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Study Guide, Exam #3

Below is a comprehensive outline of the material you need to have mastered from each unit hopefully
it will help you quiz yourself as you review your notes. Dont focus on anything that isnt on this study
guide. To help you out, you will see an indication of whether the listed concept was covered just in the
book, just in the lecture, or in both places. You will know that you really understand and remember
something if when you look at a blank copy of the study guide (without being able to peak at any notes),
you can explain the concept fully in your own words to an imaginary audience (or better yet, get a study
buddy and try explain it to them as if you are the teacher). Also, be aware that for all the concepts
below, you might simply get tested on your memory for a basic definition, or you might need to apply a
more thorough understanding of the concept to an example.

The exam will be 50 questions, T/F and multiple choice. Unlike the quiz, the exam is closed book/closed
note. You will have from 9:30-10:20 to work on it. We meet in our regular classroom. Bring a #2 pencil
and your student ID number!! If you arrive any later than 9:45, you will need to make plans to take a
make-up test. Classroom doors will close at 9:45 so test-takers can focus in a quiet environment.

Chapter 8, part 2, pages 253-269

1. What is free recall versus cued recall? Be able to identify the different types in examples (book)
a. Free recall-A testing condition in which a person is asked to remember information
without explicit retrieval cues.
b. Cued Recall-A testing condition in which people are given an explicit retrieval cue to
help them remember.
c. Example: Can you name all of your fifth-grade classmates? Probably not, but your
memory is sure to improve if youre given a class photo to use as a retrieval cue.
2. What is meant by the encoding-retrieval match? (book)
a. Increasing the number of potential retrieval cues helps, but it also helps if the cue
matches the memory that was encoded. If you think about the sound of a word during its
original presentation, rather than its appearance, then a cue that rhymes with the stored
word will be more effective than a visual cue. Similarly, if you think about the meaning
of a word during study, then an effective cue will get you to think about the encoded
words meaning during retrieval. Retrieval cues are effective to the extent that they match
the way information was originally encoded.
b. Memory often depends on how well retrieval cues match the way information was
originally studied or encoded. Suppose youre asked to remember the word pair BANK
WAGON. You form a visual image of a wagon teetering on the edge of a riverbank.
When presented later with the retrieval cue BANK, youre more likely to remember
WAGON if you interpret the cue as something bordering a river than as a place to keep
3. What is transfer-appropriate processing? (book)
a. The idea that the likelihood of correct retrieval is increased if a person uses the same kind
of mental processes during testing that he or she used during encoding.
b. Its useful to study material with the same type of mental processes that youll be
required to use when tested. Suppose you form a visual image of a to-be-remembered
word (panel 1). If the test requires you to recognize an image of the word, you should do
well (panel 2). But if the test asks how the word sounds (panel 3) or whether the word
was presented originally in upper- or lowercase letters (panel 4), youre likely to perform
poorly. You need to study in a way that is appropriate to the test.
4. What is a schema and how do schemas assist with memory? On the other side of the coin, how
can schema-based remembering lead to false memories? Think about the example with the word
list we did in class (book/lecture)
a. Schema-An organized knowledge structure in long-term memory.
b. Schemas can be about people, places, or long-term memory. activitieswe even have
them for routines such as going to a restaurant, visiting the local urgent care center, or
following daily eating habits. When you remember, you use these organized knowledge
packages to help recover the past. So when someone asks you what you ate for breakfast
two weeks ago, you can confidently answer cereal because you know cereal is what
you usually eat for breakfast. You dont have to remember the specific episode; you can
rely on your general knowledge.
c. The trouble with schema-based remembering is that it can easily lead to false or
inaccurate retention. You might remember something thats completely wrongit didnt
really happenyet still be convinced your memory is accurate.
d. It seems likely that people recognize the relationships among the words and use this
knowledge to help them remember. This is a very effective strategy for remembering, but
it can lead to false recollections.
5. Understand what the Elizabeth Loftus experiments demonstrate about schema-based
remembering (book/lecture)
a. Loftus and Palmer (1974) found that students remembered cars traveling faster when
retrieval instructions used the word smashed instead of contacted. All people saw the
same film, but their different schemas for the words smashed and contacted presumably
caused them to reconstruct their memories differently.
b. Everyone in the Loftus and Palmer experiment saw the same film, but what people
remembered depended on how the questions were wordedthat is, on whether people
were led to believe that the cars were going fast or slow. In addition to giving estimates
of speed, some were asked whether any broken glass was present in the accident scene.
When smashed was used in the speed question, people were much more likely to
remember seeing broken glass, even though there wasnt any in the original film. By
asking the right kinds of questions during testing, its possible to make people think they
experienced things that did not occur. As Loftus (1979, 1991) has emphasized, these
findings suggest that caution must be exercised in interpreting the testimony of any
eyewitnessreconstructive factors can always be involved.
6. What is the misinformation effect? (lecture)
a. Loftus showed all participants footage of the same car wreck, then asked How fast were
the cars going when they ______ each other?
i. Contacted
ii. Hit
iii. Bumped
iv. Collided with
v. Smashed into
b. Result people guessed different speeds depending on the question:
i. Contacted 31.8 mph
ii. Hit 34.0 mph
iii. Bumped into 38.1 mph
iv. Collided with 39.3 mph
v. Smashed into 40.8 mph
c. This is called the misinformation effect, and has been implicated in other areas of
memory distortion
i. Eyewitness testimony
7. Think about the Robert Cotton case. Understand how and why eyewitness testimony memories
can get distorted, yet people can remain so confident they are accurate. What happens when
people are presented with a lineup and asked if they see the suspect in the lineup? (hint: they
compare all the people in the lineup to their memory and try to find the person that BEST
matches their memory out of everyone in the line. But what if the real criminal isnt there?).
After somebody picks somebody out of a lineup, is it easy for the face of the person they
picked to now appear in their memory instead of the real perpetrator? Is it particularly easy for
people to become confident in this new memory if they receive feedback that indicates they
probably picked right? How should eye witness recognition probably be done? Think about
who should conduct the witness interviews, whether witnesses should see lineups or a series of
individual pictures presented one at a time without knowing when the presentation will end and
whether the real criminal is in the group, etc. (lecture)
a. Individual pictures should be shown in order for the eye-witness to not be able to
compare the men in the lineup when they are all put out at the same time. The person that
would be showing these pictures should not have any particular involvement with the
case and he should not speak when showing the pictures. He should remain unbiased to
any picture and avoid saying good job or anything to reassure the witness.
8. What is implicit vs. explicit memory? (book)
a. Implicit Memory-Remembering that occurs in the absence of conscious awareness or
willful intent.
b. Explicit Memory-Conscious, willful remembering.
9. Have a good understanding of the different theories of why we forget. What is the idea of
decay? Can the idea of decay explain most instances of forgetting or not? Understand the idea
behind retroactive and proactive interference, and repression (book/lecture)
a. Forgetting-The loss of accessibility to previously stored material.
b. Psychologists use the term retroactive interference to refer to cases where the formation
of new memories hurts the retention of old memories.
c. Proactive interference occurs when old memories interfere with the recovery of new
memories. Suppose English is your native language but you move to Portugal on
business. You become fluent in the Portuguese language, but you find it difficult to stop
English words or phrases from coming to mind when you talk. You know the Portuguese
word for train is comboio but you find it hard to suppress saying train when youre
speaking in Portuguese (at least for awhile). Thats proactive interferenceold memories
interfere with the recovery of new memories. Prior knowledge and habits interfere with
the retention of new material.
d. The idea that the mind might actively repress, or inhibit, certain memory records is an
important ingredient of Sigmund Freuds psychoanalytic theory, as youll see when we
discuss personality theories in Chapter 12. Freud introduced repression as a defense
mechanism to push threatening thoughts, memories, and feelings out of conscious
e. Decay cannot explain most reasons of why we forget
f. Decay-The proposal that memories are forgotten or lost spontaneously with the passage
of time.
10. What is retrograde and anterograde amnesia? (book/lecture)
a. Retrograde amnesia is memory loss for events that happened prior to the point of injury
(you can think of retro as meaning backward in time). People who are in automobile
accidents, or who receive a sharp blow to the head, often have trouble remembering the
events leading directly up to the accident. The memory loss can apply to events that
happened only moments before the accident, or the loss can be quite severe; in some
cases, patients lose their ability to recall personal experiences that occurred years before
the accident. In many cases, fortunately, these memory losses are not permanent and
recover slowly over time
b. Anterograde amnesia is memory loss for events that happen after the point of physical
damage. People who suffer from anterograde amnesia often seem locked in the past
theyre incapable of forming memories for new experiences. The disorder develops as a
result of brain damage, which can occur from the persistent use of alcohol (a condition
called Korsakoff syndrome), from brain infections (such as viral encephalitis), or, in some
cases, as a by-product of brain surgery.

