the underlying rock. The glacial Africa and nowhere else
moved radially outward from its thick central area striations that are preserved on a rocks surface
toward its periphery. thus provide evidence of the direction (red
in the world (Figure2.6).
arrows) the glacier moved at that time. Because the physiologies
of freshwater and marine
animals are completely
tropical climates. Mapping of glacial striations in bedrock in different, it is hard to imagine how a freshwater reptile
Australia, India, and South America indicates that the gla- could have swum across the Atlantic Ocean and found
ciers moved from the areas of the present-day oceans onto a freshwater environment nearly identical to its former
land. Yet, this would be highly unlikely because large con- habitat. Moreover, if Mesosaurus could have swum across
tinental glaciers (such as occurred on the Gondwana conti- the ocean, its fossil remains should be widely dispersed.
nents during the Late Paleozoic Era) flow outward from their It is more logical to assume that Mesosaurus lived in lakes
central area of accumulation toward the sea. in what were once adjacent areas of South America and
Therefore, if the continents did not move during the Africa when it was united into a single continent. Discov-
past, one would have to explain how glaciers moved from the eries of fossils from additional land-dwelling animals on
oceans onto land and how large-scale continental glaciers these and other Gondwana continents, further solidify
formed near the equator. But, if the continents are reassem- the argument that these landmasses were at one time in
bled as a single landmass with South Africa located at the proximity.
South Pole, then the direction of movement of Late Paleozoic Notwithstanding all of the empirical evidence presented
continental glaciers makes sense (Figure 2.5a). Furthermore, by Wegener and later by du Toit and others, most geologists
this geographic arrangement places the northern continents simply refused to entertain the idea that continents might
nearer the tropics, which is consistent with the fossil and cli- have moved in the past. The geologists were not necessar-
matologic evidence from Laurasia. ily being obstinate about accepting new ideas; rather, they
found the evidence for continental drift inadequate and
unconvincing. In part, this was because no one could pro-
vide a suitable mechanism to explain how continents could
Fossil Evidence move over Earths surface.
Some of the most compelling evidence for continental drift Interest in continental drift waned until studies of
comes from the fossil record ( Figure 2.6). For example, Earths magnetic field and oceanographic research, con-
fossils of the Glossopteris flora (which include the seed fern ducted during the 1950s, showed that the present-day ocean
Glossopteris, as well as many other distinctive and easily iden- basins are not as old as continents but are geologically young
tifiable plants) are found in equivalent P ennsylvanian- and features that resulted from the breakup of Pangaea.

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 31 12/07/13 7:34 PM

32 Chapter 2Plate Tectonics: A Unifying Theory


Cynognathus Lystrosaurus
Lystrosaurus India
2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning

South America
does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.

Cynognathus Mesosaurus

Copyright Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.




Figure 2.6 Fossil Evidence Supporting Continental Drift Some of the plants and animals whose fossils are found today on
the widely separated continents of South America, Africa, India, Australia, and Antarctica. During the Late Paleozoic Era, these
continents were joined to form Gondwana, the southern landmass of Pangaea. Plants of the Glossopteris flora are found on all
five continents, which today have widely different climates; however, during the Pennsylvanian and Permian periods, they were all
located in the same general climatic belt. Mesosaurus is a freshwater reptile whose fossils are found only in similar nonmarine
Permian-age rocks in Brazil and South Africa. Cynognathus and Lystrosaurus are land reptiles that lived during the Early Triassic
Period. Fossils of Cynognathus are found in South America and Africa, whereas fossils of Lystrosaurus have been recovered from
Africa, India, and Antarctica. It is hard to imagine how a freshwater reptile and land-dwelling reptiles could have swum across the
wide oceans that presently separate these continents. It is more logical to assume that the continents were once connected.

Features of the
until they merge with the deep seafloor. Continental crust
changes to oceanic crust somewhere beneath the c ontinental
Seafloor rise, so part of the continental slope and the continental rise
actually rest on oceanic crust.
At this point, it is useful to discuss some of the various fea-
tures of Earths seafloor. Many of the topographic features
found on the seafloor and along the continental margins The Continental Shelf,
are the manifestations of Earths internal processes and
activity taking place along plate margins. Thus, it is impor- Slope, and Rise
tant to know how these features relate to plate tectonic As one proceeds seaward from the shoreline across the
theory. continental margin, the first area encountered is the gen-
Most people think of continents as land areas outlined tly sloping continental shelf lying between the shore and
by the oceans, but the true geologic margin of a continent the more steeply dipping continental slope (Figure 2.7). The
where granitic continental crust changes to basalt and gabbro width of the continental shelf varies considerably, ranging
oceanic crustis below sea level. A continental margin is from a few tens of meters to more than 1,000 km; the shelf
made up of a gently sloping continental shelf; a more steeply terminates where the inclination of the seafloor increases
inclined continental slope; and, in some cases, a deeper, abruptly from 1 degree or less to several degrees.

Not For Sale

gently sloping continental rise ( Figure 2.7). Thus,the The seaward margin of the continental shelf is marked
continental margins extend to increasingly greater depths by the shelfslope break (at an average depth of 135 m), where

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 32 12/07/13 7:34 PM

Not For Sale
Continental margin
Features of the Seafloor 33

Continental margin

Continental shelf
Continental shelf

Continental slope Sea level Continental slope

Copyright Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

Oceanic ridge
2 Continental rise
Depth (km)

Oceanic trench Abyssal plain


0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
Distance (km)

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning
Figure 2.7 Features of Continental Margins A generalized profile showing features of the continental margins. The vertical
dimensions of the features in this profile are greatly exaggerated, because the vertical and horizontal scales differ.

does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.
the more steeply inclined continental slope begins (Figure 2.7). First seen on the seafloor in 1979, submarine
In most areas around the margins of the Atlantic, thecon- hydrothermal vents are found at or near spreading ridges.
tinental slope merges with a more gently sloping continen- Here, cold seawater seeps through oceanic crust, is heated by
tal rise. This rise is absent around the margins of the Pacific, the hot rocks at depth, and then rises and discharges into the
where continental slopes descend directly into an oceanic seawater as plumes of hot water with temperatures as high as
trench (Figure 2.7). 400C. Many of the plumes are black because dissolved min-
erals give them the appearance of black smokehence the
name black smoker ( Figure 2.8).
Abyssal Plains, Oceanic Submarine hydrothermal vents are interesting from
the biologic, geologic, and economic points of view. Near
Ridges, Submarine the vents live communities of organisms, such as bacteria,
Hydrothermal Vents, and crabs, mussels, starfish, and tube wormsmany of which
have never been seen before. No sunlight is available, so
Oceanic Trenches these organisms depend on bacteria that oxidize sulfur com-
Beyond the continental rises are abyssal plainsflat sur- pounds for their ultimate source of n utrients. The vents are
faces covering vast areas of the seafloor. In some areas, they also interesting because of their economic potential. The
are interrupted by peaks rising more than 1 km, but abyssal heated seawater reacts with oceanic crust, transforming it into
plains are nevertheless the flattest, most featureless areas on a metal-rich solution that discharges into seawater and cools,
Earth (Figure 2.7). Their flatness is a result of sediment depo- precipitating iron, copper, and zinc sulfides and other min-
sition covering the usually rugged topography of the seafloor. erals (Figure 2.8a). A chimney-like vent forms that eventu-
A renewed interest in oceanographic research led to ally collapses and forms a mound of sediments rich in the
extensive mapping of the ocean basins during the 1960s. Such elements just mentioned (Figure 2.8b).
mapping revealed an oceanic ridge system more than 65,000 Oceanic trenches are long, steep-sided depressions on
km long, constituting the most extensive mountain range the seafloor near convergent plate boundaries and constitute
in the world (Figure 2.7). This system runs from the Arctic no more than 2% of the seafloor (Figure 2.7). It is here, how-
Ocean through the middle of the Atlantic and curves around ever, that oceanic lithosphere is consumed by subduction; that
South Africa, where the Indian Ridge continues into the is, oceanic lithosphere plunges into Earths interior along con-
Indian Ocean; the AtlanticPacific Ridge extends eastward, vergent plate boundaries (see Figure 1.14). The greatest oce-
and a branch of it, the East Pacific Rise, trends northeast until anic depths are found in trenches; the Challenger Deep of the
it reaches the Gulf of California. Perhaps the best-known Marianas Trench in the Pacific is more than 11,000 m deep.
part of the ridge system is the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which
divides the Atlantic Ocean basin into two nearly equal parts
(see Figure 1.13). Seamounts, Guyots, and
Oceanic ridges are composed almost entirely of the
igneous rocks basalt and gabbro and possess features pro- Aseismic Ridges
duced by tensional forces. Thus, they are the sites where new Except for the abyssal plains, the seafloor is not a flat,
oceanic crust is generated and plates move away from each featureless expanse. In fact, a large number of volcanic
other along divergent plate boundaries. hills, seamounts, and guyots rise above the seafloor in all

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 33 12/07/13 7:34 PM

34 Chapter 2Plate Tectonics: A Unifying Theory

Figure 2.8 Submarine Hydrothermal Vents

Bottom current

Precipitation Sedimentation FeO(OH) MnO2
CaSO4, FeS
Seawater seepage H2S in water

OAR/National Undersea Research Program (NURP); NOAA

Copyright Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

Basalt Basalt
2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning

FeS, FeS2, CuFeS2,

does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.

3508C 3508C


b This black smoker on the East Pacific Rise is at

a Cross section showing the origin of a submarine hydrothermal vent a depth of 2,800 m. The plume of black smoke
called a black smoker. is heated seawater with dissolved minerals.

ocean basins and are particularly abundant in the Pacific. Spots and Mantle Plumes). Afew of these ridges are prob-
All are of volcanic origin and differ mostly in size. Sea- ably small fragments separated from continents during
mounts rise more than 1 km above the seafloor, and if flat- rifting and are referred to as m icrocontinents. Avalonia
topped, they are called guyots ( Figure 2.9). Guyots are is a good example of a Paleozoic microcontinent (see
volcanoes that originally extended above sea level. How- Figure20.2b).
ever, as the plate upon
which they were located
continued to move, they Inactive sinking
volcano being "shaved"
were carried away from at ocean surface
a spreading ridge, and as Active
the oceanic crust cooled, volcanoes
it descended to greater Older, extinct Older, extinct
volcanoes Spreading volcanoes
depths. Thus, what was
once an island slowly
sank beneath the sea, and Sea level
as it did, wave erosion S G G G
produced the typical flat-
topped appearance of a Magma
Lithosphere chambers
Copyright Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

guyot (Figure 2.9).

