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The Philippine Rice

Research Institute
as a Research and Development Organization

Submitted to
Professor Henry J. Ramos
TM 204 - Management of Research and Development

Submitted by
Chan, Ralph | Mari, Jezzamine | Santos, Ralph
The identified need to address the struggles of Filipino farmers, fragmented research and
development endeavors, and the desire to achieve self-sufficiency in rice production lead
to the creation of The Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice). With the
leadership of then University of the Philippines System President Edgardo Angara
forming an Executive Committee, drafted a proposal in response to the need to create a
national rice research institute which will be a domestic entity, a local institute that will
benefit from IRRI, an international organization based in the Philippines.

The proposal to create a domestic research organization was submitted to Agriculture


and Food Minister Salvador H. Escudero III, and was endorsed to President Ferdinand
Marcos. In 1985, President Marcos issued Executive Order EO1061 for the
establishment of Phil Rice. This was affirmed by President Corazon Aquino in 1986 in
her Executive Order 60. In June 1987, Dr. Santiago R. Obien became the first Executive
Director, and the operations of the institute went into full swing.

PhilRice which is under the Department of


Vision Agriculture, is our governments rice R&D body that
A self-sufficient, sustainable, will localized the technologies from the IRRI, making
these adaptable to our local farmers, and our
and competitive rice economy
ecosystem. The organizations goals are to lead
through a responsive rice R&D strategic efforts in national rice science for
system and a strong, innovative development; help ensure rice self-sufficiency and
science and technology base. food security; increase farm productivity and
profitability; reduce hunger and poverty; provide new
Mission knowledge and information; transform lives in rice
To help the country attain rice farming communities; and make rice R&D rewarding
for scientists and researchers.
self-sufficiency by increasing
the productivity and profitability The headquarters of the Institute was originally
of rice farmers in a sustainable located in UP Los Banos campus before it was
and competitive manner. moved in Munoz, Nueva Ecija. The Institute have 10
stations all over the Philippines, each station
conducting Research and Development activities
with focus on a specific division. The research and development activities performed in
the nationwide network of research stations are lead and coordinated in the Central
Experiment Station in Munoz, Nueva Ecija. These stations also facilitate in the
dissemination of location-specific technologies and development. They also serve as the
front liners in receiving regional information and feedbacks from the stakeholders.

As a Research and Development organization, PhilRice employs a discipline-based


division. This structure of organization facilitates focus and direction in pursuance of in-
depth disciplinary research. This model created centers of excellence within Philrice,
such that each division is a source of technologies, innovations and knowledge in their
focus area. Structuring the R&D organization in this manner allowed PhilRice to closely
coordinate efforts resulting to effective and efficient allocation of research and

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development resources. This structure extends its benefits to R&D personnel such that
purposes, objectives and strategies per division are carried out with focus.

Strategic-wise, it is significant to note that organizing an R&D institute in this manner will
clearly delineate the functions of each division, since areas which are in scope or out of
scope of a particular Division are objectively identified. Operational wise, this structure
ensures that there will be no duplication or overlap of projects, and that similar or related
projects are coordinated and consolidated. This structure enables PhilRice to streamline
the policies and strategies, and align each operational activity.

There are seven Divisions focusing on seed, rice crops and other plant technologies.
These are Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Agronomy, Soils and Plant Physiology,
Crop Protection, Genetic Resources, Rice Engineering and Mechanization, Rice
Chemistry and Food Science, and Seed Technology. Example of research projects from
the Divisions are: development of high-yielding, value-added rice varieties; development
of rice by-products; development and improvement of soil, plant, nutrient, and water
management practices; development pest management and protection methods;
development and mechanization of pre and post-harvest equipment; and genetic and
seed technologies. Other Divisions serve as administrative, finance and support
departments.

These programs include the development of climate-


Now, PhilRice prepares for the
resilient rice-based farming systems; exploration of
rice and rice-based products and products from the future of rice and its
rice environment; development of alternative and environment with its new
renewable energy sources for the reduction or total research and development
elimination of the dependency on fossil fuels; programs: Coping with climate
organization, innovation, and promotion of new change, High-value products
knowledge and information on clean GPS. In
from rice and its environment,
addition to the development and improvement
projects, PhilRices contribution extends to the Farming without fossil fuel,
dissemination of the innovations to the farmers and Intensified rice-based agri-bio
the communities, expanding the local network of systems, and Future rice.
knowledge sharing and learning (KSL).

