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# Combining Differential/Integral Methods and

Antenna Problems

Jan. 27, 2011

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 1

Overview of Presentation

##  Antenna design challenges

 diversity in electrical size, bandwidth and
complexity
 Differential and integral-equation based
numerical methods
 Compare approaches
 Time-domain and frequency-domain analysis
 Combining methods
 Improve design productivity/efficiency
 Summary
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Antenna Simulation

##  Different antenna types require different

solver technologies.

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 3

Antenna Applications
Electrical Size, bandwidth and Complexity

I
Electrical
size

Bandwidth
T T

I
F
F
Complexity
I F T
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Comparing EM solver techniques

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 5

Time-Domain Method: FIT

MRI data of a
components

e b

Each brick
with different
material
Digitizing properties

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 6

The Finite Integration Technique
Discretizing each Maxwell Equation

A
E d s = & dA
B
A
Ce = b&

ek ek ei

el ej ej 1 1 1 1 ej = d b
bn bn e dt n
k
ei 144 424443el 1 424 3
ei {
C b&
ei + e j ek el = b&n e

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 7

Maxwell Grid Equations

r r
E ds =
r r
B dA Ce = b&
A t A ~
r r
H ds =
r
D r r
+ J dA
C h = d& + j
t ~
A A
r r
dA = 0
B S d = q
V
r r
dA = Q
D Sb = 0
V

~ T

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 8

Geometry Approximation

## Tetrahedral Meshing FEM Standard FDTD, TLM

+ good geometry - stair-case geometry
approximation approximation
- higher memory requirements + low memory requirements
- lower speed for big problems + high speed for big problems

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 9

Geometry Approximation

## Tetrahedral Meshing Hexahedral + PBA

+ good geometry + excellent geometry
approximation approximation
- higher memory requirements + low memory requirements
- lower speed for big problems + high speed for big problems

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 10

Frequency Domain + Time Domain

## TET-Mesh in Freq. Domain PBA-Mesh in Time Domain

Electrically small structures Electrically large structures
Highly resonant structures Low memory

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 11

Differential Time-Domain Method: TLM

V7
V12 The simplest form of 3D TLM
uses 12 transmission lines to
V4 model a cube of empty space.
V2 The two polarizations in each
V3
V10 direction of propagation are
V6
V11 carried on two orthogonal pairs
of transmission-lines.
V9
y
V8 Single grid for E and H fields.

## V1 The link lines have the same

x V5
characteristic impedance Zo
z
SCN
Symmetrical Condensed Node

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 12

Scattering in 3D SCN

V7 1 1 1 1
V12 S= 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1
V4
1 1 1 1
V2 1 1 1 1

V3
1 1 1 1
V10
V6
1 1 1 1
V11
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
V9
y 1 1 1 1
V8 1 1 1 1

V1 1 1 1 1
x V5

## The SCN scattering equation Vr = SVi contains a 12 x 12 matrix

Incident and reflected fields are known at all boundaries

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 13

Calculating Fields in the SCN

V7
V12

V4

Ex= (V1i + V2i + V9i + V12i ) / 2
V2
V3
Ey= (V3i + V4i + V8i + V11i ) / 2
V10
V6
V11
Ez= (V5i + V6i + V7i + V10i ) / 2
V9
y
V8
Hx = (V4i V8i + V7i - V5i ) / 2 Z0
V1
x V5 Hy= (V6i V10i + V9i - V2i ) / 2 Z0

z Hz= (V1i V12i + V11i - V3i ) / 2 Z0

## All 6 field components

referenced to center of node

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 14

Hexahedral Octree Meshing in TLM
Multi-Grid Interface Cell Interface Circuit
 The interface is defined as an
electrical connection
 Time-step is the same in both
the coarse and fine grids
 The connection guarantees
stability and is lossless
 The connection supports
correct propagation at any
angle to the interface

## Cell count can be reduced by

97% using Octree meshing

##  The Equivalent Source is based 2

on the Equivalence Theorem Js, Ms n
 A closed surface S divides a
region (1) containing sources (Ei, Hi) 1
from a source-free region (2) Antenna
 The EM field outside of S can be
replaced by a distribution of
electric and magnetic current S
densities (Js, Ms) over the
surface S Electric Current Js = n x H i
 The Equivalent Source captures Magnetic Current Ms = -n x Ei
the spatial variation and
frequency dependency of
 Time domain waveform is
synthesized based on the
frequency content provided in
the near field scan data
Frequency