Other common fea-
tures in the ocean basins
are long, narrow ridges
and broad, plateau-like
features rising as much Asthenosphere
G 5 guyot
as 2 to 3 km above the S 5 seamount
sur rounding s e af lo or.
50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50
T hes e a s e i smic r idg es
are s o c a l l e d b e c aus e Age of ocean floor (millions of years)

Not For Sale

they lack seismic (earth- Figure 2.9 The Origin of Seamounts and Guyots As the plate on which a volcano rests moves into greater
quake) activity (see Hot water depths, the submerged volcanic island is called a seamount. Those that are flat-topped are called guyots.

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 34 12/07/13 7:41 PM

Continental Margins
Not For Sale
Earths Magnetic 2.5
Earths Magnetic Field 35

Although we will be discussing convergent and divergent

plate boundaries later in this chapter, here is a good place to Field
cover the two types of continental margins associated with Having just discussed those features of the seafloor that are
the respective aforementioned plate boundaries. related to plate movement, we now turn our attention to the
Active continental margins develop at the leading phenomenon of magnetism and its role in the formulation
edge of a continental plate where oceanic lithosphere is of plate tectonic theory.
subducted. The western margin of South America is a good Magnetism is a physical phenomenon resulting from
example of where an oceanic plate is subducted beneath the the spin of electrons in some solidsparticularly those of
continent, resulting in seismic activity, a geologically young ironand moving electricity. A magnetic field is an area in
mountain range (Andes Mountains), and active volcanism which magnetic substances such as iron are affected by lines
( Figure 2.10). In addition, the continental shelf is narrow, of magnetic force emanating from a magnet ( Figure2.11).
and the continental slope descends directly into an oceanic The magnetic field shown in Figure 2.11 is dipolar, meaning
trench, so sediment is dumped into the trench and no conti- that it possesses two unlike magnetic poles referred to as the

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning
nental rise develops (Figure 2.7, left side). north and south poles.
The western margin of North America is also consid- Although Earths interior is too hot for a permanent
ered an active continental margin, although much of it is magnet to exist, it is thought that thermal and compositional

does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.
now bounded by transform faults (see the section on trans- convection within the liquid metallic outer core, coupled
form boundaries later in this chapter) rather than a sub- with Earths rotation, produce complex electrical currents
duction zone. However, plate convergence and subduction (known as a self-exciting dynamo) that, in turn, generate
continue in the Pacific Northwest along the continental the magnetic field. A useful analogy is to think of Earth as a
margins of northern California, Oregon, and Washington. giant dipole magnet in which the magnetic poles are in prox-
The continental margins of eastern North America imity to the geographic pole ( Figure 2.12). This arrange-
and South America differ considerably from their west- ment means that the strength of the magnetic field is not
ern margins. For one thing, they possess broad continen- constant but varies.
tal shelves, as well as a continental slope and rise, with Notice in Figure 2.12 that the lines of magnetic force
abyssal plains adjacent to the rises (Figure 2.7, right side). around Earth parallel its surface only near the equator, just
F urthermore, these passive continental margins are as the iron filings do arounda bar magnet (Figure 2.11). As
within a plate rather than at a plate boundary, and they the lines of force approach the poles, they are oriented at
lack the volcanic and seismic activity found at active con- increasingly larger angles with respect to the surface, and the
tinental margins (Figure2.10). Nevertheless, earthquakes strength of the magnetic field increases; it is strongest at the
do take place there occasionally, such as the magnitude poles and weakest at the equator.
5.8 earthquake that struck the east coast of the United Another important aspect of the magnetic field is
States on August 23, 2011, and caused slight damage to the that the magnetic poles, where the lines of force leave
Washington National Cathedral. and enter Earth, do not coincide with the geographic

continental Passive
Peru shelf continental
Chile Andes margin
Trench Plate
Copyright Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

boundary Broad Plate boundary
South America continental shelf
Pacific Ocean Deep basin Atlantic Ocean
South American plate
Nazca pla Plate
African plat
Plate movement Plate
movement movement
Subduction zone Mid-Atlantic Ridge
(shallow and deep Asthenosphere (spreading ridge)

Figure 2.10 Active and Passive Continental Margins Active and passive continental margins along the west and east coasts
of South America. Notice that the passive margins are much wider than active margins. Seafloor sediment is not shown.

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 35 12/07/13 7:34 PM

36 Chapter 2Plate Tectonics: A Unifying Theory

Paleomagnetism and
Polar Wandering
Copyright 1964 George Resch-Fundamental Photographs

Interest in continental drift revived during the 1950s as a

result of evidence from paleomagnetic studies, a relatively
new discipline at the time. Paleomagnetism is the remanent
magnetism in ancient rocks recording the direction and
intensity of Earths magnetic poles at the time of the rocks
When magma cools, the magnetic iron-bearing minerals
align themselves with Earths magnetic field, recording both
its direction and strength. The temperature at which iron-
bearing minerals gain their magnetization is called the Curie
point. As long as the rock is not subsequently heated above
Figure 2.11 Magnetic Field Iron filings align along the lines of
2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning

magnetic force radiating from a bar magnet.

the Curie point, it will preserve that remanent magnetism.
Thus, an ancient lava flow provides a record of the orientation
and strength of Earths magnetic field at the time the lava flow
does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.

(rotational) poles. Currently, an 11.5-degree angle exists As paleomagnetic research progressed during the
between the two (Figure2.12). Studies of Earths magnetic 1950s, some unexpected results emerged. When geologists
field show that the locations of the magnetic poles vary measured the paleomagnetism of geologically recent rocks
slightly over time but that they still correspond closely, on from different continents, they found that it was generally
average, with the locations of the geographic poles. consistent with Earths current magnetic field.

Figure 2.12 Earths Magnetic Field

Geographic north pole Magnetic north pole Geographic

north pole
Lines of
Magnetic magnetic force
north pole

Geographic equator
Copyright Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

Magnetic Geographic
equator equator

Dip needle

a Earths magnetic field has lines of force like those of a bar b The strength of the magnetic field changes from the magnetic
magnet. equator to the magnetic poles. This change in strength causes a dip
needle (a magnetic needle that is balanced on the tip of a support
so that it can freely move vertically) to be parallel to Earths surface
only at the magnetic equator, where the strength of the magnetic
north and south poles are equally balanced. Its inclination or dip,

Not For Sale

with respect to Earths surface, increases as it moves toward the
magnetic poles until it is at 90 degrees, or perpendicular to Earths
surface at the magnetic poles.

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 36 12/07/13 7:34 PM

Not For Sale
Magnetic Reversals
The paleomagnetism of ancient rocks, though, showed
Magnetic Reversals and Seafloor Spreading 37

different orientations. For example, paleomagnetic studies of

Silurian lava flows in North America indicated that the north
magnetic pole was located in the western Pacific Ocean at
and Seafloor Spreading
that time, whereas the paleomagnetic evidence from Perm- Geologists refer to Earths present magnetic field as being
ian lava flows pointed to yet another location in Asia. When normalthat is, with the north and south magnetic poles
plotted on a map, the paleomagnetic readings of numerous located approximately at the north and south geographic
lava flows from all ages in North America trace the appar- poles. At various times in the geologic past, however, Earths
ent movement of the magnetic pole (called polar wandering) magnetic field has completely reversed. The magnetic north
through time ( Figure 2.13). and south poles have switched positions so that the mag-
Furthermore, analysis of lava flows from all conti- netic north pole became the magnetic south pole, and the
nents indicated that each continent seemingly had its own magnetic south pole became the magnetic north pole. Dur-
series of magnetic poles! How could this be? Does it really ing such a reversal, the magnetic field weakens until it tem-
mean there were different north magnetic poles for each porarily disappears. When the magnetic field returns, the
continent? magnetic poles have reversed their position. The existence

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning
The best explanation for such data is that the mag- of such magnetic reversals was discovered by dating and
netic poles have remained near their present locations at determining the orientation of the remanent magnetism in
the geographic north and south poles and the continents lava flows on land ( Figure 2.14). Although the cause of

does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.
have moved. When the continental margins are fit together magnetic reversals is still uncertain, their occurrence in the
so that the paleomagnetic data point to only one magnetic geologic record is well documented.
pole, we find, just as Wegener did, that the rock sequences As a result of oceanographic research conducted during
and glacial deposits match and that the fossil evidence is the 1950s, Harry Hess of Princeton University proposed, in
consistent with the reconstructed paleogeography. a 1962 landmark paper, the theory of seafloor spreading to
account for continental movement. He suggested that conti-
nents do not move through oceanic crust as do ships plowing
through sea ice, but, rather, that the continents and oceanic
N crust move together as a single unit. Thus, the theory of sea-
floor spreading answered a major objection of the opponents
Permian Triassic of continental driftnamely, how could continents move
through oceanic crust? The answer is that they do not. The
Devonian N fact is, the continents move with the oceanic crust as part of
a lithospheric system.
Silurian As a mechanism to drive this system, Hess revived the
Cambrian 308 idea (first proposed in the late 1920s by the British geologist
Path of Arthur Holmes) of a heat transfer systemor thermal con-
North American
paleomagnetic vection cellswithin the mantle to move the plates. Accord-
Copyright Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