1. Understand the linguistic relativity hypothesis (book)

a. According to the linguistic relativity hypothesis, language not only shapes how we think
but also how we perceive the world ( Whorf, 1956). For example, if your language lacks
color terms to distinguish between blue and green, which is the case for some African
languages, you might have a difficult time telling those colors apart on a color test.
2. What is grammar? (book)
a. Grammar-The rules of language that enable the communicator to combine symbols to
convey meaning.
b. Grammar provides rules about which combinations of sounds and words are permissible
and which are not. Grammar has three aspects:

(1)phonology , the rules for combining sounds to make words;

(2)syntax , the rules for combining words to make sentences; and
(3)semantics , the rules used to communicate meaning.

3. What is phonology? (book)

a. Phonology-Rules governing how sounds should be combined to make words in a
4. What is syntax? (book)
a. Syntax-Rules governing how words should be combined to form sentences.
5. What are semantics? (book)
a. Semantics-The rules used in language to communicate meaning.
6. What are phonemes and morphemes? (book)
a. Phonemes-The smallest significant sound units in speech
b. Morphemes-The smallest units in a language that carry meaning.
7. What are words, phrases, and sentences? (book)
a. Words combine to form phrases; phrases, in conjunction with other phrases, form
8. Understand the meaning of surface structure and deep structure and the difference between them
a. Surface Structure-The literal ordering of words in a sentence.
b. Deep Structure-The underlying representation of meaning in a sentence.
9. What are pragmatics? (book)
a. Pragmatics-The practical knowledge used to comprehend the intentions of a speaker and
to produce an effective response.
10. What is cooing and babbling (and around what age do they start?) (book)
11. Know the linguistic highlights that tend to develop at each of the 5 ages listed in the orange box
on p. 278 (book)