The advocacy of PhilRice for the future of rice and its environment is reflected and
enforced in the programs and projects completed by each of its seven Divisions. The
institution also advocates sustainability in the future by continuing to develop clean,
green, practical and smart. Almost all of these programs are achieved with dedicated
and specialized Research and Development methodologies, as some are also dedicated
to commercialization and business development.

Heading the Divisions of the Institute are individuals from diverse specializations
representing several sectors of the industry. This diverse representation of sectors not
only is expansive in capturing industry specializations; this is also an inclusive strategy
that allows the organization to access every stakeholder of the rice R&D. Working on

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these various projects are talented human resources, and PhilRice supports and provides
grants for Research Interns, Research Fellowship and Research and Dissertation
Fellowship. PhilRice implements a workload system for the efficient delivery of R&D
projects, and proper recognition of contributions and efforts. Project types and project
tasks are assigned commensurate to the qualifications, namely as R and/or D
Implementation, R&D management/support, and extracurricular activities.

Through the years, PhilRice R&D structure has evolved in response to prevailing issues
and problems concerning the rice industry. With its mission of helping the country attain
rice self-sufficiency by increasing the productivity and profitability of rice farmers in a
sustainable and competitive manner, PhilRice continue to accomplish this through the
R&D functions of its 9 branch stations and 3 satellite stations around the Philippines
collaborating with a network of government, private, and non-government organizations
including state colleges and universities and seed centers strategically located
nationwide. Moreover, PhilRice partnership with international organizations help
enhance its R&D capacity to respond to issues and problems of the rice industry and
strengthen R&D directions.

PhilRice developed R&D strategies to manage their technology as a resource and


distinctive competence which is in line with their mission and vision. The following are the
lists of PhilRice strategies to commit itself in providing safe, high-yield, and sufficient rice
(Program/Project Cycle of the Organization, 2010):

1. New generation rice science and technology


2. Innovative rice Research and Development projects/programs
3. Enhanced funding
4. Continuous enlistment of new and fresh talents
5. Retention and retooling of outstanding staff members
6. Policy advocacy
7. Protection of Intellectual Property (IP) and Indigenous Knowledge (IK)
8. Good Governance

Increasing the productivity and profitability of rice farmers in a sustainable and competitive
manner, the organization crafted R&D programs and projects to achieve its mission as
listed below based from the Strategic Plan 2014-2018 (DBM Form No. 700, 2014):

A. Rice R&D Programs for Technology/Product Development


A.1 Coping with Climate Change
A.2 Farming Without Fossil Fuel
A.3 High-Value Products from Rice & Its Environment
A.4 Intensified Rice-Based Agri-Bio Systems
A.5 Future Rice

B. Basic and Applied Rice R&D Projects


B.1 Division-based Basic and Upstream Rice Research
B.2 Area-based Rice R&D Projects

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B.3 Specialized Rice R&D Projects

C. New Initiatives
C.1 Rural Transformation and Inclusive Growth Through Philrice Stations as
Nucleus Estates
C.2 PhilRice Research Fellowship/Competitive Grant Scheme
C.3 Establishment of the Applied Biology Center for Rice Environment
C.4 Future Development of Satellite Stations/Field Offices

In order to identify, select, prioritize and fund appropriate R&D projects, PhilRice has to
deal with issues that arise around the rice production sector. It has to take into
consideration changes happening in the environment, the social issues of specific
regions, and the Philippine political climate, among others.

One of the biggest issues that hurdles the rice industry is the prolonged drought that the
country is currently experiencing. The underproductive industry due to climate change
brought the farmers to act rebelliously as they are only dependent in farming. Social
development cannot be ignored in determining the projects of the institute, and assessing
the projects that would solve the immediate need of the industry are prioritized by the
organization.

Another main issue for PhilRice is the availability of funding that will enable it to conduct
R&D and implement new ideas. Funding from the government is scarce and unreliable,
and the institute has to rely on external sources of funding in order to carry out their plans.

Moreover, methods in identifying, selecting, prioritizing and funding of the organizations


R&D projects are laid out below.