Path of
ing to Hess, hot magma rises from the mantle, intrudes
European along fractures defining oceanic ridges, and thus forms new
paleomagnetic crust. Cold crust is subducted back into the mantle at oce-
Equ pole
ator anic trenches, where it is heated and recycled, thus complet-
ing a thermal convection cell (see Figure 1.12).
How could Hesss hypothesis be confirmed? Magnetic
S surveys of the oceanic crust revealed a pattern of striped
magnetic anomalies (deviations from the average strength
of Earths present-day magnetic field) in the rocks that are
S both parallel to and symmetric around the oceanic ridges
Figure 2.13 Polar Wandering The apparent paths of polar ( Figure 2.15). A positive magnetic anomaly results when
wandering for North America and Europe. The apparent location Earths magnetic field at the time of oceanic crust formation
of the north magnetic pole is shown for different periods on each along an oceanic ridge summit was the same as today, thus
continents polar wandering path. Because Earth has only one yielding a stronger than normal (positive) magnetic signal.
magnetic pole, the paleomagnetic readings taken on different
continents for the same time in the past should all point to
A negative magnetic anomaly results when Earths magnetic
the same location if the continents have not moved. However, field at the time of oceanic crust formation was reversed,
thenorth magnetic pole has different locations for the same time therefore yielding a weaker than normal (negative) magnetic
in the past when measured on different continents, indicating signal.
multiple north magnetic poles. The logical explanation for this Thus, as new oceanic crust forms at oceanic ridge
dilemma is that the magnetic north pole has remained at the
same approximate geographic location during the past, and the
summits and records Earths magnetic field at the time,
continents have moved. the previously formed crust moves laterally away from

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 37 12/07/13 7:34 PM

38 Chapter 2Plate Tectonics: A Unifying Theory

One of the consequences of the

South magnetic North magnetic
pole (normal pole (normal seafloor spreading theory is its confir-
position) position) mation that ocean basins are geologi-
cally young features whose openings
and closings are partially responsible for
continental movement ( Figure 2.16).
Radiometric dating reveals that the old-
est oceanic crust is somewhat younger
than 180 million years old, whereas the
a oldest continental crust is about 4 bil-
North magnetic
lion years old. Although geologists do
South magnetic not universally accept the idea of ther-
pole (reversed) pole (reversed)
mal convection cells as the sole driving
mechanism for plate movement, most
accept that plates are created at oce-
2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning

anic ridges and destroyed at deep-sea

trenches (Figure 2.10), regardless of the
driving mechanism involved.
does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.

South magnetic
pole (normal) North magnetic
pole (normal)
Drilling and the
Confirmation of
Seafloor Spreading
For many geologists, the paleomagnetic
data amassed in support of continental
drift and seafloor spreading were con-
vincing. Moreover, results obtained
from the Deep-Sea Drilling Project
North magnetic South magnetic later confirmed the interpretations
pole (reversed) pole (reversed)
made from earlier paleomagnetic stud-
Copyright Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

ies. Cores of deep-sea sediments and

seismic profiles obtained by the Glomar
Challenger and other research vessels
have provided much of the data that
support the seafloor spreading theory.
According to the theory of seafloor
spreading, oceanic crust continuously
forms at mid-oceanic ridges, moves
d away from these ridges by seafloor
spreading, and is consumed at subduc-
Figure 2.14 Magnetic Reversals During the time period shown (ad), volcanic eruptions
produced a succession of overlapping lava flows. At the time of these volcanic eruptions, tion zones. If this is the case, then oce-
Earths magnetic field completely reversedthat is, the magnetic north pole moved to the anic crust should be youngest at the
geographic south pole, and the magnetic south pole moved to the geographic north pole. ridges and become progressively older
Thus, the end of the needle of a magnetic compass that today would point to the North Pole with increasing distance away from
would point to the South Pole if the magnetic field should again reverse. We know that Earths
them. Furthermore, the age of the oce-
magnetic field has reversed numerous times in the past because when lava flows cool below
the Curie point, magnetic minerals within the flow orient themselves parallel to the magnetic anic crust should be symmetrically dis-
field at the time. They thus record whether the magnetic field was normal or reversed at that tributed about the ridges. As we have
time. The white arrows in this diagram show the direction of the north magnetic pole for each just noted, paleomagnetic data confirm
individual lava flow, thus confirming that Earths magnetic field has reversed during the past. these statements. In addition, fossils
from sediments overlying the oceanic
theridge. These magnetic stripes therefore represent times crust and radiometric dating of rocks found on oceanic
of normal and reversed polarity at oceanic ridges (where islands both substantiate this predicted age distribution.

Not For Sale

upwelling magma forms new oceanic crust) and conclusively Sediments in the open ocean accumulate, on average, at
confirm Hesss theory of seafloor spreading. a rate of less than 0.3 cm in 1,000 years. If the ocean basins

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 38 12/07/13 7:34 PM

Not For Sale Mid-ocean ridge
Magnetic Reversals and Seafloor Spreading 39

Figure 2.15 Magnetic Anomalies

and Seafloor SpreadingThe
sequence of magnetic anomalies
Reversed magnetic 15 mya preserved within the oceanic crust
polarity is both parallel to and symmetric
9 mya around oceanic ridges. Basaltic lava
intruding into an oceanic ridge today
Normal magnetic
and spreading laterally away from
the ridge records Earths current
magnetic field or polarity (considered
by convention to be normal). Basaltic
3 mya intrusions 3, 9, and 15 million
years ago record Earths reversed
magnetic field at those times. This
schematic diagram shows how the
solidified basalt moves away from
the oceanic ridge (or spreading
ridge), carrying with it the magnetic

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning
Copyright Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

anomalies that are preserved in the

oceanic crust. Magnetic anomalies
are magnetic readings that are

does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.
Present either higher (positive magnetic
Lithosphere Magma
anomalies) or lower (negative
magnetic anomalies) than Earths
Positive magnetic Negative magnetic current magnetic field strength. The
anomaly anomaly magnetic anomalies are recorded by
a magnetometer, which measures
1 1 Magnetic profile
as recorded by a the strength of the magnetic field.
2 2 magnetometer

Figure 2.16 Age of the Worlds

Ocean Basins The age of the
worlds ocean basins has been
determined from magnetic
anomalies preserved in oceanic
crust. The red colors adjacent to
the oceanic ridges are the youngest
oceanic crust. Moving laterally away
from the ridges, the red colors grade
to yellow at 48 million years ago,
to green at 68 million years ago,
and to dark blue some 155 million
years ago. The darkest blue color is
adjacent to the continental margins
and is just somewhat less than
180 million years old.
Critical Thinking Question How
does the age of the oceanic crust
confirm the theory of seafloor
NOAA National Geophysical Data Center


were as old as the continents, we would expect deep-sea sed- Their near-absence at the ridges should come as no sur-
iments to be several kilometers thick. However, data from prise because these are the areas where new crust is con-
numerous drill holes indicate that deep-sea sediments are, at tinuously produced by volcanism and seafloor spreading.
most, only a few hundred meters thick and are thin or absent Accordingly, sediments have had little time to accumulate
at oceanic ridges. at or very close to spreading ridges. However, their t hickness

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 39 12/07/13 7:34 PM

40 Chapter 2Plate Tectonics: A Unifying Theory

increases with distance away from the ridges because of the to a baggage cart. The conveyer belt represents convection
longer amount of time sediment has had to accumulate. Hence, currents within the mantle, and the luggage represents
the farther away one is from a ridge, the thicker the sediments. Earths lithospheric plates. The luggage is moved along by the
conveyer belt until it is dumped into the baggage cart in the
same way that plates are moved by convection cells until they
Plate Tectonics: A
2.8 are subducted into Earths interior.
Although this analogy allows you to visualize how the
Unifying Theory mechanism of plate movement takes place, remember that
this analogy is limited. The major limitation is that, unlike
Plate tectonic theory is based on a simple model of Earth. the luggage, plates consist of continental and oceanic litho-
The rigid lithosphere, composed of both oceanic and conti- sphere, which have different densities, and only oceanic lith-
nental crust, as well as the underlying upper mantle, consists osphere is subducted into Earths interior.
of numerous variable-sized pieces called plates ( Figure2.17). Most geologists accept plate tectonic theory because the
There are seven major plates (Eurasian, Indian-Australian, evidence for it is overwhelming and because it ties together
Antarctic, North American, South American, Pacific, and many seemingly unrelated geologic features and events and
2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning

African) and numerous smaller ones ranging from only a few shows how they are interrelated. Consequently, geologists
tens to several hundreds of kilometers in width. Plates also now view many geologic processes from the global perspec-
vary in thickness; those composed of upper mantle and con- tive of plate tectonic theory in which plate interaction along
does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.

tinental crust are as much as 250km thick, whereas those of plate margins is responsible for such phenomena as moun-
upper mantle and oceanic crust are up to 100 km thick. tain building, earthquakes, and volcanism (Geo-Insight 2.1).
The lithosphere overlies the hotter and weaker semi-
plastic asthenosphere. It is thought that movement resulting
from some type of heat-transfer system within the astheno-
sphere causes the overlying plates to move. As plates move The Three Types of
over the asthenosphere, they separate, mostly at oceanic
ridges; in other areas, such as at oceanic trenches, they col-
Plate Boundaries
lide and are subducted back into the mantle. Because it appears that plate tectonics has operated since
An easy way to visualize plate movement is to think of a at least the Proterozoic Eon, it is important that we under-
conveyer belt moving luggage from an airplanes cargo hold stand how plates move and interact with each other and how

plate 1.8 Eurasian
5.4 North American Arabian
plate 2.3
7.9 6.9 plate 3.7
Pacific Caribbean
plate 5.5
3.0 2.0
2.0 Cocos 2.5
10.5 plate
10.1 3.8
4.0 17.2 7.0 South
Copyright Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

American African
Indian-Australian Nazca plate plate
6.2 plate plate
7.1 7.4
7.3 4.1
7.2 1.7
3.7 10.3 1.3
Antarctic plate

Ridge axis Subduction zone Hot spot Direction of movement

Not For Sale

Figure 2.17 Earths Plates A world map showing Earths plates, their boundaries, their relative motion, average rates of movement in
centimeters per year, and hot spots.

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 40 12/07/13 7:34 PM

Not For Sale The Three Types of Plate Boundaries 41

IMPACT The Hazards of Living Near a Convergent
Plate Boundary
Volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunami are all Cascade Range volcanoes, it is important to know the extent
manifestations associated with convergent plate boundaries. and severity of past eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunami
As such, it is important to know the risks involved in living that have occurred in this area. What type of evidence can
near an active plate margin. One such area is the Pacific geologists look for to determine past volcanic eruptions,
Northwest of the United States. Stretching from Lassen earthquakes, and tsunami? Can this information be used
Peak in northern California through Oregon, Washington, in predicting and planning for future activity associated
andinto British Columbia, Canada, the Cascade Range is with theJuan de FucaNorth American convergent plate
the result of subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate beneath boundary? To what extent should frequency of eruptions and
the North American plate. With a number of cities located seismic activity in the past play in determining future land
near the coast, and also in proximity to some of the use planning?