12. What is telegraphic speech? (book)

a. As the child approaches the end of his or her second year of life, a phase of telegraphic
speech begins. Telegraphic speech involves combining two words into simple sentences,
such as Daddy bad or Give cookie. Its called telegraphic speech because, as in a
telegram, the child characteristically omits articles (the) and prepositions (at, in) from
13. What is the current perspective on whether chimps can acquire/demonstrate language ability?
a. We just dont know at this point. Most of the psychologists who work with chimps are
firmly convinced that the language abilities are real. Kanzi, for example, doesnt seem to
follow rigid scriptshe can follow a request that is worded in various ways, which is far
beyond what you would expect from a pigeon trained to peck a key
14. What is a category? (book)
a. Category-A class of objects (people, places, or things) that most people agree belong
15. What are defining features and fuzzy boundaries? (book)
a. Defining Features-The set of features necessary to make objects acceptable members of a
b. Fuzzy Boundaries-Most natural categories turn out to have fuzzy boundaries
i. Category members have typical features that are characteristic of the category
rather than fixed defining features.
16. What is family resemblance? (book)
a. Family Resemblance-The core features that category members share; a given member of
the category may have some but not necessarily all of these features.
17. What is a prototype and exemplar? Know the difference! (book)
a. Prototype-The best or most representative member of a category (such as robin for the
category bird).
b. Exemplar-Specific examples of category members that are stored in longterm memory.
c. Here is the main difference between prototype and exemplar views of categorization: In
prototype theory, you compare the object to one thingthe prototype; in the exemplar
view, the object is compared to many thingsthe category exemplars
18. What are basic-level categories? (book)
a. Basic-level categories generate the most useful and predictive information. When a furry
feline saunters by, you call it a cat, not a living thing or an object found on the planet
Earth. The category cat provides just the right amount of relevant information. People
know youre talking about a four-legged object with fur (rather than the nondescrip-tive
animal), but you havent burdened the conversation with a needless amount of detail
19. What is a well-defined versus ill-defined problem (book/lecture)
a. Well-defined problem: clear goal, clear starting point, easy to know when we have a
b. Ill-defined problem: no clear starting point, no clear goal, no way to evaluate our progress
20. What is functional fixedness? (book/lecture)
a. Functional fixedness: Tendency to see objects and their functions in certain fixed and
typical ways, allowing preconceptions to lock you into an incorrect view of problem
21. What are algorithms? (book/leture)
a. Algorithms-Step-by-step rules or procedures that, if applied correctly, guarantee a
problem solution.
22. What are heuristics? (book/lecture)
a. Heuristics-The rules of thumb we use to solve problems; heuristics can usually be applied
quickly, but they do not guarantee that a solution will be found.
23. What is means-end analysis, working backward, and searching for analogies? Identify examples
a. Common problem-solving heuristics:
i. Means-End Analysis Devise means (actions) that get us closer to desired goal
(ends). Break down task into simpler sub-tasks.
ii. Working Backwards Start at the end and move backwards to the starting point.
iii. Searching for Analogies Try to find similarities between the current problem
and ones youve solved in the past.
24. What is a mental set? (book/lecture)
a. Mental Sets-The tendency to rely on well established strategies when attempting to solve
25. What is insight? (book)
a. Insight-The moment when a problem solution seems to pop suddenly into ones mind.
26. What is meant by framing in decision making research? (book/lecture)
a. Framing-The way in which the alternatives in a decision-making situation are structured.
27. Understand the Tversky/Kahneman Asian disease problem. Know what it demonstrates about the
effects of framing a decision in terms of losses versus gains. (lecture)
a. Imagine that the U.S. is preparing for the outbreak of an unusual Asian disease, which is
expected to kill 600 people. Two alternative programs to combat the disease have been
proposed. Assume that the exact scientific estimate of the consequences of the programs
are as follows:
b. If Program A is adopted, 200 people will be saved. [80.4 percent]
c. If Program B is adopted, there is 1/3 probability that 600 people will be saved, and 2/3
probability that no people will be saved. [19.6 percent]
d. If Program A is adopted, 400 people will die. [23.3 percent]
e. If Program B is adopted, there is 1/3 probability that no one will die, and 2/3 probability
that 600 people will die [76.7 percent]
f. Preferences totally reversed!
g. Same outcomes, just framed differently!
h. People will take risks to avoid a sure loss
i. Risk seeking when it comes to losses, risk-averse when it comes to gains!
28. What is the confirmation bias? (book/lecture) Understand the results of the horoscope study and
the teacher/gifted student study and know how they demonstrate the confirmation bias (lecture)
What are people thought to engage in the confirmation bias? Hint what takes more mental work
revising our expectations or ignoring inconsistent information? (lecture)
a. In a nutshell, a confirmation bias is a tendency to seek out and use information that
supports and confirms a prior decision or belief. If a therapist, for instance, believes that
all instances of depression are caused by traumatic experiences in childhood (theyre
not), a confirmation bias might lead the therapist to focus only on childhood troubles
during the therapy session.
b. People have expectations about people and things
c. People tend to confirm their expectations. Seek out and notice information that is
consistent, ignore information that is not. Why?
d. Because updating our expectations takes work.*
e. C.R. Snyder and R.J. Shenkel, March, 1975
f. College students received the exact same, vaguely worded horoscope about their
g. Were told they were individualized horoscopes
h. They were all very impressed with how accurate it sounded
i. If you expect something to be true, you look for the information that confirms this
belief, and ignore the information that does not!
j. teachers were led to believe that some of their students were gifted and others
k. In reality, this was not really the case
29. What does it mean to be a cognitive miser? (lecture)
a. We seem to be cognitive misers people have reluctance to do much extra thinking
b. People are cognitive misers
c. Rely on mental shortcuts
d. Can lead to incorrect assumptions
e. But usually correct and more efficient
f. Too effortful to take into account all info
g. We are not just lazy
h. Conserving mental effort is an important goal, because while we have great capacity
to think, it is limited.
i. Our social environments are COMPLEX!
30. What is the representativeness heuristic? (book/lecture) Be able to identify examples.
a. Suppose youre asked to judge the likelihood of some event falling
into class A or B. In such a case you might rely on a rule of thumb
called the representativeness heuristic . You make your choice
by deciding how representative the event seems to the average,
or prototypical, member of each class. Its easiest to demonstrate
with an example. Lets assume your friends, the Renfields, have
six children. If B denotes boy and G denotes girl, which of the
following two birth order sequences do you think is more likely?
d. If you picked the second alternative, youre like most people. According to the rules of
probability, though, the two outcomes are equally likely. Whether your next child will be
a boy or a girl doesnt depend on the sex of your previous childreneach event is
independent of the others. Even so, people favor the second alternative because the first
sequence clashes with their worldview of randomness. The first sequence just doesnt
look like the outcome of a random processits not representative of what people think
randomness looks like.
31. What is base rate neglect (lecture/some in book)? Review the truck driver/professor example
(lecture). Understand how base rate neglect results from using the representativeness heuristic as
a short-cut (lecture/some in book)
a. Base rate, or how likely the event is to occur in the population being sampled.
b. One of the respondents lists his height as 6 feet 5 inches, but his answers are so sloppily
written that you cant make out his circled professionits either bank president or
basketball player (NBA). You need to make a choice: Which is he? Most people choose
NBA player because the applicant is tall and apparently not interested in careful writing (
Beyth-Marom & Lichtenstein, 1984). This is not a very rational choice, however, because
the odds of someone in the sample being a professional basketball player are extremely
lowbank presidents outnumber NBA players by a wide margin (probably at least 50 to
1). In choosing basketball player, people have ignored the base rate, or how likely the
event is to occur in the population being sampled.
c. Perceive/judge something as being likely if it resembles the typical case
d. e.g., judging a student to be a fraternity member because he drinks lots of beers, likes
sports, and has lots of friends.
32. What is the conjunction error? Understand how the conjunction error results from the use of the
representativeness heuristic (lecture/book)
a. The representativeness heuristic also dupes people into committing
what is called the conjunction error. Consider the following: Linda
is 31 years old, single, outspoken, and very bright. She majored in
philosophy. As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of
discrimination and social justice and participated in antinuclear
demonstrations. Which of the following alternatives is more

b. Linda is a bank teller.

c. Linda is a bank teller and active in the feminist movement.
d. In a study conducted by Tversky and Kahneman (1983), 85% of the participants judged
alternative 2 to be the more likely. Why? Because Lindas description is more
representative of someone active in the feminist movement than it is of a bank teller. But
think about ithow can the odds of two things happening together be higher than the
likelihood of any one of those events happening alone? Notice the second alternative is
actually a subset of the first alternative and therefore cannot be more likely. Those who
choose alternative 2 have acted illogically, at least from the standpoint of the rational
decision maker.
33. What is the availability heuristic? (book/lecture) Be able to identify examples. Understand how
the availability heuristic leads men and women to overestimate how much of the housework they
do (lecture)
a. Availability Heuristic-The tendency to base estimates on the ease with which examples
come to mind
b. The tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an event by the ease with which
relevant instances come to mind (which can be influenced by how vivid events are).
c. Its easier to remember what you did, so you think its more frequent!
34. What is the anchoring and adjustment heuristic? (book/lecture) Understand the wheel/united
nations study and how it demonstrated use of anchoring and adjustment (lecture)

a. Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic-Using a starting point to estimate how frequent or

likely an event is, and then making adjustments up and down from this starting point.
b. Wheel of fortune study
c. Experimenter spins a rigged wheel of numbers (10 or 65)
d. Asked Percentage of African countries are members of the united nations
e. More or less
f. Actual number
35. Heuristics seem to lead to imperfect & sometimes inaccurate decisions. So what is their value?
Why use heuristics? (book/lecture)
a. Heuristics are mental shortcuts that provide quick estimates for judgments and decisions
b. Heuristics are typically associated with the automatic system because they are quick and
conserve energy! They are associated with the goal of CONSERVING MENTAL
ENERGY by making thinking easier.
c. They are fast
d. They require little effort
e. We live in a world of unlimited information with many demands on our processing
f. Heuristics sometimes provide the correct answers! (Or answers that are good enough)
Ch. 10