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 16

Integral Equation Solvers
 Overview

Integral solver

## Method of Surface MultiLevel Fast

Moments (MoM) triangulation Multipole Method

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 17

Integral Equation Solvers

Integral solver

## Method of Surface MultiLevel Fast

Moments (MoM) triangulation Multipole Method

Discretization by MoM
Applies Greens function
Open Boundary integral
formulation
N^2 for memory and N^3 for E (r ) = i [g (r r ' ) J (r ' ) + 2g (r r ' )'J (r ' )]dS'
S
solver time

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 18

Integral Equation Solvers

Integral solver

## Method of Surface MultiLevel Fast

Moments (MoM) triangulation Multipole Method

Uses triangles

Volume methods

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 19

Integral Equation Solvers

Integral solver

## Method of Surface MultiLevel Fast

Moments (MoM) triangulation Multipole Method

Iterative solver

coupling

## O(N logN) for operations &

memory
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MLFMM in a nut shell

## Every element Use boxes to

couples to Recursive
combine coupling
all other elements scheme
 sparser matrices
 dense matrices

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 21

Multi-Level Fast Multipole Method
Overview
Based on the Method of Moments
Steady-state simulation  energy storage is not a problem
Solving for surface currents  Fields obtained via Greens Function
Triangular Surface Mesh: single frequency meshing and results
One simulation solves all ports
Specialized for electrically very large structures

## MLFMM solvers are ideal for

electrically very large structures
).
(>10
cross-section, antenna placement.
are
Structures smaller than 10
better suited for time domain
solvers.

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 22

Comparing the simulation domains

DOMAIN

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 23

Statics, Frequency-Domain and Time-Domain

= 0 a i 0
t t t

Time
J-static Domain

Tracking+ PIC
Spacecharge

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 24

Time Domain Methods
Time Frequency
Time Domain
Domai Domain
x(t calculation Input x(t) X(w)
) n
y(t)

Y(w)
y(t)
Output

## Monitoring of the time

domain signals
Transfer
TDR
S-Parameter
after one single run by means of a FFT

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 25

Time Domain Analysis
Overview
Arbitrary input signal
Inject energy and watch it leave
Solve for unknowns without matrix inversion
Hexahedral Mesh: Broadband meshing and results
Simulation is performed on a port-by-port basis
Smaller mesh cells = longer solve times
Energy storage for high Q structures prolongs simulation time

## Well suited applications:

structures.
Highly resonant, electrically
small structures may be better
suited to a frequency domain
solver.

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 26

Transient Solver
 PBA meshing
 Linear memory
 GPU acceleration

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 27

Frequency Domain Methods

Adaptively refine the mesh at discrete frequencies
Simulate multiple frequency points to obtain broadband behavior
Simulation stops when S-parameters stop changing
Hexahedral or Tetrahedral mesh
Frequency Domain Results only
One frequency per simulation

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 28

Frequency Domain Analysis
Overview
Assumed time-harmonic fields  Single frequency excitation
Steady-state simulation  energy storage is not a problem
Matrix inversion required for solution
Tetrahedral Mesh: Single frequency meshing and results
One simulation can solve all ports in one pass
Small mesh cells have no effect on simulation time
Number of mesh cell is the most significant indication of simulation time

## Well suited applications:

Narrowband, electrically small
structures.
Limited computational resources
make it necessary to use a time
domain solver for electrically large
structures.

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 29

Frequency Solver
 Single frequency
 Electrically small
 Tetrahedral mesh
 Multiple ports

8 balun fed
dipoles

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 30

Applying differential/integral and time/frequency domain
methods to antenna design problems

TECHNIQUES

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 31

Validation Example: Conical Monopole

Conical
monopole
antenna - Wave guide port

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 32

Mesh Types

Hexahedral Mesh

Surface Mesh
Tetrahedral volume
Mesh

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 33

Result Comparison S parameters

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 34

Result Comparison Far Field

Phi=90 Phi=0
Theta=0-360 Theta=0-360

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 35

Time-Domain Solver Example: Phased Array

## Finite Array of 138 Flared Slot Line Radiators

The slot lines are excited by striplines which are
fed by coax lines though the ground plane. The
array is modeled with an infinite perfect
electrical conducting surface in front. The
elements of the array are on a hexagonal lattice.