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning
does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.
ancient plate boundaries are recognized. After all, the move- Divergent boundaries most commonly occur along
ment of plates has profoundly affected the geologic and bio- the crests of oceanic ridgesfor example, the Mid-Atlantic
logic history of this planet. Ridge. Oceanic ridges are thus characterized by rugged
Geologists recognize three types of plate boundaries: diver- topography with high relief resulting from displacement of
gent, convergent, and transform (Table 2.1). Along these bound- rocks along large fractures, shallow-depth earthquakes, high
aries, new plates are formed, are consumed, or slide laterally past heat flow, and basaltic flows or pillow lavas.
one another. Interaction of plates at their boundaries accounts Divergent boundaries are also present under conti-
for most of Earths volcanic eruptions and earthquakes, as well nents during the early stages of continental breakup. When
as the formation and evolution of its mountain systems. magma wells up beneath a continent, the crust is initially
elevated, stretched, and thinned, producing fractures, faults,
rift valleys, and volcanic activity ( Figure 2.18a). As magma
Divergent Boundaries intrudes into faults and fractures, it solidifies or flows out onto
Divergent plate boundaries, or spreading ridges, occur the surface as lava flows; the latter often covering the rift valley
where plates are separating and new oceanic lithosphere is floor ( Figure 2.18b). The East African Rift Valley is an excel-
forming. Divergent boundaries are places where the crust is lent example of continental breakup at this stage ( Figure 2.19).
extended, thinned, and fractured as magma, derived from As spreading proceeds, some rift valleys continue to
the partial melting of the mantle, rises to the surface. The lengthen and deepen until the continental crust eventually breaks
magma is almost entirely basaltic and intrudes into vertical and a narrow linear sea is formed, separating two continental
fractures to form dikes and pillow lava flows (see Figure5.6). blocks ( Figure 2.18c). The Red Sea, separating the Arabian
As successive injections of magma cool and solidify, they Peninsula from Africa (Figure 2.19), and the Gulf of California,
form new oceanic crust and record the intensity and orien- which separates Baja California from mainland Mexico, are good
tation of Earths magnetic field (Figure 2.15). examples of this more advanced stage of rifting.

Table 2.1 Types of Plate Boundaries

Type Example Landforms Volcanism

Oceanic Mid-Atlantic Ridge Mid-oceanic ridge with axial rift valley Basalt
Copyright Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

Continental East African Rift Valley Rift valley Basalt and rhyolite, no andesite
Oceanic-oceanic Aleutian Islands Volcanic island arc,offshore Andesite
oceanic trench
Oceanic-continental Andes Offshore oceanic trench, volcanic Andesite
mountain chain, mountain belt
Continental-continental Himalayas Mountain belt Minor
Transform San Andreas Fault Fault valley Minor

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 41 12/07/13 7:34 PM

42 Chapter 2Plate Tectonics: A Unifying Theory

Insight 2.1 Plate Boundaries, Earthquakes,
and Tsunami

n the afternoon of January
12, 2010, a magnitude 7.0
earthquake struck the is-
land nation of Haiti. According
to official estimates, 222,570
people died, at least 300,000
were injured, and more than
285,000 residences and busi-
nesses were destroyed or
2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning

severely damaged ( Figure 1).

Widespread devastation oc-
curred in the capital of Port-au-
does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.

Prince and elsewhere through-

out the region, exacerbated
by an almost total collapse of
the vital infrastructure needed

to respond to such a disaster,
including medical, transporta-
tion, and communications
A little more than a year
later, on February 23, 2011, 2.
 Some of the damage done to buildings by the violent ground shaking experienced in the
a 6.3-magnitude earthquake heart of Christchurch, New Zealand, as a result of the 6.3-magnitude earthquake that struck
on February 23, 2011.

struck Christchurch, New

Zealand. In addition to the
tremendous damage to
buildings and infrastructure,
181 people were killed in
this earthquake, making it
the second deadliest earth-
quake to strike New Zealand
( Figure 2).
Less than a month fol-
lowing the New Zealand
earthquake, a 9.0-magnitude
earthquake and tsunami
struck Japan on March 11,

2011, causing more than

13,000 deaths and tre-
mendous property damage,
including severe damage
to a nuclear power plant
in the northeastern part of
 People walking over the rubble of destroyed buildings in downtown Port-au-Prince, Haiti,
the island. Within minutes
following the 7.0-magnitude earthquake that struck the island nation on January 12, 2010,
and left more than 222,500 dead. after the earthquake, walls

Not For Sale
33418_ch02_rev02.indd 42 12/07/13 7:34 PM
Not For Sale 2.9 The Three Types of Plate Boundaries 43

 Aerial view of Minamisanriku, Miyagi Prefecture
in northeastern Japan, showing houses clogged
with debris and a large boat that had been swept
inland as a result of the tsunami.

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning
does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.
south. This earthquake also struck a
small fishing village and swept at least
three people out to sea.
The New Zealand earthquake also
resulted from movement along a strike-
slip fault, but in this case, there was
an additional component of vertical
movement. Some geologists think that
this particular earthquake was actually
an aftershock of the 7.1-magnitude
Canterbury earthquake that struck
the south island of New Zealand on
September 4, 2010. Although both
earthquakes occurred on previously
unknown faults, the faults and subse-
quent earthquakes are both associ-
ated with the regional plate boundary

deformation taking place between the

Pacific and Australian plates in the
central South Island of New Zealand
(Figure 2.17).
Lastly, the 2011 Japanese earth-
quake and resulting tsunami were
caused by the Pacific plate subduct-
of water, some as high as 37 m, inun- plates and the interactions taking ing beneath the North American
dated low-lying areas along the Japa- place along their boundaries. For plate in the region of northern Japan.
nese coast and extending as far as example, the Haiti earthquake in Here, the Pacific plate is moving
10 km inland, sweeping aside boats, 2010 resulted from movement along a approximately westward with respect
vehicles, and structures, as if they strike-slip fault zone (a strike-slip fault to the North American and Eurasian
were toys ( Figure 3). is one involving horizontal movement plates and plunges beneath Japan
What do these horrific events of rock) that is part of the boundary along the Japan Trench, which marks
share, besides the terrible loss of separating the southwestward-moving the surface expression of an oceanic-
lives and massive property damage? North American plate, from the east- oceanic convergent plate boundary
They are all associated with Earths ward-moving Caribbean plate to the (Figure 2.20a).


33418_ch02_rev02.indd 43 12/07/13 7:34 PM

44 Chapter 2Plate Tectonics: A Unifying Theory

Volcanic activity

a Rising magma beneath a continent pushes the crust up,

producing numerous fractures, faults, rift valleys, and volcanic

Continental crust

Rift valley
2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning

b As the crust is stretched and thinned, rift valleys develop and

lava flows onto the valley floors, such as seen today in the East
African Rift Valley.
does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.

Coastal mountain Narrow fault-bounded sea


c Continued spreading further separates the continent

until it splits apart and a narrow seaway develops. The
Red Sea, which separates the Arabian Peninsula from
Africa, is a good example of this stage of development.

d As spreading continues, an oceanic

Continental seaboard ridge system forms, and an ocean
(coastal mountains gone) basin develops and grows. The Mid-
Atlantic Ridge illustrates this stage in a
divergent plate boundarys history.
Wide ocean
Copyright Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

Not For Sale

Figure 2.18 History of a Divergent Plate Boundary

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 44 12/07/13 7:34 PM

Not For Sale
As a newly created narrow sea continues to enlarge,
The Three Types of Plate Boundaries 45

it may eventually become an expansive ocean basin, such

as the Atlantic Ocean basin is today, separating North and
South America from Europe and Africa by thousands of
kilometers ( Figure 2.18d). The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is the
boundary between these diverging plates; the American
plates are moving westward, and the Eurasian and African
plates are moving eastward.
Extending outward from the eastern coasts of North
andSouth America, as well as the western coasts of Europe
and Africa, are broad continental shelves, continental slopes,
and rises. These features, discussed earlier, are referred to as
passive continental margins (Figure 2.10). And, although
they are found within a plate, rather than at a plate bound-
ary, they result from the breakup of a continent and the sub-

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning
sequent movement away from a divergent plate boundary
(Figure 2.18).

does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.
An Example of Ancient Rifting What features in the
geologic record can geologists use to recognize ancient rift-
ing? Associated with regions of continental rifting are faults,
dikes (vertical intrusive igneous bodies), sills (horizontal
intrusive igneous bodies), lava flows, and thick sedimentary
sequences within rift valleys, all features that are preserved
in the geologic record. The Triassic fault basins of the east-
ern United States are a good example of ancient continental

Copyright Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

rifting (see Figure 22.7). These fault basins mark the zone of
rifting that occurred when North America split apart from
Africa. The basins contain thousands of meters of continental
sediment and are riddled with dikes and sills (see Chapter 22).
Pillow lavas, in association with deep-sea sediment,
are also evidence of ancient rifting. The presence of pillow
lavas marks the formation of a spreading ridge in a narrow
linear sea (Figures 2.18c and 2.19).
A narrow linear sea forms when
the continental crust in the rift val-
ConnectionLink ley finally breaks apart, and the area Figure 2.19 East African Rift Valley and the Red SeaPresent-
To learn more about the is flooded with seawater. Magma, Day Examples of Divergent Plate Boundaries The East African Rift
breakup of Pangaea and Valley and the Red Sea represent different stages in the history
intruding into the sea along this of a divergent plate boundary. The East African Rift Valley is being
how it affected the eastern newly formed spreading ridge, formed by the separation of eastern Africa from the rest of the
margin of North America solidifies as pillow lavas, which are continent along a divergent plate boundary. The Red Sea represents
during the Mesozoic Era, preserved in the geologic record, a more advanced stage of rifting, in which two continental blocks
along with the sediment being (Africa and the Arabian Peninsula) are separated by a narrow sea.
see Chapter 22.
deposited on them.
Most of these planes dip from oceanic trenches beneath
adjacent island arcs or continents, marking the surface of
Convergent Boundaries slippage between the converging plates.
Whereas new crust forms at divergent plate boundar- Deformation, vol-
ies, older crust must be destroyed and recycled in order canism, mountain building,
for the entire surface area of Earth to remain the same. metamorphism, earthquake ConnectionLink
Otherwise, we would have an expanding Earth. Such plate activity, and deposits of valuable More information about
d estruction occurs along convergent plate boundaries minerals characterize conver- the relationship between
( Figure2.20), where two plates collide and the lead- gent boundaries. Three types plate tectonics and
ing edge of one plate is subducted beneath the margin of convergent plate boundar- mountain building can be
of the other plate and eventually incorporated into the ies are recognized: oceanic found in Chapter 10.
asthenosphere. A dipping plane of earthquake foci, called oceanic, oceaniccontinental,
a Benioff zone, defines subduction zones (see Figure 9.5). and continentalcontinental.