1. What are some sample definitions of intelligence? (lecture)

a. The ability to use inductive and deductive reasoning
b. The cognitive capacity to reason, plan, solve problems and think abstractly
c. Internal ability that accounts for individual differences in mental test performance and
allows us to adapt to changing environments
2. What are psychometrics? Who was the first person to make an attempt at psychometrics ?
a. Psychometrics A branch of psychology dedicated to improving the way psychologists
measure constructs of interest
b. First attempts at psychometrics carried out by Galton (1822-1911)
3. What is factor analysis? Who developed factor analysis? (Spearman). (lecture/book)
a. Factor Analysis - A statistical procedure used to lump similar variables together in order
to reduce the amount of data one has to deal with
b. Spearman
4. What was Spearmans perspective on intelligence? What is the factor g, and what are the factors
s? (book/lecture)
a. When Spearman conducted factor analysis on the testing of mental ability, he found
that there is one factor that helped explain performance on a wide variety of mental
b. he called the single factor, g
c. but, he wasnt able to explain performance on specific tests by using g people who
scored high on tests like spatial ability werent always scoring highly on tests of verbal
d. So in order to take into account specific abilities that are unique to each of these tests,
you need to look at s stands for specific intelligence
e. Sub-tests, S (for specific intelligences), are unique to each particular test and task
f. in order to predict performance on a quantitative/math test, you need to measure ability
that is specific to math in addition to g
g. Basically what you need to know that based on factor analysis, one intelligence
researcher found that theres an overarching factor of intelligence labeled g and that there
are more specific sub-tests that get at intelligence for particular areas labeled s
5. What was Thurstones perspective on intelligence? How did it differ from Spearmans? Did
Thurstone support the existence of g? What are the seven primary mental abilities? (book/lecture)
a. Thurstone says there is no g
b. 7 primary mental abilities, all independent and unrelated
c. -verbal comprehension, verbal fluency, numerical ability, spatial ability, memory,
perceptual speed, reasoning
d. Word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial visualization, number facility, associative
memory, reasoning, and perceptual speed
6. What is a hierarchical model of intelligence? How does it represent a compromise between
Spearmans perspective and Thurstones perspective? (book/lecture)
a. Hierarchical Perspective
b. This perspective recognizes that g exists and is meaningful, but so are several sub-factors
or abilities -
c. E.g., Verbal, spatial, mathematical abilities each can be measured by a specific test
d. each of these abilities/sub-factors are independent of each other so you can score highly
on perceptual speed but get a low score on reasoning
e. hierarchical models propose separate factors that contribute independently to certain
types of tests (for example, factor 1 contributes to tests 1-3, but not to tests 4-9). Like
Spearman, these models also assume that each of the separate factors is influenced by an
overall g.
7. What is fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence? (book/lecture)
a. Fluid Intelligence - Ability to solve problems, reason, and remember
b. your ability to apply rules to reach a solution
c. Relatively uninfluenced by experience, schooling
requires very little specific knowledge
d. Crystallized Intelligence - Knowledge and abilities acquired as a result of experience
e. Reflects schooling, cultural background but is also influenced by fluid intelligence
f. size and sophistication of your vocab, ability to comprehend and communicate orally, use
communication skills with fluency
g. knowledge that youve accumulated
h. fact-oriented
8. Describe Gardners case study approach to multiple intelligences. How did his perspective differ
from Spearmans? What are Gardners 8 distinct kinds of intelligence? (book/lecture)
a. Gardners Case Study Approach
b. People sometimes show specialized skills or abilities that are not representative of a
general ability
c. Gardner recognized that ones genes influence ones intelligence, but also considered that
the manifestation of ones intelligence is influenced by ones culture
d. He used a case study approach so he looked at specific individuals with special abilities
or talents so talented poets, musicians, scientists, etc
e. He also looked at the effects of damage to the brain
f. the research on damage to the brain showed that damage to parts of the brain will affect a
certain ability or multiple abilities while damage to other parts of the brain will affect
other abilities
i. Musical
ii. Bodily-kinesthetic
iii. Logical-mathematical
iv. Linguistic
v. Spatial
vi. Interpersonal
vii. Intrapersonal
viii. Naturalistic
9. What is Sternbergs triarchic theory of intelligence? Understand what is meant by analytical
intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence. Which is most like Spearmans idea
of g? (book/lecture)
a. Came up with the Triarchic Theory which suggests that intelligence can be divided into 3
b. Analytic intelligence these are your basic analytic skills looking at problems in
the right way and coming up with effective solutions for these problems
c. people with high analytic intelligence typically score high on tests such as the ACT
or SAT
d. basically the same thing as g people high in analytical intelligence typically high in
e. people who do well in school and perform well on standardized tests (CLOSEST TO
f. Creative intelligence essentially being able to create, invent and discover
g. being high on analytical intelligence (being analytic and processing information) doesnt
necessarily suggest that youll be able to apply skills youve learned in a new way or at
h. Practical intelligence how well you can mold yourself into your environment
i. people high in practical intelligence are basically street smart they know how to act
under different situations and how to deal with such situations
j. Difficult to measure and test practical and creative intelligence
k. Again, this theory broadens our conceptualization of intelligence beyond what the
psychometric approach provides us
10. What is an achievement test and what is an aptitude test? (book)
a. Achievement Test- Psychological tests that measure your current level of knowledge or
competence in a particular subject.
b. Aptitude Test- Psychological tests that measure your ability to learn or acquire
knowledge in a particular subject.
11. What is meant by reliability, validity, and standardization? (book/lecture)
a. Reliability- A measure of the consistency of test results; reliable tests produce similar
scores or indices from one administration to the next.
b. Validity- An assessment of how well a test measures what it is supposed to measure.
c. Standardization- Keeping the testing, scoring, and interpretation procedures similar
across all administrations of a test.
12. Understand the components that make a test valid (content, predictive, construct) (book/lecture)
a. Content (test samples across domain of interest)
b. Predictive (test predicts future outcome)
c. Construct (tape into a theoretical construct)
13. What does IQ stand for and why did people first start trying to develop a way to measure
intelligence quotient? (book/lecture)
a. IQ stands for Intelligence Quotient
b. Researchers started this endeavor when Binet and Simon were asked by the French govt
to develop a test that would identify children with special educational needs children
who would struggle in school,what the French govt wanted to do was to identify these
children and then help them by putting them through special schooling
14. What is meant by mental age? (book/lecture)
a. Mental age or mental level of a child what a childs chronological age should be based
on their scores on a test
b. So its basically comparing a childs test score with the average test scores for different
age groups and seeing where the child best fits
c. Because a lot of children in every age group have been given this test, youre able to
determine the average level of performance for a given age group and then determine the
mental age for a specific child
15. How did Binet and Simon first compute IQ? According to their original method, what score
would be average (i.e an average score would mean that mental age = chronological age)
a. 100
b. Mental age divided by chronological age and then multiplied by 100.
16. What is deviation IQ? (book)
a. Deviation IQ- An intelligence score that is derived from determining where your
performance sits in an age-based distribution of test scores.
17. What does a distribution of intelligence scores look like? (lecture/book)
a. IQ scores for a given age group are typically distributed in a bell-shaped, or normal,
18. Know the defining characteristics of the Stanford-Binet scale, Ravens progressive matrices, and