Feedback Mechanism
Through feedback mechanism, the organization is able to identify issues that need to be
addressed. This mechanism involves constantly staying in touch with partners and
stakeholders both locally and internationally to gain data and information regarding the
target markets needs. It is also important to know the different soil type, climate and
cultural references of each region to be able to localize the projects and programs that
the organization has to accomplish.

Roadmapping
With a clear vision of roadmap, PhilRice is able to plan out what projects and programs
that are needed to prioritize. It needs to have strategic planning approach to be able to
implement all the projects and programs in a limited fund.

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Research and Development
Since its inception, PhilRice has helped in the development of 57 rice varieties, some
through its own breeding efforts, but mostly by conducting location adaptation trials.
PhilRice has also developed several crop management practices and machine designs
that are suited to Philippine rice production conditions. The advent of hybrid rice
technology marked the latest development in the rice R&D history of the Philippines.
Hybrid rice technology was initially introduced during the late 90s but its
commercialization was delayed until 2001 due to the difficulty in seed production. Given
the commercial feature of hybrid rice, the private sector was enticed to invest in its R&D.
Among different crops in Philippine agriculture, R&D in rice is probably the most
organized. PhilRice plans and coordinates the national R&D program for rice and rice-
based farming systems. A network of 57 agencies composed of PhilRice experiment
stations, regional agricultural research centers, and state universities implements rice
R&D activities nationwide. Every year, researchers from these agencies send proposals
to PhilRice central experiment station for approval and allocation of funds.
The local R&D activities consist of varietal development and testing, improvement of crop
management practices, development of farm machinery, and integration of rice farming
with other agricultural activities. The development of rice varieties involves the use of
biotechnology and conventional breeding techniques to create cultivars that are suited to
various production ecosystems in the Philippines such as irrigated and favorable rain-fed
lowlands, rain-fed uplands, cool and elevated areas, and saline-prone areas. A nation-
wide testing of these varieties is also conducted to assess the yield stability and suitability
to the target environment. Recent breeding activities also include bio fortification wherein
genetically engineered traits such as richness in Vitamin A and iron are transferred to
locally adaptable varieties.
In the late 90s, 5 out of the 9 hybrid rice varieties released were developed by private
seed companies. Based on experimental evidence, hybrid rice technology offered 15%
to 20% higher yields compared to the inbred modern variety. IRRIs presence has
necessitated a significant amount of research on impacts of R&D in the Philippines, due
in part to IRRIs accountability to its donors. PhilRice has a strong research collaboration
with IRRI, which was established in the country in 1960. Donations from governments,
development agencies, and foundations finance IRRIs R&D operations. However, with
a global mandate, IRRIs R&D efforts cannot respond to the specific technology needs of
the Philippines alone. Many of IRRIs innovations are tested first in the Philippines in
partnership with PhilRice. In addition, IRRI plays an important role in the development of
the human capital of local R&D workers and consequently on their research productivity
through technical trainings, access to its facilities including the library, laboratories, and
the International Rice Genebank.
Although IRRIs R&D activities are not tailored specifically for Philippine conditions, its
R&D expenditures in the country can have huge spillover effects on the productivity of
local R&D workers.

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Policies, Practices and Dissemination
The risk of consuming non-organic food is becoming more perilous to human health as
high yielding a new breed of produce or the so-called green revolution crops developed
in the province of Los Banos have been identified as one of the causes of brain damage
particularly resulting to impaired intellect to people in poor or third world countries. These
crops that are produced under modern agriculture techniques that use large doses of
pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers are decreasing brain size, thus slowing down ones
intelligence capabilities. According to PhilRice, there are international studies have
likewise shown that chemical-infused crops have resulted in cancer, hormone disruption,
neurological disorders and other life-threatening illnesses.

As chemical farming destroys the environment, PhilRice says beneficial micronutrients in


the soil that are needed by a human body are also killed such as calcium, magnesium,
iron, zinc, copper, selenium, manganese and many others. The absence of these
essential health elements in the planting grounds may cause malnutrition as the soil can
no longer produce foods that are adequately supplied with important nutrients. Amid all
the wonderful advantages, pundits say the local farming community is yet to totally
embrace organic agriculture. The tedious task of producing them plus its high production
costs have discouraged farmers to shift into organic farming. While the use of chemical
inputs in farming guarantees sure harvests, there isnt much economic inducement for
farmers to fully commit to go organic.