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 45 12/07/13 7:34 PM

46 Chapter 2Plate Tectonics: A Unifying Theory

Continent Margina Volcanic Central a Oceanicoceanic plate

(back a ea island arc ocean boundary. An oceanic trench
forms where one oceanic plate
is subducted beneath another.
Back arc spreading On the nonsubducted plate, a
volcanic island arc forms from
rea the rising magma generated
Fo from the subducting plate.
TheJapanese Islands are a
Par tial melting tle
an volcanic island arc resulting
r m re
pe he from the subduction of one
Mantle upwelling Up osp oceanic plate beneath another
nch en
associated with th Japan oceanic plate.
nearby subduction Partial As
melting Subducting
oceanic crust

Panama b Oceaniccontinental plate

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning

Amazon boundary. When an oceanic

River plate is subducted beneath a
continental plate, an andesitic
does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.

N volcanic mountain range is

Continental Pacific S formed on the continental plate

d ea
Volcanic arc Ocean

as a result of rising magma.

mountain range
The Andes Mountains in Peru

o lca

a are one of the best examples
of continuing mountain building


along an oceaniccontinental


Subduction plate boundary.


0 1000
complex crust km

As an
th tle
ph Partial
e Subducting melting
oceanic crust

c Continentalcontinental
plate boundary. When two
continental plates converge,
Hi neither is subducted because
Secondary rifting lay a
India M ts . N of their great thickness and
caused by collision
Mountain range low and equal densities. As the
two continental plates collide,
Indian a mountain range is formed
Ocean Rift in the interior of a new and
Tibetan larger continent. The Himalayas
Copyright Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

Continen plateau in central Asia resulted from

crust the collision between India
0 1000 and Asia approximately
Continen km 40to50million years ago.
Thrust zo
Ast rm
he a
Oceanic no ntle
crust Little or no he
partial melting

Figure 2.20 Three Types of Convergent Plate Boundaries

Not For Sale

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 46 12/07/13 7:35 PM
Not For Sale
OceanicOceanic Boundaries When two oceanic plates
The Three Types of Plate Boundaries 47

ContinentalContinental Boundaries Two continents

converge, one is subducted beneath the other along an oceanic approaching each other are initially separated by an ocean
oceanic plate boundary (Figure 2.20a). The subducting plate floor that is being subducted under one continent. The edge of
bends downward to form the outer wall of an oceanic trench. that continent displays the features characteristic of oceanic
A subduction complex, composed of wedge-shaped slices of continental convergence along an active continental plate
highly folded and faulted marine sediments and oceanic litho- margin. As the ocean floor continues to be subducted, the two
sphere scraped off the descending plate, forms along the inner continents come closer together until they eventually collide.
wall of the oceanic trench. Asthe subducting plate descends Because continental lithosphere, which consists of continental
into the mantle, it is heated and partially melted, generating crust and the upper mantle, is less dense than oceanic litho-
magma commonly of andesitic composition (see Chapter 4). sphere (oceanic crust and upper mantle), it cannot sink into
This magma is less dense than the surrounding mantle rocks the asthenosphere. Although one continent may partially slide
and rises to the surface of the nonsubducted plate to form a under the other, it cannot be pulled or pushed down into a
curved chain of volcanic islands called a volcanic island arc (any subduction zone (Figure 2.20c).
plane intersecting a sphere makes an arc). This arc is nearly par- When two continents collide, they are welded together
allel to the oceanic trench and is separated from it by a distance along a zone marking the former site of subduction. At this con-

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning
of up to several hundred kilometersthe distance depends on tinentalcontinental plate boundary, an interior mountain
the angle of dip of the subducting plate (Figure 2.20a). belt is formed consisting of deformed sediments and sedimen-
In those areas where the rate of subduction is faster than the tary rocks, igneous intrusions, metamorphic rocks, and frag-

does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.
forward movement of the overriding plate, the lithosphere on the ments of oceanic crust. In addition, the entire region is subjected
landward side of the volcanic island arc may be subjected to ten- to numerous earthquakes. The Himalayas in central Asia, the
sional stress and may be stretched and thinned, resulting in the worlds youngest and highest mountain system, resulted from
formation of a back-arc basin. This back-arc basin may grow by the collision between India and Asia that began 40 to 50 million
spreading if magma breaks through the thin crust and forms new years ago and is still continuing (Figure 2.20c; see Chapter 10).
oceanic crust (Figure 2.20a). A good example of a back-arc basin
Recognizing Ancient Convergent Plate Bound-
associated with an oceanicoceanic plate boundary is the Sea of
aries How can former subduction zones be recognized in
Japan between the Asian continent and the islands of Japan.
the geologic record? Igneous rocks provide one such clue.
Most present-day active volcanic island arcs are in the
The magma erupted at the surface, forming island arc vol-
Pacific Ocean basin and include the Aleutian Islands, the
canoes and continental volcanoes, is of andesitic composi-
KermadecTonga arc, and the Japanese (Figure 2.20a) and
tion. Another clue is the zone of intensely deformed rocks
Philippine Islands. The Scotia and Antillean (Caribbean)
between the deep-sea trench where subduction is taking
island arcs are in the Atlantic Ocean basin.
place and the area of igneous activity. Here, sediments and
OceanicContinental Boundaries When an oce- submarine rocks are folded, faulted, and metamorphosed
anic and a continental plate converge, the denser oceanic into a chaotic mixture of rocks termed a mlange.
plate is subducted under the continental plate along an During subduction, pieces of oceanic lithosphere are
oceaniccontinental plate boundary (Figure 2.20b). Just sometimes incorporated into the mlange and accreted onto
as at oceanicoceanic plate boundaries, the descending the edge of the continent. Such slices of oceanic crust and
oceanic plate forms the outer wall of an oceanic trench. upper mantle are called ophiolites ( Figure 2.21). Detailed
The magma generated by subduction rises beneath the
continent and either crystallizes as large intrusive bodies, called
plutons, before reaching the surface or erupts at the surface to
produce a chain of andesitic volcanoes, also called a volcanic arc. Deep-sea sediments
An excellent example of an oceaniccontinental plate boundary Pillow lava and
sheet lava
is the Pacific Coast of South America where the oceanic Nazca Copyright Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

plate is currently being subducted under South America (Figure Sheeted dikes
2.20b; see also Chapter 10). The PeruChile Trench marks the Massive gabbro
site of subduction, and the Andes Mountains are the resulting Layered gabbro
volcanic mountain chain on the nonsubducting plate. Upper mantle peridotite
Just as there are passive continental margins, there are
also active continental margins (Figure 2.10). The aforemen-
tioned oceaniccontinental plate boundary between the west
coast of the South American plate and the eastern side of the
oceanic Nazca plate is an excellent example of an active con-
tinental margin (Figure 2.20b). Here the continental shelf is
narrow, and the continental slope descends directly into the
Figure 2.21 Ophiolites Ophiolites are sequences of rock on land
PeruChile Trench, so sediment is dumped into the trench
consisting of deep-sea sediments, oceanic crust, and upper mantle.
and no continental rise develops, such as along a passive Ophiolites are one feature used to recognize ancient convergent
continental margin (Figure 2.10). plate boundaries.

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 47 12/07/13 7:35 PM

48 Chapter 2Plate Tectonics: A Unifying Theory

is peridotite (a dark intrusive igneous rock

composed of the mineral olivine), which
Trench Fracture zone
Transform fault probably represents the upper mantle.
Fracture zone This peridotite is sometimes altered
by metamorphism to a greenish rock
known as serpentinite. Thus, a complete
ophiolite consists of deep-sea sedimentary
rocks underlain by rocks of the oceanic
crust and upper mantle. The presence of
ophiolites in an outcrop or drilling core is
a key indicator of plate convergence along
a subduction zone.
a Most transform
Oceanic crust Elongated belts of folded and faulted
faults connect
two oceanic ridge marine sedimentary rocks, andesites, and
segments. ophiolites are found in the Appalachians,
2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning

Subducted oceanic ridge segment Alps, Himalayas, and Andes. The combi-
nation of such features is significant evi-
Transform fault
dence that these mountain ranges resulted
does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.

from deformation along convergent plate


The third type of plate boundary is a
b A transform fault transform plate boundary, which mostly
can connect a ridge occur along fractures in the seafloor,
and a trench. known as transform faults, where plates
slide laterally past one another roughly
Fracture Transform fault parallel to the direction of plate move-
ment. Although lithosphere is neither
created nor destroyed along a trans-
form boundary, the movement between
plates results in a zone of intensely shat-
Copyright Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

tered rock and numerous shallow-depth

Transform faults transform or
change one type of motion between plates
into another type of motion. Mostcom-
c A transform fault monly, transform faults connect two
can also link two
oceanic ridge segments; however, they
can also connect ridges to trenches and
trenches to trenches ( Figure 2.22).
Figure 2.22 Transform Plate Boundaries Horizontal movement between plates Although the majority of transform faults
occurs along transform faults. Extensions of transform faults on the seafloor form are in oceanic crust and are marked by dis-
fracture zones. Note that relative motion between the plates only occurs between the tinct fracture zones, they may also extend
two ridges. into continents.
One of the best-known transform
faults is the San Andreas Fault
in California. It separates the ConnectionLink
studies reveal that an ideal ophiolite consists of a layer of Pacific plate from the North
Learn more about the
deep-sea sediments deposited on pillow lava and sheet lava American plate and connects
flows of the upper oceanic crust. A sheeted dike complex spreading ridges in the Gulf San Andreas Fault in
consisting of vertical basaltic dikes, followed by massive of California with the Juan de Geo-Insight 9.1 in