the Wonderlic personnel test (lecture)
a. Many main-stream intelligence tests are available, all assess g in some way, shape or
b. Ravens Progressive Matrices - Non-verbal (uses pictures only)
c. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
i. Uses verbal and non-verbal media
ii. 5 subscales
d. Wonderlic Personnel Test Used in personnel selection
i. 50 Questions
ii. 12 Minutes
iii. Questions assess verbal, spatial, and math abilities
iv. Used by more than 45,000 employers (including the NFL)
19. What is the definition of intellectual disability (formerly known as mental retardation),
approximately what percentage of the population is diagnosed with it, what criteria must be
fulfilled to be diagnosed, and what are some possible causes? (book/lecture)
a. Mental Retardation - Scoring below 70 on a standard IQ test
b. Affects between 1% and 3% of population
c. Must be diagnosed prior to age 18
d. Many are able to live independently
e. Many causes, including:
f. Genetic abnormalities (Down Syndrome, PKU)
g. Environmental factors (inadequate nutrition, severe illness)
h. Teratogens (alcohol & drug use by mother)
20. What is the definition of giftedness? Do gifted children grow up to be happier, more successful,
and more socially well adjusted? (book/lecture)
a. Giftedness Scoring 130 on a standard IQ test
b. Some research suggests yes (Terman)
c. High intelligence more college degrees, more money, wrote more books, more
patents, more emotionally stable, more socially skilled, more successful marriages, lower
divorce rate, lower crime rates..
d. Profoundly gifted children (those scoring higher than 180) do seem to show some
emotional, social problems as adults (Winner) werent more likely to achieve
extraordinary feats
e. Important to note that these are correlational studies, so the conclusions that we draw
from them shouldnt be one of causation
21. What is a savant? (book/lecture) Know the special abilities displayed by the two savants we
watched in the two different video clips in class (lecture)
a. Savants, who have amazing abilities in only limited domains
b. Associated with disorders such as autism
c. More common in males than in females some research shows 6 times more common
d. Stephen Wiltshire: The Human Camera
e. Kim Peek-Remembers everything he hears or reads
22. What are labeling effects? (book)
a. Another potentially serious criticism of IQ concerns labeling. You take a test as a child,
your IQ is calculated by comparing your performance with that of other kids your age,
and the score becomes part of your continuing academic record. Once the IQ label is
appliedyoure smart, youre below average, and so onexpectations are generated in
those who have access to your score. A number of studies have shown that intelligence
labels influence how teachers interact with their students in the classroom. There is a kind
of rich get richer and poor get poorer effectthe kids with the smart label are
exposed to more educational opportunities and are treated with more respect. Things are
held back from the slow kids, so theyre less likely to be exposed to factors that might
nurture academic growth.
23. What is creativity? (book)
a. Creativity- The ability to generate ideas that are original, novel, and useful.
24. What is emotional intelligence? (book)
a. Emotional Intelligence- The ability to perceive, understand, and express emotion in ways
that are useful and adaptive.
25. What is tacit knowledge? (book)
a. Tacit Knowledge- Unspoken practical knowledge about how to perform well on the job.
b. Comes primarily from experiencefrom watching and analyzing the behavior of others.
26. Is IQ stable? Know the general pattern of IQ stability over the course of the lifespan. Know at
what age performance on iQ tests tends to decline, and how young IQ can first be measured in a
way that tends to reliably predict IQ later in life (book/lecture)
a. Flynn Effect
b. IQ test performance in general seems to be rising over time (~ 3 pts per decade)
c. By age 4, how children do on intelligence tests being to predict their intelligence scores
in adolescence and adulthood
d. By age 7, intelligence isnt fixed, but it becomes stabilized through late adolescence
e. Results of longitudinal studies suggest IQ is fairly stable until about age 60
f. Studied longitudinally, meaning studying the same people repeatedly as they age
g. After age 60, some loss of IQ
27. What is the Flynn effect? (book/lecture)
a. Flynn Effect
b. IQ test performance in general seems to be rising over time (~ 3 pts per decade)
28. Understand the nature vs. nurture debate what it comes to intelligence (book/lecture) How are
twin studies used to tease apart the nature and nurture components of IQ? Do twin studies
indicate a strong genetic component to IQ? (book/lecture)
a. Research on the stability of intelligence has been tied to the nature/nurture debate
b. If you believe that intelligence is based on nature, then you would think that a persons
intelligence would remain stable throughout the course of the lifespan
c. If you believe that intelligence is based on nurture, then you would expect that a persons
intelligence would vary depending on the particular environment
d. But, neither argument really holds much water since there are counterarguments to each (
if your environment stays the same, you still see changes in intelligence and if your genes
determine your intelligence, it might be that early experiences determine your IQ and it
becomes fixed after that)
e. Psychologists often study identical twins, who share nearly complete genetic overlap, to
tease apart the nature and nurture components of mind and behavior. In twin studies,
researchers search for identical twins who have been raised together in the same
household or who have been separated at birth through adoption ( Bouchard & McGue,
1981; T. J. Bouchard et al., 1990). It is assumed that the effects of the environment are
similar for the twins raised together but quite different, at least on average, for twins
raised apart. If intelligence comes primarily from genetic factors, we would expect
identical twins to have very similar intelligence scores, regardless of the environments in
which theyve been raised. One way to measure similarity is by correlation. More
specifically, you can attempt to predict the IQ of one twin given the IQ of the other.
29. What are common explanations for group differences in IQ? Understand the nature of economic
differences, test bias, and stereotype threat and how they are thought to contribute to group
differences. What do adoption studies demonstrate about the contribution of environment to
racial/ethnic differences in IQ? (book)
a. Economic Differences, test bias, and stereotype threat
b. On average, there are significant economic differences among racial/ethnic groups that
could contribute to performance, making interpretation of the IQ differences difficult. For
example, African Americans and Hispanic Americans in the United States are more
likely to live at or below the poverty level. Poverty is often associated with poor nutrition
and difficulties in obtaining proper health care, and it may hurt ones chances to enter
adequate schools. African Americans and Hispanic Americans are also much more likely
than Whites to suffer racial discrimination. The impact of these factors on intelligence
testing is not completely understood, although they almost certainly play an important
c. Its also possible that test biases contribute to group differences in IQ scores ( Bernal,
1984). Racial/ethnic group differences depend, to a certain extent, on the type of
intelligence test administered ( Brody, 1992). IQ tests have traditionally been written,
administered, and scored by White psychologists
d. While bias in the content of intelligence tests has been reduced, other environmental
factors remain a concern. When people take intelligence tests, they have certain
expectations about how theyll perform; these expectations, in turn, can significantly
affect the final score. If youre nervous or expect to bomb the test, youre less likely to do
e. A more direct test of environmental explanations of racial/ethnic differences comes from
IQ studies of African American children who have been reared in White homes. If the
average African American childhood experience leads to skills that do not transfer well to
standard tests of intelligence (for whatever reason), then we would expect African
American children raised in White middle-class homes to have higher IQ scores. In
general, this assumption is supported by the data.
30. What does the plant example demonstrate about the interaction between nature and nurture?
a. In the plant analogy, all variation in plant height within one pot is due to genetics, but the
overall height difference between plants in one pot and plants in the other is attributable
to the differing environments (rich soil versus poor soil).
b. So its a 2 way street, having the genes but not having the environment to express them as
well as having the best environment but not having the genes
Ch. 11