Organically grown food commodities are making a sweep in more developed countries,
these are yet to catch on Filipinos as cost is one factor as organic food items are more
expensive than those grown with commercial chemically formulated fertilizers. The only
way to lower production costs is for farmers to learn to process their own organic
fertilizers. The promotion of organic products and by-products would boost trading system
that would benefit more consumers and producers. This means developing labels and
standards that range from organic, semi-organic, organically grown, naturally farmed,
pesticide free or less chemicals.

Certification processes should be attuned to the interest of the small farmers to make it
more economical to go into organic farming. If these measures are immediately done,
organic supply would surely increase and these would drive down prices that would
encourage people to buy. It also would be reasonable to expect consumers to wean
themselves from the so called steroid-laced meat, fish, fruit and vegetables. While
organic farms are sprouting like mushrooms in the country, experts cautions that the
farms should be entirely free from chemicals and that farmers should be educated and
knowledgeable enough to operate an organic farm. Organic farming, they say, is easier
said than done and although organic agriculture seems to be the trend in the next five
years, its goal of addressing the food security and health benefits should be taken into
consideration foremost. With the booming population and increasing health perils, organic
farming may seem to be one of the keys in addressing the poverty of third world countries
such as the Philippines.

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The positive effects of technology and knowledge products in rice production exemplify
the importance of continuous research and development. Nevertheless, the high degree
of variability in the use of technology and knowledge products across major rice producing
provinces should be a cause of concern. Given this, the search for location specific
technologies should be enhanced. For example, not all hybrid varieties are adaptable to
a wide range of production environments. Thus, identifying the suitable areas for planting
should be done before promoting a particular hybrid rice variety. A one technology-fits-
all policy may not be optimal. This entails the need for a thorough understanding of the
rice production environment in each province when designing location specific research
projects.

To improve the adoption of technology, a strong extension system should complement


the rice research program. Having an increased awareness of the existing technology is
the first step towards the improvement of farmers access to technology. To do this, the
current extension system should be strengthened. For one, measures to upgrade the
skills of extension workers must be institutionalized. Investments on computer equipment
with Internet connections could also be another way of increasing the extension workers
access to information. This could enhance the flow of technology and knowledge from
research organizations to the end-users. Public provision of the identified productivity-
enhancing variables such as hybrid rice, high quality seed, irrigation and training should
be guided by the principles of efficiency. The benefits from providing these variables must
be compared with the costs of provision. In this case, cost-benefit analyses are useful for
prioritizing the investment decisions of the government.

It is not clear whether the Philippines will be able to domestically produce the nations rice
requirements. Opportunely, this study sends a clear message: productivity
enhancements contributed to the increase in rice production in the Philippines. While the
Philippines is on the right track towards a productivity-based increase in production,
greater progress in this direction can be achieved by improving rural infrastructure,
intensifying technology creation, increasing farmers access to technology, and localizing
the technology application to each geographic region.

The strategic establishment of the seven Divisions is a characterization of a portfolio-


based R&D management organization. These portfolios enlists under it purposeful
programs and projects which are aligned to the objectives and goals of that particular
Division. Maintaining both dedicated and shared and cross-division resources allows a
processes that are internal to the division as well as interdependent with other divisions.
This synergistic relationship moves away from the individualistic perspective of managing
projects and programs, since consideration of other Divisions especially in resource
allocation is necessary.

Operations wise, the Institute has formed the RD and Operations Committee. Part of the
committees functions is the management of the feedback mechanism. This feedback
loop is one of the steps of the evaluation process of a program or projects performance,
achieving a balancing of risks and rewards.

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PhilRice has a large network of partners, aside from the internally controlled and
coordinated seven Branch Stations nationwide. The Institute has established close
partnerships with other government organizations such as the DOST-PCARRD and the
DA-BAR. External linkages of this organization extends to national research centers,
regional research centers, state colleges, universities, non-government and private
organizations, and cooperating stations. Their external linkages further extend globally,
opening opportunities for joint collaboration for R&D activities with first word countries.
This ecosystem of research and development linkages enhances the science and
technology and research and development capacity of PhilRice. Relationships to the
local society, farming communities and farmers organizations are also incorporated in
this wide network, fostering interaction and feedback mechanism. PhilRice collects
survey forms, analyses, and publishes reports on these, allowing a process of issues
identification and solutions implementation. The spanning relationships of PhilRice with
external scientific communities and with the marketplace demonstrates the distributed
coordination and structured collaboration.