Not For Sale

gabbro (a dark intrusive igneous rock), and layered gab- Fuca and Pacific plates off the Chapter 9.
bro, form the rest of the oceanic crust. Beneath the gabbro coast of northern California

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 48 12/07/13 7:35 PM

Not For Sale Hot Spots and Mantle Plumes 49

( Figure 2.23). Many of the earthquakes that affect

alifornia are the result of movement along this fault (see
BRITISH Chapter 9).
Unfortunately, transform faults generally do not leave
any characteristic or diagnostic features except for the obvi-
ous displacement of the rocks with which they are asso-
ciated. This displacement is usually large, on the order of

tens to hundreds of kilometers. Such large displacements in



ancient rocks can sometimes be related to transform fault





Hot Spots and

Mantle Plumes

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning
Before leaving the topic of plate boundaries, we should
mention an intraplate feature found beneath both oce-

does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.
anic and continental plates. A hot spot (Figure 2.17) is
CALIFORNIA the location on Earths surface where a stationary column
of magma, originating deep within the mantle (mantle
plume), has slowly risen to the surface and formed a vol-

cano. Because the mantle plumes apparently remain sta-

n A

tionary (although some evidence suggests that they might


San Francisco

not) within the mantle while the plates move over them, the
resulting hot spots leave a trail of extinct and progressively

older volcanoes (aseismic ridges) that record the movement

of the plate.
OCEAN One of the best examples of aseismic ridges and hot
spots is the Emperor SeamountHawaiian Island chain
Los Angeles ( Figure 2.24). This chain of islands and seamounts extends
from the island of Hawaii to the Aleutian Trench off Alaska,
a distance of some 6,000 km, and consists of more than 80
volcanic structures.
Currently, the only active volcanoes in this island
PACIFIC chain are on the island of Hawaii and the Loihi Sea-
mount. The rest of the islands are extinct volcanic
PLATE structures that become progressively older toward the
north and northwest. This means that the Emperor Sea-
mountHawaiian Island chain records the direction that
the Pacific plate traveled as it moved over an apparently
stationary mantle plume. In this case, the Pacific plate
first moved in a north-northwesterly direction and then,
Oceanic Zone of Transform as indicated by the sharp bend in the chain, changed to

ridge subduction faults a west-northwesterly direction approximately 43 mil-

Figure 2.23 The San Andreas FaultA Transform Plate lion years ago. The reason that the Pacific plate changed
Boundary The San Andreas Fault is a transform fault separating directions is not known, but the shift might be related to
the Pacific plate from the North American plate. It connects the the collision of India with the Asian continent at about
spreading ridges in the Gulf of California with the Juan de Fuca and
the same time (see Figure 10.21).
Pacific plates off the coast of northern California. Movement along
the San Andreas Fault has caused numerous earthquakes. The Mantle plumes and hot spots help geologists explain
insert photograph shows a segment of the San Andreas Fault as it some of the geologic activity occurring within plates as
cuts through the Carrizo Plain, California. opposed to activity occurring at or near plate boundaries. In
Critical Thinking Question If the movement along the San addition, if mantle plumes are essentially fixed with respect
Andreas Fault, which separates the Pacific plate from the North to earths rotational axis, they can be used to determine not
American plate, averages 5.5 cm per year, how long will it take only the direction of plate movement but also the rate of
before Los Angeles is opposite San Francisco? movement.

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 49 12/07/13 7:35 PM

50 Chapter 2Plate Tectonics: A Unifying Theory

Kamchatka Aleutian Alaskan

Islands coast
Sea level Sea level


Direction 3.85.6
of plate movement Oahu
Copyright Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

Sea level 2.33.3

1.31.8 Maui
hot spot 0.81.3
2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning

Upper mantle
Hawaiian Islands
Oceanic crust
Hawaii 0.7 to
does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.

Asthenosphere Mantle present


Figure 2.24 Hot Spots A hot spot is the location where a stationary mantle plume has risen to the surface and formed a volcano. The
Emperor SeamountHawaiian Island chain formed as a result of the Pacific plate moving over a mantle plume, and the line of volcanic
islands in this chain traces the direction of plate movement. The island of Hawaii and the Loihi Seamount are the only current hot spots of
this island chain. The numbers indicate the age of the islands in millions of years.

Figure 2.25 Reconstructing Plate Positions Using Magnetic Anomalies

Anomaly Present Anomaly

31 Mid-Atlantic 31
Plate Movement
2.11 Ridge

and Motion Eurasian

How fast and in what direction are Earths plates moving? North American
Do they all move at the same rate? Rates of plate movement Plate
can be calculated in several ways. The least accurate method
is to determine the age of the sediments immediately above
any portion of the oceanic crust and then divide the dis- Plate
tance from the spreading ridge by that age. Such calcula-
tions give an average rate of movement.
A more accurate method of determining both the a The present North Atlantic, showing the Mid-
average rate of movement and relative motion is by dat- Atlantic Ridge and magnetic anomaly 31, which
ing the magnetic anomalies in the crust of the seafloor. The formed 67 million years ago.
distance from an oceanic ridge axis to any magnetic anom-
aly indicates the width of new seafloor that formed during
that time interval. For example, if the distance between Eurasian
Copyright Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

the present-day Mid-Atlantic Ridge and anomaly 31 is North American
2,010 km, and anomaly 31 formed 67 million years ago Plate
( Figure 2.25), then the average rate of movement during
the past 67 million years has been 3 cm per year (2,010 km,
which equals 201 million cm divided by 67 million years; African
201,000,000 cm/67,000,000 years = 3 cm/year). Thus, for Plate
a given interval of time, the wider the strip of seafloor,
the faster the plate has moved. In this way, not only can
the present average rate of movement and relative motion
be determined (Figure 2.17), but also the average rate of b The Atlantic 67 million years ago. Anomaly
31 marks the plate boundary 67 million years ago.
movement in the past can be c alculated by dividing the

Not For Sale

By moving the anomalies back together, along with
distance between anomalies by the amount of time elapsed the plates they are on, we can reconstruct the
between anomalies. former positions of the continents.

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 50 12/07/13 7:35 PM

Not For Sale
Geologists use magnetic anomalies not only to calcu-
The Driving Mechanism of Plate Tectonics 51

the overlying lithosphere, becomes denser as it cools, and

late the average rate of plate movement but also to determine then sinks back into the interior where it is heated, and the
plate positions at various times in the past. Because magnetic process repeats itself. This type of convective heat system is
anomalies are parallel and symmetric with respect to spread- analogous to a pot of stew cooking on a stove ( Figure 2.27).
ing ridges, all one must do to determine the position of con- In this mantle convection cell model, spreading
tinents when particular anomalies formed is to move the ridges mark the ascending limbs of adjacent convection cells,
anomalies back to the spreading ridge, which will also move andtrenches are present where convection cells descend
the continents with them (Figure 2.25). Because subduction back into Earths interior. The convection cells therefore
destroys oceanic crust and the magnetic record that it car- determine the location of
ries, we have an excellent record of plate movements since spreading ridges and trenches,
the breakup of Pangaea, but not as good an understanding of with the lithosphere lying ConnectionLink
plate movement before that time. above the thermal convection More can be learned about
The average rate of movement, as well as the relative cells. Thus, each plate corre- Earths interior in Chapter 9.
motion between any two plates, can be determined by satel- sponds to a single convection
lite-laser ranging techniques. Laser beams from a station on cell that moves as a result of

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning
one plate are bounced off a satellite (in geosynchronous orbit) the convective movement of the cell itself (Figure 2.26).
and returned to a station on a different plate. As the plates Although most geologists agree that Earths internal
move away from each other, the laser beam takes more time heat plays an important role in plate movement, two other

does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.
to go from the sending station to the stationary satellite and processes, referred to as slab-pull and ridge-push, might
back to the receiving station. This difference in elapsed time is also help facilitate the movement of plates ( Figure 2.28).
used to calculate the rate of movement
and the relative motion between plates.
Tectonic plate
The Driving
2.12 crust

Mechanism of Mantle
cell Ocea

Plate Tectonics Mantle n tr e

convection h
cell Subduction Ocean
A major obstacle to the acceptance of zone crust
Tectonic plate
the continental drift hypothesis was Mantle
the lack of a driving mechanism to core convection
explain continental movement. When cell
it was shown that continents and ridge
ocean floors moved together, not sepa-
rately, and that new crust is formed core Lithosphere
at spreading ridges by rising magma, Mantle
most geologists accepted some type convection Tectonic plate
of convective heat system (convection cell
cells) as the basic process responsible
for plate motion. However, the ques- Continent

Copyright Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

tion of what exactly drives the plates convection Collision
remains. cell between
Most of the heat from Earths inte- convection two plates
rior results from the decay of radio- Mantle
cell Continent

active elements, such as uranium convection


(seeChapter 17), in the core and lower cell


mantle. The most efficient way for Li Tectonic plate
this heat to escape Earths interior is
through some type of slow convection
system. Heat from the core, supple-
mented by heat generated from radio- Figure 2.26 Thermal Convection Cells as the Driving Force of Plate Movement A cutaway
active decay, thus drives large mantle view of Earth shows that the lithosphere glides horizontally across the asthenosphere. Heat
from the core, supplemented by heat produced from radioactive decay, drives huge mantle
convection cells ( Figure 2.26). In this convection cells that move the lithosphere. Spreading ridges mark the location of ascending
manner, hot rock from the interior limbs of the convection cells, and oceanic trenches are the surface expression of subduction,
rises toward the surface, loses heat to where plates descend into Earths interior.

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 51 12/07/13 7:35 PM

52 Chapter 2Plate Tectonics: A Unifying Theory

Figure 2.27 Convection in a Pot of

Stew Heat from the stove is applied
to the base of the stew pot, causing
the stew to heat up. As heat rises
through the stew, pieces of the stew are
carried to the surface, where the heat
is dissipated, the pieces of stew cool,
and then sink back to the bottom of the
pot. The bubbling seen at the surface of
the stew is the result of convection cells
churning the stew. In the same manner,
heat from the decay of radioactive
elements produces convection cells
within Earths interior.
2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning

Roman Sigaev/iStockphoto
does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.