1. What is motivation? (book/lecture)

a. Motivation- The set of factors that initiate and direct behavior, usually toward some goal.
2. What is meant by an internal source of motivation? Know what is meant by instincts and drives
(book/lecture) What is homoeostasis and how does it relate to drives (book/lecture)
a. Instinct: unlearned characteristic patterns of responding (e.g. caring for our young, crying
as infants)
b. Drive: internal state that arises in response to a need (e.g. hunger, thirst)
c. Homeostasis: bodys need to maintain balance (temperature, fluids etc.). Drives restore
3. What is meant by an external source of motivation? What is incentive motivation? (lecture/book)
a. Incentive Motivation: External pulls that tempt people with prospect of reinforcement or
4. What is the achievement motive? Know how/why the achievement motive can be influenced by
both internal/external factors (lecture/book) How does culture affect the achievement motive, as
demonstrated through the example of math and boys/girls? (lecture/book)
a. Achievement Motivation- An internal drive or need for achievement that is possessed by
all individuals to varying degrees.
b. Depends on both internal and external factors
c. Pushes us to seek success and significant accomplishment
d. Cultural norms (e.g. boys/girls and math)
5. What is intrinsic motivation? How is intrinsic motivation different from motivation with an
internal or external source? (lecture/book)
a. So far weve talked about motivation in terms of internal and external pulls
b. Sometimes theres no obvious internal or external source of the motivation!
c. Intrinsic Motivation: Entirely self-motivated. Engage in the action for its own sake!
d. Reading the Twilight series versus reading your math text book!
6. Know each of the levels of the pyramid in Maslows hierarchy of needs (book/lecture)

7. Understand how the following internal factors control hunger: stomach content, chemical signals,
and brain regions (lecture/book). What happens when there are legions in the hypothalamus?
a. Volume/content of food in stomach
b. Chemical signals
-Glucose levels in blood
c. Brain Regions
-Hypothalamus contains receptors, sensitive to presence of food-related hormones
-Legions in hypothalamus lead to constant hunger, electrical stimulation causes loss of
interest in food
8. Understand how the following external factors control hunger: Eating habits and food cues
(book/lecture) Know the results of the bottomless soup bowl and chicken wing study (lecture)
a. Most eating habits develop through personal experience and by modeling the behavior of
others. These learned habits control much of our decision making about food. I suspect
youre probably used to eating at certain times and in certain places. If youre offered a
tasty snack, how much you eat is determined partly by the time of dayif the offer
comes shortly before dinner, you take less than if the offer comes in the middle of the
afternoon ( Schachter & Gross, 1968). You also know from past experience how much
food you can eat and still feel okay. You know, for instance, that if you eat the whole
pizza you will probably feel sick afterward, even though the pizza may taste great at the
b. The decision to eat is also strongly influenced by the appearance of food cues. Animals
know that certain kinds of food taste good, and the sight of these foods is often enough to
make them start eating. If hungry rats are taught that a flashing light predicts food, theyll
start eating in the presence of the light even if theyve been fully fed moments before (
Weingarten, 1983). Waiters push the dessert tray under your nose because they know the
sight of the sugar-filled array will be more likely to break down your reserve than just
hearing about whats for dessert. Again, your choice of the New York cheesecake with
the strawberry sauce is not driven by internal need. Your blood contains plenty of
appropriate nutrientsthe sight of the food, and its associations with past pleasures, acts
as an external pull, motivating your choice to consume.
9. Know what a set point is and how it works to regulate body weight. What determines our set
point? (i.e. genetics, metabolic rate) (book/lecture)
a. Set Point: genetically influenced weight range that you will stay at when not trying to
gain or lose weight
b. Varies about 10% in either direction (set point of 150 lbs. could weigh 135-165)
c. 90% of people who diet and dip below natural weight eventually gain it back
d. Basal Metabolism: rate at which body burns calories
e. People are born with fixed number of fat cells
f. Heritability of set point is .4 to .7 in twin studies
10. What is thought to contribute to the current obesity epidemic? (both book/lecture)
a. Speculative Causes
b. Abundance of fast food
c. National portion size
d. Soda or pop
e. Non-food, food items (McDs chicken nuggets, hot dogs, yogurt in a tube, any
ingredients that you cant pronounce!)
f. New research: Being obese while pregnant might perpetuate the cycle for the next
generation? Epigenetics study of how environment affects gene function.
11. What is epigenetics? (lecture)
a. Epigenetics study of how environment affects gene function.
b. This genetics study looked at epigenetic changes to the DNA taken from umbilical
cords of newborns and related these to the mothers diet. Epigenetics is the study of how
the environment can affect the function of genes. Signals from the environment can cause
chemicals to be attached to DNA. These epigenetic chemical changes do not change the
basic structure of DNA, and a gene that has had epigenetic changes will still make the
same protein, but these changes may affect when the gene is switched on and the amount
of protein the gene makes.
12. Understand how internal factors affect sexual behavior (hormones!) book/lecture. When does a
women peaks sexual desire occur during the month? (book/lecture)
a. Hormones
b. Estrogens in women and androgens in men
c. Women peak in sexual desire near time of ovulation
d. Drop in testosterone leads to drop in interest in sex for men
13. What are external factors affecting sexual behavior? Understand visual signals, touch, and smell
(book/lecture) Understand how a womans smell is thought to change in appeal throughout her
cycle. What were the results of the ovulating stripper study? (lecture)
a. Sexually stimulating images in environment
b. Touch of erogenous zones
c. Smell (pheromones) (ovulating stripper study!)
14. What is meant by a long-term vs. short-term mating strategy? (lecture) According to an
evolutionary explanation for mate selection strategies, which gender tends to prefer short-term
mating as a strategy more often and why? (lecture) According to an evolutionary explanation for
mate selection strategies, what qualities do men vs. women tend to prioritize in a mate and why?
a. Short-term: mating in the here and now (men tend to prefer this)
b. Long-term: mating with the interest of commitment (women tend to prefer this)
c. Males maximize their chances of passing on genes by
d. Mating with females likely to be fertile
e. Young, healthy
f. Physically attractive
g. Waist-to-hip ratio
h. Mating often (short-term strategies)
i. Females maximize their chances of passing on genes by
j. Mating with males likely to provide care or protection
k. Older, more resources
l. Physically strong
m. Mating selectively (long-term strategies)