Sonnet USA

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 36

Time-Domain Solver Example: Phased Array

## Each of the 138 coax lines are

excited with their normal
mode (TEM). The coax lines
are near 50 ohms.

## The coax lines are simultaneously excited with a broadband Gaussian

pulse. This is done so that broad band s-parameters can be obtained.
The return signals at the various ports is also monitored. This simulation
required 400 Mbytes of RAM and < 1 hr on a 2.1 GHz laptop.

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 37

Time-Domain Solver Example: Phased Array

## All ports are excited so

you cannot get a
standard Snn for the
array but rather a set
of driven returns.
Note that the driven
return at an element
can go positive if it is
coupling energy out of
neighboring elements.

Electric Field
at 10 GHz

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 38

Time-Domain Solver Example: Phased Array

## 1) The main beam is at 61 degrees,

not 60 degrees as calculated from
the array function.
2) This deviation comes from several
sources: the finite size of the
array, the element pattern, and
element to element coupling.
3) The side lobe level is 11.2 dB
relative to the main beam. To
suppress this, we could amplitude
weight the excitations.
4) A Taylor, cosine or other weighting
is often used to drop the strength
of the excitations at the edges of
the array and suppress the side
lobes.

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 39

Frequency-Domain Solver Example: PQHA

< 1 @1.5GHz

[#] Y. Letestu and A. Sharaiha, Broadband Folded Printed Quadrifilar Helical Antenna, IEEE
Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 54, No. 7, pp. 1600-1604, May 2006

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 40

Frequency-Domain Solver Example: PQHA

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 41

Frequency-Domain Solver Example: PQHA

## LHC and RHC patterns

10 dB minimum discrimination between circular polarizations

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 42

Frequency-Domain Solver Example: Metamaterials

## Unit cell and floquet-port

modes

Multilayered meta-
materials

## # S.Linden at Al, Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100

Terahertz, Science vol.26 Nov.2004
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Floquet port and S-parameters results

Unit cell

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 44

MoM Solver Example: Glider and missile

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 45

MoM Solver Example: Glider and missile

CST MWS
MOM and MLFMM S11

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 46

MoM Solver Example: Glider and missile

3D farfield
at 850MHz

Missile
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MLFMM Solver Example: Apache Helicopter

RCSmax =
33dBsm

## 7.30m x 6.10m x 2.30m  25 x 21

at 1 GHz  175 x 147 x 56
x 8
at 7 GHz
Surface currents
at 1 GHz
880k Surface mesh cells, 1st order
MLFMM
Plane wave illumination from front
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Combining different techniques to simulate installed antenna
performance

COMBINING DIFFERENT
TECHNIQUES

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 49

Combined FIT/MLFMM Example: Horn with Dish

## Horn solved using

Dish solved FIT
using MLFMM

pattern

15 @ 30 GHz
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Combined TLM/ES Analysis: GPS Patch Antenna

## Comparison of detailed and

equivalent source results

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 51

Combined TLM/ES Analysis: GPS Patch Antenna

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 52

Combined TLM/ES Analysis: GPS Patch Antenna

Antenna in free
space

RHC LHC

Antenna in car

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 53

Combined TLM/ES Example: UWB Antenna on
Humvee

VSWR
Frequency
(GHz)

## 10.2 million cells and a minimum cell

size of 0.6mm in the detailed model
CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 54
Combined TLM/ES Example: UWB Antenna on
Humvee

Equivalent source
model Azimuth pattern at 600 and 1000 MHz

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 55

Combined TLM/ES Example: UWB Antenna on
Humvee

Currents and
fields and 3D far-
field pattern at
600 MHz

Currents and
fields and 3D far-
field pattern at
1000 MHz

## CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 56

Summary
 Huge variety in electrical size, bandwidth and
complexity of antenna structures is a challenge
for designers:
 No one numerical method can efficiently cover the
entire application spectrum
 Utilize time/frequency and differential/integral
solver techniques to improve productivity and
efficiency
 EM analysis is increasingly required to assess
installed antenna performance
 Combinations of different numerical techniques can
make such problems much more tractable
CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com | Jan-11 57