The characteristics mentioned evidences that PhilRice is a Third Generation R&D


Management Model.

PhilRice provided rice stakeholders with several information and training materials to
increase their knowledge. From an external view of Bureau of Agricultural Research
(BAR) in a focused-group discussion and interviews with farmers and extension workers,
the participants made mention of PhilRice technologies such as Minus-One Element
Technique, integrated nutrient management, registered seeds, and A x R planting for
hybrid seeds (About Us: PhilRice).

Study shows that PhilRice-trained farmers now are more cost conscious and more open
to new practices and that they are more capable in solving farm-related problems and
more informed in making decisions.

PhilRice has also developed, promoted and commercialized varieties and crop
management technologies that helped increase productivity growth in the past decade.
The organization helped the Philippines produce 18.44 million metric tons of rice in 2013,
and it was tagged as the historys highest rice production growth at that time. In 2010-
2013, the country has a 2.71 percent change and became the fastest rice producer in
Asia.

Again, based from the BARs external view, local farmers increased their net income by
P8,874 per hectare in 1995-2004 for irrigated ecosystems and P3,178 per hectare for
non-irrigated ecosystems.

Recommendations and Conclusion

Rice is an important part of the Filipino diet and is an integral component of the household
food security. Rice policies alone cannot solve the food insecurity at the household level.
But still, raising productivity of rice is critical in ensuring that enough supply is available

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to meet the increasing demand of a growing population. Improving productivity can also
increase income of small rice producers and landless farm workers, which may contribute
in poverty reduction in rural areas.

Rice R&D plays a valuable role in improving productivity. With technology such as hybrid
rice varieties, inbred rice varieties, the use of certified seed have increased the production
at the farm level and contributions of irrigation and farmers training in increasing rice
production per farm. This highlights that improving the farmers access to these non-
conventional inputs can further increase the rice production at the farm level. To increase
the farmers access to these non-conventional inputs, the government has implemented
an active fiscal policy to lead the nation towards the achievement of food security by
investing in R&D, extension, and irrigation, and subsidizing hybrid and certified inbred
seed.

Instead of subsidies, a better way to encourage farmers to adopt technology is by


breeding better varieties and development of decision support systems so that farmers
can appropriately manage their crops. This can only be achieved through continuous
research. In addition, a revitalized extension system that provides better services to
farmers in terms of improved technical assistance can also increase the adoption of seed
technology. The government can also encourage the participation of the private sector to
make these technology inputs available to farmers. These points emphasize the need
for government to focus on providing public goods while promoting the participation of the
private sector in the development process.

Annexes

BOARD OF TRUSTEES
HON. PROCESO J. ALCALA Secretary of Agriculture Ex-Officio
Chairperson
SENEN C. BACANI Agribusiness Community

GELIA T. CASTILLO, PhD Science Community

HERCULANO C. CO JR Grains Business Sector

THELMA G. DOMINGO Consumer Sector

PACIFICO M. FAJARDO Community Development Ex-Officio


Group Chairperson
LUIS REY I. VELASCO, PhD Academic Community
EDICIO G. DELA TORRE Consumer Sector

MARIA LUISA R. SOLIVEN, PhD Science Community

TEODORO C. MENDOZA, PhD Academic Community

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EXECUTIVE DIRECTORS Specialization
CALIXTO M. PROTACIO, Executive Director Plant Physiology,
PhD Horticulture

EDUARDO JIMMY P. Deputy Executive Director Agricultural Engineering,


QUILANG, PhD for Research Agricultural Meteorology,
and Bioproduction
Environmental Science
FLORDELIZA H. BORDEY, Deputy Executive Director Food Policy, Trade
PhD for Development Liberalization, Production
Economics, and Rice
Competitiveness
ROGER F. BARROGA Deputy Executive Director ICT in Agriculture
for Administration

BRANCH DIRECTORS
FIDELA P. BONGAT DEMOCRITO B. REBONG
PhilRice Batac PhilRice Isabela