15. What is the affective shift hypothesis? (lecture) How do the results of studies testing the affective
shift hypothesis differ for men who have not had many short-term mates? (lecture)
a. Based on sexual strategies, should be different perception of partner after sex
b. Men: feel less attracted
c. Easier to distance oneself
d. Women: Feel more committed
e. Promotes affiliation
16. Know the main gender differences in sexual jealousy and the evolutionary explanation for these
differences (lecture)
17. Understand basic criticisms of the evolutionary model of mate selection (lecture/book)
a. Often over-focuses on gender differences
b. When they are long-term mating, men and women seek a lot of the same things
c. Dependability
d. Reliability
e. Kindness
f. Sense of humor
g. Honesty
h. Trustworthiness
i. All cues to good parenting
j. Individual preferences are not hard wired
k. Hard to disentangle evolutionary influences from what may be learned social roles
18. Do some people think that there exist basic or universal emotions? Know the six emotions that
there is wide agreement on in terms of viewing them as fundamental/universal (book/lecture)
a. Yes
b. Anger when a goal is blocked
c. Fear - threat
d. Sadness loss
e. Happiness - opportunities
f. Disgust - threat of contagion
g. Surprise - something unexpected
19. Is there universality in the facial expression of emotions? (book/lecture)
a. Although its not clear that emotion labels necessarily mean the same thing across
cultures ( Russell, 1994), many researchers are convinced theres some universal
recognition of emotion from facial expressions
20. What is thought to be one of the main differences between cultures in the expression of emotions?
a. In the degree of expression
21. What was the common sense theory of emotion? (lecture/book)
a. Person perceives exciting event
b. 1) The event causes us to feel fear
c. 2) Emotion of fear produces physiological reaction
d. (e.g. I feel afraid, therefore I tremble)
22. What is the James-Lange theory of emotion? Understand the two stages, the order they happen in,
and how things unfold with the body/mind to determine the entirety of the emotion experience.
According to this theory, do all emotions have a unique set of physiological reactions? Does the
conscious experience of emotion cause certain physiological responses in the body, or the other
way around? (lecture/book)
a. Person perceives exciting event
b. 1) physiological arousal
c. 2) emotion results as the mind experiences the bodys response
d. (e.g. I am trembling, therefore I feel afraid)
e. Stage 1: Bodily processes come first (the bodily process is what distinguishes different
emotions. Implication is that no two emotions have the exact same set of bodily
f. Stage 2: As the mind perceives and experiences the unique bodily response, a specific
conscious full-blown emotion results
g. The mind does not need to use additional information to decide what it is feeling
during the second stage it just needs to perceive what bodily process is taking place
h. Not much support for this theory
23. What is the facial-feedback hypothesis? (lecture/book)
a. The proposal that muscles in the face deliver signals to the brain that are then interpreted,
depending on the pattern, as a subjective emotional state
24. What is the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion? How does it differ from the James-Lange theory?
Does this theory support the idea that all emotions have unique/different set of physiological
reactions? (lecture/book)
a. Person perceives exciting event
b. 1) physiological arousal & 2) conscious experience of emotion
c. Two separate independent processes that happen at the same time. One doesnt CAUSE
the other to happen.
d. The Canon-Bard attack on the James-Lange theory was fueled by the observation that
physiological reactions for different emotions are often similar.
e. NO
25. What is the Schachter-Singer theory of emotion? What are the two stages and what order do they
happen in? Know how things unfold with the body/mind to determine the entirety of the emotion
experience. How is the cognitive label assigned to an emotion? What role does physiological
arousal play in the emotion experience? Understand the details of the study done to provide
support for this theory of emotion. Understand that there is more empirical support for this theory
than the others, and how it is different from the others (book/lecture)
a. Person perceives exciting event
b. 1) physiological arousal
c. 2) emotion results as the mind experiences the bodys response and then also reasons out
what emotion must be taking place
d. (e.g. I am trembling, and it must be because there is a poisonous snake on the ground! I
feel afraid)
e. Stage 1: Bodily processes come first (but unlike James-Lange, two different emotions
could have similar physiological responses)
f. Stage 2: As the mind perceives and experiences the bodily response, a full-blown
conscious emotion results when the mind also uses reason to assign a cognitive label to
the physiological arousal (the cognitive label is what distinguishes different emotions)
26. Do emotions probably directly cause behavior? (lecture) Know the results of the mood freezing
pill study (lecture)
a. Emotion doesnt cause behavior
b. Desire to alleviate negative emotions causes behavior
c. Induced happy, sad or neutral mood
d. Individuals in sad mood normally help more
e. Gave all participants a pill
f. Half told it was a mood fixing pill
g. Told that the drug will make their emotional state stable and unchangeable for at least
next hour.
h. Half not told about mood fixing side effects
i. Results: Sad people helped more, but not if they felt they could not change their mood
27. What is meant by emotivation? (lecture)
a. Emotivation
i. Emotions are triggers for us to change
b. Motivations as signal that something is wrong
28. What do we mean by the positive-negative asymmetry of emotions? (lecture)
a. Bad is stronger than good?
b. Consistent finding that bad events
c. Affect us more
d. Last longer
e. More pervasive in memory
f. Hedonic treadmill you tend to return pretty quickly back to the same place emotionally.
Particularly after happy events, though.
29. Be able to explain the results of the lottery winner/paralysis victim study (lecture)
a. Lottery winners vs Paralysis
b. Surveyed people who had won lottery a year ago, been paralyzed a year ago, and the
general public
c. Lottery winners were no happier than the general public
d. Paralysis victims were only SLIGHTLY less happy than the general public. Didnt return
to prior levels of happiness quite as quickly or as thoroughly as lottery winners (bad is
stronger than good), but the difference was MUCH smaller than one would expect.
Ch 12

1. What is meant by personality? (lecture/book)

a. Personality-the set of characteristics that distinguishes us from other people and leads us
to act consistently across situations.
2. What is a trait? (lecture/book)
a. Trait- A stable predisposition to act or behave in a certain way.
3. What is a trait theory? (lecture/book)
a. Trait Theory-Systems for assessing how individuals differ in their tendencies to act
consistently across situations.
b. One goal of a trait theory: find a common denominator among groups of terms, and
reduce thousands of descriptive terms to fewer more basic terms.
4. What is the factor analytic approach? (lecture/book)
a. Factor analysis is a mathematical procedure thats used to analyze correlations among test
responses. The goal is to identify a set of factors that collectively predict test
performance. To see how this works in the case of personality, imagine asking a large
group of people to rate themselves on a variety of personality characteristics. For
example: On a scale of 1 to 7, how well do you think the term brooding is characteristic
of you? When we look at the results, well undoubtedly see many individual differences.
Some people will see themselves as brooders, others wont; some people will score high
on aggressiveness and competitiveness; others will classify themselves as passive and
5. How many factors to personality did Cattell identify? (lecture/book)
a. Cattell reported 16 primary factors
6. What are Eysencks 3 superfactors to personality? (book)
a. (1)extroversion, which refers roughly to how outgoing and sociable you are;
b. (2)neuroticism, which captures your degree of anxiety, worry, or moodiness; and
c. (3)psychoticism, which represents your tendencies to be insensitive, uncaring, or cruel
toward others ( Eysenck, 1970, 1991).
7. What are the big 5? (lecture/book) Make sure you have a good understanding of what each of the
big five traits mean/represent