Both mechanisms are gravity driven, but still depend on from the higher spreading ridges and toward the trenches,
thermal differences within Earth. where it is subducted back into Earths interior (Figure 2.28).
In slab-pull, the subducting cold slab of lithosphere, being Currently, geologists are fairly certain that some type
denser than the surrounding warmer asthenosphere, pulls the of convective system is involved in plate movement, but the
rest of the plate along as it descends into the asthenosphere extent to which other mechanisms, such as slab-pull and
(Figure 2.28). As the lithosphere moves downward, there is a ridge-push, are involved is still unresolved. However, the fact
corresponding upward flow back into the spreading ridge. that plates have moved in the past and are still moving today
Operating in conjunction with slab-pull is the ridge- has been proven beyond a doubt. And although a compre-
push mechanism. As a result of rising magma, the oceanic hensive theory of plate movement has not yet been devel-
ridges are higher than the surrounding oceanic crust. It is oped, more and more of the pieces are falling into place as
thought that gravity pushes the oceanic lithosphere away geologists learn more about Earths interior.

Oceanic Figure 2.28 Plate Movement

ridge Sea level Resulting from Gravity-Driven
Trench Mechanisms Plate movement is
also thought to occur, at least
partially, from gravity-driven
slab-pull or ridge-push
mechanisms. In slab-pull, the
Ridge push edge of the subducting plate
descends into Earths interior,
and the rest of the plate is
pulled downward. In ridge-
push, rising magma pushes
Copyright Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

Ocea the oceanic ridges higher than

nic c rust Slab the rest of the oceanic crust.
pu Gravity thus pushes the oceanic

Upper mantle lithosphere away from the ridges

and toward the trenches.

Convection Asthenosphere
cell movement

Not For Sale

Rising magma

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 52 12/07/13 7:35 PM

Not For Sale Plate Tectonics and the Distribution of Natural Resources 53

IMPACT Molybdenum Mining and Economic,
Environmental, and Political Concerns
Molybdenum is an element that is important in many Numerous economic, environmental, and political factors
industrial metallurgical applications. It has an extremely come into play when dealing with metallic ores critical to an
high melting point, making it useful as an alloy for high- industrial society. Discuss some of the factors that you think
strength and high-temperature steels, as well as in other might have been involved in the decision to go ahead and
products requiring resistance to very high temperatures. exploit this important ore deposit.
Like many metals, it is mined from porphyry-style
deposits, which typically form in high-temperature igneous
environments, such as those associated with convergent
plate boundaries. Although the United States is a
leading producer of molybdenum, one of the worlds

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning
largest undeveloped molybdenum deposits is beneath
Mount Hope, approximately 50 km northwest of Eureka,
To Come

does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.
To mine this ore deposit, General Moly, Inc., a Colorado-
based mining company, has recently received the necessary
permits from the Bureau of Land Management and the
Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to proceed with
its Mount Hope Project. Plans call for blasting off the top
of Mount Hope to reach the molybdenum-bearing ore. Part
of the financing of this $1.3 billion project will come from
the Sichuan Hanlong Group, a Chinese company that will
Figure 1 The location and a view of Mount Hope, near Eureka,
ultimately own a 30% stake in General Moly, but will also buy Nevada, where one of the worlds largest undeveloped molybdenum-
most of its molybdenum output. bearing ore deposits will soon be mined.

Plate Tectonics
not be surprising that many of the conflicts in the Middle
East have shared as their underlying cause the desire to con-
and the Distribution trol these vast amounts of petroleum. Most people, however,
are not aware of why there is so much oil in this region of the
of Natural Resources world. The answer lies in the paleogeography and plate move-
ment of this region during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras.
In addition to being responsible for the major features of During the Mesozoic Era, and particularly the Cre-
Earths crust and influencing the distribution and evolution taceous Period when most of the petroleum formed, the
of the worlds biota, plate movement also affects the forma- Persian Gulf area was a broad marine shelf extending east-
tion and distribution of some natural resources. Conse- ward from Africa. This passive continental margin lay near
quently, geologists are using plate tectonic theory in their the equator, where countless microorganisms lived in the
search for petroleum and mineral deposits and in explain- surface waters. The remains of these organisms accumu-
ing the occurrence of these natural resources. It is becom- lated with the bottom sediments and were buried, begin-
ing increasingly clear that if we are to keep up with the ning the long, complex process of petroleum generation
continuing demands of a global industrial society, the appli- and the formation of source beds in which petroleum
cation of plate tectonic theory to the origin and distribution forms.
of natural resources is essential. As a result of rifting in the Red Sea and the Gulf of
Aden during the Cenozoic Era, the Arabian plate is moving
northeast away from Africa and subducting beneath Iran
Petroleum (Figure 2.19). During the early stages of collision between
Although significant concentrations of petroleum occur Arabia and Iran, as the sediments of the passive continen-
in many areas of the world, more than 50% of all proven tal margin were initially subducted, heating broke down the
reserves are in the Persian Gulf region. It should therefore organic molecules and led to the formation of petroleum.

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 53 12/07/13 7:35 PM

54 Chapter 2Plate Tectonics: A Unifying Theory

The continued subduction and collision with Iran deposits located at ancient convergent plate boundaries in
folded the rocks, creating traps such areas as Canada, Alaska, California, Venezuela, Brazil,
for petroleum to accumulate, Russia, southern India, and Western Australia.
ConnectionLink so much so that the vast area The copper deposits of western North and South
To learn more about south of the collision zone is America are an excellent example of the relationship
petroleum and natural now a major oil-producing between convergent plate boundaries and the distribu-
gas, go to the Important region (see chapter open- tion, concentration, and exploitation of valuable metallic
Resources in Sedimentary
ing photo). Elsewhere in the ores ( Figure 2.29a). The worlds largest copper depos-
world, plate tectonics is also its are found along this belt. The majority of the copper
Rocks section in Chapter 7.
responsible for concentrations deposits in the Andes and the southwestern United States
of petroleum. were formed less than 60 million years ago when oceanic
plates were subducted under the North and South Ameri-
can plates. The rising magma and associated hydrother-
Mineral Deposits mal fluids carried minute amounts of copper, which were
Many metallic mineral deposits such as copper, gold, lead, originally widely disseminated but eventually became con-
2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning

silver, tin, and zinc are related to igneous and associated centrated in the cracks and fractures of the surrounding
hydrothermal (hot water) activity. So it is not surprising andesites. These low-grade copper deposits contain from
that a close relationship exists between plate boundaries 0.2 to 2% copper and are extracted from large open-pit
does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.

and the occurrence of these valuable deposits. mines ( Figure 2.29b).

The magma generated by partial melting of a subduct- Divergent plate boundaries also yield valuable ore
ing plate rises toward the surface, and as it cools, it precipi- resources. For example, the island of Cyprus in the Mediter-
tates and concentrates various metallic ores. Many of the ranean is rich in copper and has been supplying all or part of
worlds major metallic ore deposits are associated with con- the worlds needs for the past 3,000 years. The concentration
vergent plate boundaries, including those in the Andes of of copper on Cyprus formed as a result of precipitation adja-
South America and the Coast Ranges and Rockies of North cent to hydrothermal vents along a divergent plate boundary
America, Japan, the Philippines, Russia, and a zone extend- (Figure 2.8). This deposit was brought to the surface when
ing from the eastern Mediterranean region to Pakistan. In the copper-rich seafloor collided with the European plate,
addition, the majority of the worlds gold is associated with warping the seafloor and forming Cyprus.

Figure 2.29 Copper Deposits and Convergent Plate Boundaries

North American

plate Caribbean
Copyright Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

Copyright and Photograph by Dr. Parvinder S. Sethi

Nazca plate

Copper deposits
Subduction zone
Divergent boundary

a Valuable copper deposits are located along the west coasts b Bingham Copper Mine, near Salt Lake City, Utah, is a huge open-
of North and South America in association with convergent plate pit copper mine with reserves estimated at 1.7 billion tons. More

Not For Sale

boundaries. Through time, the rising magma and associated than 400,000 tons of rock are removed for processing each day.
hydrothermal activity resulting from subduction carried small amounts Note the small specks toward the middle of the photograph that are
of copper that then became trapped and concentrated in the the 12-foot-high dump trucks.
surrounding rocks.

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 54 12/07/13 7:35 PM

Not For
Plate Tectonics and
Sale Plate Tectonics and the Distribution of Life 55

not be surprised at the intimate association between them.

Although the relationship between plate tectonic processes
the Distribution of Life and the evolution of life is incredibly complex, paleonto-
logical data provide convincing evidence of the influence of
Plate tectonic theory is as revolutionary and far-reaching in plate movement on the distribution of organisms.
its implications for geology as the theory of evolution was for The present distribution of plants and animals is not ran-
biology when it was proposed. Interestingly, it was the fossil dom, but it is controlled mostly by climate and geographic
evidence that convinced Wegener, Suess, and du Toit, as well barriers. The worlds biota occupy biotic provinces, which are
as many other geologists, of the correctness of continental regions characterized by a distinctive assemblage of plants and
drift. Together, the theories of plate tectonics and evolution animals. Organisms within a province have similar ecological
have changed the way we view our planet, and we should requirements, and the boundaries separating provinces are

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning
does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.
Migrants from
South America Opossum
Ground sloth



Horse Tapir


Copyright Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

Migrants from
North America Catsincluding


Figure 2.30 Plate Tectonics and the Distribution of Organisms The Isthmus of Panama forms a barrier that divides a
once-uniform fauna of molluscs that inhabited the shallow seas of both the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea. Its creation
also formed a land corridor in which migration between the two continents took place. Prior to the formation of this
isthmus, South America was isolated from all other landmasses during much of the Cenozoic, and its mammal fauna
consisted of marsupials (pouched mammals) and placentals that lived nowhere else. When the Isthmus of Panama formed
during the Late Pliocene, many placental mammals migrated south, resulting in numerous South American mammals
becoming extinct. A few South American mammals migrated north and successfully occupied North America.
Critical Thinking Question Why is the mammalian fauna of Australia so different from elsewhere?