DIEGO G. RAMOS EDGAR M. LIBETARIO


PhilRice Los Baos PhilRice Negros

ABNER T. MONTECALVO SAILILA E. ABDULA, PhD


PhilRice Agusan PhilRice Midsayap

REYNALDO C. CASTRO, PhD


PhilRice Bicol

KEY R&D PERSONNEL Specialization


WILFREDO B. COLLADO Agronomy, Soils, and Plant Physiology
ROEL R. SURALTA, PhD Division

JESUSA C. BELTRAN, PhD Socioeconomics Division

EVANGELINE B. SIBAYAN Rice Engineering and Mechanization


EDEN C. GAGELONIA Division

JASPER G. TALLADA, PhD Climate Change Center


RICARDO F. ORGE, PhD

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RIZA G. RAMOS, PhD Rice Chemistry and Food Science
EVELYN H. BANDONILL Division
HENRY F. MAMUCOD

JAIME A. MANALO IV Development Communication Division


KAREN ELOISA T. BARROGA, PhD

NORVIE L. MANIGBAS, PhD Plant Breeding and Biotechnology


Division

Major Achievements of PhilRice


70 Rice varieties developed

24 Rice machines developed

23 Patent Applications

25 Scientific Publications

Anak ni Juan Award for 2015

Major Facilities/Laboratories

PhilRice invested on different facilities in the development of the Location Specific


Technology and is listed on the table below:

Laboratory Description
Biotechnology Non-conventional breeding though tissue culture and molecular
Laboratory biology techniques is being done through the application of
biotechnology. Here, tissues and anthers of wild and traditional
rice are grown in test tubes containing necessary nutrients for
plant growth to fast-track rice improvement. Rice varieties are
also fingerprinted and genes mapped using molecular marker
technology to create new rice with superior qualities such as
improved crop yield, reduced crop vulnerability to environment
stresses, increased nutritional qualities, and improved taste,
texture, or appearance.

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Seed Health This laboratory shows the governments unconditional support
Laboratory to the production, conditioning, and distributing of high-quality
rice seeds. A highly conductive workplace for seed
technologists and seed quality control specialists, it houses the
Bureau of Plant Industry National Seed Quality and Control
Services Laboratory of Region 3 and features rice seed storage
facilities.

Crop Protection The causal organism of a rice plant disease is isolated here to
Laboratory maintain its pure culture. Researchers then introduce this into
the rice plant in the greenhouse to determine its reaction or
resistance to plant diseases. Pests and friendly insects
collected from the experimental fields are sorted and identified
in the crop protection laboratory for monitoring purposes, and
to determine the pest incidence in the field. There are also
displays of friendly and destructive insects in this laboratory.

Agronomy, Soil, The rice plants nutrient absorption capacity and the soils
and Plant nutrient-releasing capacity are analyzed in this laboratory for
Physiology better fertilizer recommendation. Expensive and highly
Laboratory specialized equipment like the gas chromatography and C/N
analyzer are also used to study organic matter composition.
Rice Chemistry Promising lines are evaluated here to determine the physico-
Laboratory chemical characteristics of rice, which are influenced by their
genetic make-up, environmental conditions, and processing
techniques. These factors are important, not only for releasing
new varieties, but also in producing the most desirable rice-
based products such as wine, cakes, pastries, among others.

Genebank It serves as an evaluation, maintenance, and storage center for


rice seed samples for breeding. Collection includes some 8,017
samples of traditional, modern, and wild rices.

Screenhouses PhilRice has greenhouses/ screenhouses where experiments


on varietal improvement are conducted. Others facilities
includes the cold tolerance screening facility and transgenic
field test facility.

Analytical Services This laboratory provides routine analyses of plant, soil, and
Laboratory water samples to various research areas within the Institute, as
well as other agriculture-related agencies and academe within
the region.

Table 1. List of PhilRice Laboratories

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Bibliography

About Us: PhilRice. (n.d.). Retrieved from PhilRice Web Site:


http://www.philrice.gov.ph/about-us/rice-science/how-we-transform-lives/

DBM Form No. 700. (2014). Retrieved from PhilRice Web site:
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ct=8&ved=0ahUKEwiCiOCztuLMAhXDNI8KHSjUADkQFggaMAA&url=http%3A%2F%2
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programs-and-projects.pdf&usg=AFQjCNEcgy_

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content/uploads/2014/07/Employees-Manual.pdf

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