8. What are cardinal traits, central traits, and secondary traits? Know that they are part of Allports
trait theory (book)
a. Cardinal Traits-Allports term to describe personality traits that dominate an individuals
life, such as a passion to serve others or to accumulate wealth
b. Central Traits- Allports term to describe the five to ten descriptive traits that you would
use to describe someone you knowfriendly, trustworthy, and so on.
c. Secondary Traits- The less obvious characteristics of an individuals personality that do
not always appear in his or her behavior, such as testiness when on a diet
d. All part of Allports trait theory
9. What is a self-report inventory? (lecture/book)
a. The most popular personality test
b. Personality tests in which people answer groups of questions about how they typically
think, act, and feel; their responses, or self-reports, are then compared to average
responses compiled from large groups of prior test takers.
10. What is a projective personality test? (book)
a. A type of personality test in which individuals are asked to interpret unstructured or
ambiguous stimuli.
11. What is psychodynamic theory and who is responsible for it? (book/lecture)
a. Psychodynamic theory- An approach to personality development, based largely on the
ideas of Sigmund Freud, that holds that much of behavior is governed by unconscious
b. Sigmund Freud
12. What is the preconscious mind, the unconscious mind, and the conscious mind? (book)
a. Conscious Mind- The contents of awarenessthose things that occupy the focus of ones
current attention.
b. Preconscious mind- The part of the mind that contains all of the inactive but potentially
accessible thoughts and memories.
c. Unconscious Mind- The part of the mind that Freud believed housed all the memories,
urges, and conflicts that are truly beyond awareness.
13. What is the id, ego, and superego? (book/lecture)
a. Id- In Freuds theory, the portion of personality that is governed by inborn instinctual
drives, particularly those related to sex and aggression.
b. Ego- In Freuds theory, the portion of personality that induces people to act with reason
and deliberation and helps them conform to the requirements of the external world.
c. Superego- In Freuds theory, the portion of personality that motivates people to act in an
ideal fashion, in accordance with the moral customs defined by parents and culture.
14. What are defense mechanisms and are they used by the id, ego, or superego? (book/lecture)
a. Defense mechanisms- According to Freud, unconscious processes used by the ego to
ward off the anxiety that comes from confrontation, usually with the demands of the id.
b. Used by the ego
15. What is the oral stage, anal stage, and phallic stage of psychosexual development? The latency
and genital stage? (book)
a. Oral Stage- The first stage in Freuds conception of psychosexual development, occurring
in the first year of life; in this stage, pleasure is derived primarily from sucking and
placing things in the mouth.
b. Anal Stage- Freuds second stage of psychosexual development, occurring in the second
year of life; pleasure is derived from the process of defecation.
c. Phallic Stage- Freuds third stage of psychosexual development, lasting from about age 3
to age 5; pleasure is gained from selfstimulation of the sexual organs.
d. Latency Stage- Freuds period of psychosexual development, from age 5 to puberty,
during which the childs sexual feelings are largely suppressed.
e. Genital Stage- Freuds final stage of psychosexual development, during which one
develops mature sexual relationships with members of the opposite sex.
16. Understand how Adler, Jung, and Horney dissented/split from Freuds ideas, and what
approaches they took instead (book/lecture)
a. Studied with Freud, but broke away
b. Carl Jung
c. Collective Unconscious: contains universal experiences of humans throughout history
d. Archetypes: universal images/symbols (within our collective unconscious)
e. Alfred Adler: how do we deal with feelings of inferiority? Inferiority complex.
f. Karen Horney: argued for fairer explanation of women (power envy vs. penis envy)
17. What is the collective unconscious and whose idea was it? (book/lecture)
a. Carl Jung
b. Collective Unconscious- The notion proposed by Carl Jung that certain kinds of universal
symbols and ideas are present in the unconscious of all people.
18. What are some of the main criticisms of psychodynamic theory? (book/lecture)
a. Negative:
i. Too much emphasis on sex and aggression
ii. Sexist
iii. Cannot scientifically test theories
b. Positive:
i. Unconscious motivators
ii. Importance of early childhood
iii. Defense mechanisms
iv. Therapy
19. What is the humanistic approach to how personality develops ? How is it different from
psychodynamic theory? (book/lecture)
a. Humanistic Approach- A movement in psychology and approach to personality that
focuses on peoples unique capacity for choice, responsibility and growth.
b. Freud often compared the mind to a battlefield, where irrational forces are continuously
engaged in a struggle for control. According to Freud, our actions are motivated primarily
by the need to satisfy animalistic urges related to sex and aggression; our conscious
awareness of why we act is misleading and symbolic, representative of conflicts created
during toilet training or as a result of being weaned.
c. Humanistic psychologists dont talk about battlefields and conflict; instead, they speak of
growth and potential. Its not animalistic urges that explain personality; its the human
with our unparalleled capacity for self-awareness, choice, responsibility, and growth.
Humanistic psychologists believe each of us can control our own behavioral destinywe
can consciously rise above whatever animalistic urges might be coded in our genes.
Were built and designed for personal growth, to seek our fullest potential, to self-
actualizeto become all we are capable of becoming.
20. Understand Carl Rogers idea of self concept, positive regard, conditions of worth, and
incongruence (book)
a. Self Concept-An organized set of perceptions that we hold about our abilities and
b. Positive Regard- The idea that we value what others think of us and that we constantly
seek others approval, love, and companionship.
c. Conditions of Worth- The expectations or standards that we believe others place on us.
d. A discrepancy between the image we hold of ourselvesour self-conceptand the sum
of all our experiences.
21. Understand Maslows idea of self-actualization (book)
a. The ingrained desire to reach ones true potential as a human being.
22. What is a social-cognitive approach to personality? (book/lecture)
a. An approach to personality that suggests it is human experiences, and interpretations of
those experiences, that determine personality growth and development.
23. What is locus of control and self-efficacy? (book/lecture)
a. Locus of Control- The amount of control that a person feels he or she has over the
b. Self Efficacy- The beliefs we hold about our own ability to perform a task or accomplish
a goal.
24. Understand what is meant by the person-situation debate (book/lecture) and what is meant by
self-monitoring (book/lecture)
a. Person-Situation Debate
b. Long history of debate over whether personality traits are stable across situation or
situations determine behavior
c. It seems there is more consistency within the same situation than across situations
d. Self-monitoring: How consistently we act across situations might itself be a personality
trait! Tendency to mold/change behavior to fit situation