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 55 12/07/13 7:35 PM

56 Chapter 2Plate Tectonics: A Unifying Theory

therefore natural ecological breaks. Climatic or geographic various species may involve enough change that new species
barriers are the most common province boundaries, and these eventually evolve.
are mostly controlled by plate movement. The marine invertebrates found on opposite sides of
The complex interaction between wind and ocean cur- the Isthmus of Panama provide an excellent example of diver-
rents has a strong influence on the worlds climates. Wind gence caused by the formation of a
and ocean currents, in turn, are thus strongly influenced geographic barrier. Prior to the rise
by the number, distribution, topography, and orientation of of this land connection between
continents. For example, the southern Andes Mountains in North and South America, a homo- You can learn more about
South America act as an effective barrier to moist, easterly geneous population of bottom- divergent, convergent,
blowing Pacific winds, resulting in a desert east of the south- dwelling invertebrates inhabited the and parallel evolution in
ern Andes that is virtually uninhabitable. shallow seas of the area. After the Chapter 18.
The distribution of continents and ocean basins not only formation of the Isthmus of Panama
influences wind and ocean currents but also affects provin- by subduction of the Pacific plate
ciality by creating physical barriers to, or pathways for, the approximately 5 million years ago, the original population was
migration of organisms. Intraplate volcanoes, island arcs, thus divided. In response to the changing environment, new
2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning

mid-oceanic ridges, mountain ranges, and subduction zones species evolved on opposite sides of the isthmus.
all result from the interaction of plates, and their orienta- The formation of the Isthmus of Panama also influenced
tion and distribution strongly influence the number of prov- the evolution of the North and South American mammalian
does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.

inces and hence total global diversity. Thus, provinciality and faunas ( Figure 2.30). During most of the Cenozoic Era,
diversity will be highest where numerous small continents South America was an island continent, and its mammalian
are spread across many zones of latitude. fauna evolved in isolation from the rest of the worlds faunas.
When a geographic barrier separates a once-uniform When North and South America were connected by the Isth-
fauna, species may undergo divergence. If conditions on mus, most of the indigenous South American mammals were
opposite sides of the barrier are sufficiently different, then replaced by migrants from North America. Surprisingly, only
species must adapt to the new conditions, migrate, or a few South American mammal groups migrated northward.
become extinct. Adaptation to the new environment by The concept of continental movement is not new. The

Key Concepts Review

earliest maps showing the similarity between the east 1950s when paleomagnetic studies of rocks indicated the
coast of South America and the west coast of Africa pro- presence of multiple magnetic north poles instead of just
vided the first evidence that continents may once have one as there is today. This paradox was resolved by mov-
been united and subsequently separated from each other. ing the continents so that the paleomagnetic data became
Alfred Wegener is generally credited with developing the consistent with a single magnetic north pole. When this
hypothesis of continental drift. He provided abundant geo- was done, the rock sequences, glacial deposits and stria-
logic and paleontologic evidence to show that the continents tions, and fossil distributions aligned with the recon-
were once united in one supercontinent, which he named structed paleogeography.
Pangaea. Unfortunately, Wegener could not explain how the Seafloor spreading was confirmed by the discovery of mag-
continents moved, and most geologists ignored his ideas. netic anomalies in the oceanic crust that were both parallel
Various features of the continental margins and the sea- to and symmetric around oceanic ridges, indicating that new
floor are a reflection of plate movement. Continental oceanic crust must have formed as the seafloor was spread-
margins are active or passive, depending on their rela- ing. The pattern of oceanic magnetic anomalies matched
tionship to plate boundaries. Oceanic trenches are long, the pattern of magnetic reversals already known from conti-
steep-sided depressions on the seafloor near convergent nental lava flows and showed that Earths magnetic field has
plate boundaries where oceanic lithosphere is consumed reversed itself numerous times during the past.
by subduction. Submarine hydrothermal vents are found Radiometric dating reveals that the oldest oceanic crust
at or near spreading ridges and are associated with diver- is less than 180 million years old, whereas the oldest con-
gent plate boundaries. tinental crust is approximately 4 billion years old. Fossil
The hypothesis of continental drift was revived during the evidence and the thickness of sediments overlying the

Not For Sale

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 56 12/07/13 7:35 PM
Not For Sale
oceanic crust further support and confirm that ocean
Important Terms

plates can be calculated in several ways. The results of


basins are recent geologic features. these different methods all agree and indicate that the
Plate tectonic theory became widely accepted by the plates move at different average velocities.
1970s because the evidence overwhelmingly supports it The absolute motion of plates can be determined by the
and because it provides geologists with a powerful theory movement of plates over mantle plumes. A mantle plume
for explaining such phenomena as volcanism, earthquake is an apparently stationary column of magma that rises to
activity, mountain building, global climatic changes, the the surface from deep within the mantle and forms either
distribution of the worlds biota, and the distribution of a subsurface mushroom-shaped plume head, or erupts at
many mineral resources. the surface as a volcano.
Geologists recognize three types of plate boundaries: diver- Although a comprehensive theory of plate movement has
gent boundaries, where plates move away from each other; yet to be developed, geologists think that some type of
convergent boundaries, where two plates collide; and trans- convective system is involved in plate movement.
form boundaries, where two plates slide past each other. A close relationship exists between the formation of
Ancient plate boundaries can be recognized by their petroleum, as well as some mineral deposits, and plate

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning
associated rock assemblages and geologic structures. For boundaries. Furthermore, the formation and distribution
divergent boundaries, these may include rift valleys with of many natural resources are related to plate movements.
thick sedimentary sequences and numerous dikes and The relationship between plate tectonic processes and the

does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.

sills. For convergent boundaries, ophiolites and andesitic evolution of life is complex. The distribution of plants and
rocks are two characteristic features. Transform plate animals is not random, but rather is controlled mostly by
boundaries generally do not leave any characteristic or climate and geographic barriers, which, in turn, are influ-
diagnostic features in the geologic record. enced, to a great extent, by the movement of plates.
The average rate of movement and relative motion of the

Important Terms
abyssal plain (p. 33) Glossopteris flora (p. 28) oceanic ridge (p. 33)
active continental margin (p. 35) Gondwana (p. 28) oceanic trench (p. 33)
continentalcontinental plate boundary hot spot (p. 49) paleomagnetism (p. 36)
(p. 47) Laurasia (p. 29) Pangaea (p. 29)
continental drift (p. 29) magnetic anomalies (p. 37) passive continental margin (p. 35)
continental margin (p. 32) magnetic field (p. 35) plate tectonic theory (p. 40)
continental rise (p. 33) magnetic reversals (p. 37) seafloor spreading (p. 37)
continental shelf (p. 32) magnetism (p. 35) submarine hydrothermal vent
continental slope (p. 33) oceaniccontinental plate (p. 33)
convergent plate boundary (p. 45) boundary (p. 47) thermal convection cell (p. 37)
Curie point (p. 36) oceanicoceanic plate boundary transform fault (p. 48)
divergent plate boundary (p. 41) (p. 47) transform plate boundary (p. 48)

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 57 12/07/13 7:35 PM

58 Chapter 2Plate Tectonics: A Unifying Theory

Review Questions
1. Magnetic surveys of the ocean basins indicate that c. ___ thermal convection cells.
a. ___ the oceanic crust is youngest adjacent to mid- d. ___ magnetism.
oceanic ridges. e. ___ polar wandering.
b. ___ the oceanic crust is oldest adjacent to mid- 5. Along what type of boundary does subduction occur?
oceanic ridges. a. ___ divergent.
c. ___ the oceanic crust is youngest adjacent to the b. ___ transform.
c. ___ convergent.
d. ___ the oceanic crust is the same age everywhere.
d. ___ answers a and b.
e. ___ answers b and c.
e. ___ answers a and c.
2. The most common biotic province boundaries are 6. What evidence convinced Wegener and others that
a. ___ geographic barriers. continents must have moved in the past and at one
2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning

b. ___ biologic barriers. time formed a supercontinent?

c. ___ climatic barriers. 7. Why is some type of thermal convection system
does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.

d. ___ answers a and b. thought to be the major force driving plate movement?
How have slab-pull and ridge-push, both mainly grav-
e. ___ answers a and c.
ity driven, modified a purely thermal convection model
3. The man credited with developing the continental drift for plate movement?
hypothesis is 8. In addition to the volcanic eruptions and earthquakes
a. ___ Wilson. associated with convergent and divergent plate bound-
b. ___ Wegener. aries, why are these boundaries also associated with the
c. ___ Hess. formation and accumulation of various metallic ore
d. ___ du Toit. deposits?
e. ___ Vine. 9. Plate tectonic theory builds on the continental drift
hypothesis and the theory of seafloor spreading. As
4. The driving mechanism of plate movement is thought
such, it is a unifying theory of geology. Explain why it is
to be largely the result of
a unifying theory.
a. ___ isostasy.
b. ___ Earths rotation.

10. Creative Thinking Visual Question: Using the ages formed ( Figure 1). Is the average rate of movement
(the numbers represent ages in millions of years) for the same for each island? Would you expect it to be?
each of the Hawaiian Islands, as well as the scale given Explain why it may not be and why there are different
in the figure below, calculate the average rate of move- ages for some of the islands.
ment per year for the Pacific plate since each island

Not For Sale

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 58 12/07/13 7:38 PM
Not For Sale Review Questions 59

0 50 100 150 km

Honolulu 1.9 MAUI
KAHOOLAWE 0.8 0.43

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. This content is not yet final and Cengage Learning

does not guarantee this page will contain current material or match the published product.

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center


Figure 1 Hawaiian Islands Image of the Hawaiian islands with the age of each island in millions of years.

Global GeoScience Watch Plate tectonic theory is the unifying theory of geology because it ties
together many seemingly unrelated geologic features and events. Plate interaction along plate boundaries
results in earthquakes, which can cause tsunami. Within the GREENR database, search tsunami warning
systems and then click on View All next to the News heading. Of the first 20 articles, where have most
tsunami recently occurred? How does a tsunami early warning system work, and how can it save lives? Write
a short report answering these questions.

33418_ch02_rev02.indd 59 12/07/13 7:35 PM